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Butlrr Jt Tauner, 

T\« Seltrootl Printing Workt. 

Frome, nnd London. 


This Volame^ answering to Vol. ITT* of fclio last German edition, 
consists of two parts, a Supplement and an Appendix* 

The SupPLEMKKT 18 the characiet^Uiic — as it is the only strictly 
new — part of this Fourth Edition of Grimm's Mythology. After 
his Second Edition of 1844, which was a great advance upon tho 
First, tho Author never fouud time to utihza any of the new 
matter he collected by working it into the Text; his Third 
Edition of 1854 was a mere reprint of the Second; so that the 
stores he kept on accumulating till his death, and the new views 
often founded on them and on the researches of younger in- 
restigators — ^Kuhn, Müllenhoff^ Panzer, Mannhardt^ etc. — ^all lay 
buried in the MS. Notes that covered tho wide margin of his 
private copy, as well as in many loose sheets. On the death 
of Grimm, his Heirs entrusted the task of bringing oat a Fourth 
Edition to Prof. Elard Hugo Meyer, of Berlin, leaving him at 
liberty to incorporate the posthumous material in the Text or 
not, as he chose. IT^e Professor, fearing that if onco he began 
incorporating he might do too much, and instead of pure 
Grimm, might make a compound Grimm-and-Meycr concern of 
it, wisely contented himself with the humbler duty of keeping it 
in the form of Supplementary Notes, verifyiog authorities where 
he could^ and supplying References to tho parts of tho Text 
which it illustrates. 

As the Supplement hardly amounted to a volume, the Pro- 

B8»or hit upon tho happy thought of reprinting with it an 

Lfpikdix which Grimm had published to his First Edition, 

bat had never republished, probably thinking it had done its 


work, and perhaps half ashamed of its humble character. Yet 
it is one of the most valuable parts of the work, and much 
the most amusing. It falls into three unequal portions : I. 
Anglo-Saxon Genealogies. I[. Superstitions. III. Spells. 
Of the short treatise (30 pp.) on the eight royal lines of our 
Octarchy, their common descent from Woden, and their points of 
connexion with Continental tradition, I will say nothing. The 
bulk of the Appendix (112 pp.) is taken up with the Super- 
stitions. After a number of extracts from Medieval authors, 
extending from A.D. 600 to 1450, we have a vast array of Modern 
Superstitions (the German part alone has 1142 articles), mostly 
taken down from the lips of the common people all over Europe, 
in the simple language of the class, the '^ rude Doric " which our 
polite grandfathers used to apologize for printing, but which in 
these days of Folklore is, I am told, the very thing that goes 
down. The Author's view of Superstition, that it is a survival, 
the debased wrecks and remnants of a once dominant Religion, 
of course inclines him to trace these superstitions, as far as 
possible^ to the Old Faith of the Teutonic nations, of which we 
have still such a splendid specimen in the Icelandic Edda. — The 
Appendix winds up with 57 old Spells in various languages. 

The Translator. 




SUPPLEMENT [Collected fi-om the Author's post- 
humous Notes, by Piof. E. H. Meyer of 
Berlin] : 

To the Text 1277 

To the Author's Preface in Vol. III. . 1G91) 

APPENDIX by the Author: 

Aii<^lo- Saxon Genealogies ...... 170i) 

Superstitions .... 17.S7 

Spells . . 18^1.1) 

INDEX 1871 


p, 1, note] Paul* Diac* still uses heathen in tlie sense of nistici 
(Pertz, Archiv 7j 334). demo heidauia com mane. Dint. 1, 504^. 
The abbrev, form held occars even before Luther : hekle rhy* 
leide, G. Abent* 2, 67. dieser zeginer oder heii, Keller, B^ast- 
oaclit&-3p, p* 823 (like our chrUt for MHG. kristen, OHG. 
cliriätaQi) ; yet the true genitiVe is retaioed in Chr. Weise's Erz- 

narre 190: des jungen heuhns los werden. Favorite epithets 

of the heathen are "wild, öerce^ grim'': wild heathen, wild 
men of the wild heath, Auegeoge 23^ 61. conf. Kabenschl. 1080. 
Neifen 14, 6. MsH. 1, 152*. die louotendiffen heiden, Kaiser- 
chr. 95L More freq. die ithelmi heiden, Diemer 158, 18. 162,2. 
Morolt 376 seq. die hostm h., Diemer 170, 24. 179, 17. der 
ühele h,, Pantal. 1034. der vil arge h. 1847. deu li. gramen^ 
Serrat. 148 (per contra, hypocrita is transl. du\mi mstänt^ Dint. 
1,289**). Also "dogs,^' as in Judith 134, 39: )?one haeSeuan 
hund» Olaf Tryggv. saga, cap. 68 : /Mtnr^-heidion. Svenske 
via: hednings-Äwtit^. Mor. 418: den hoidenschen hunt. In 

Willeb. 58, 16 the Sarrazin ride on dngs and hog^f. Gradually 

milder terms are used: dat domme heidine, MaerL 3, 128. des 
5^e/oiiZfea ^e/?^e (strangers to faith), TiirL \Vli. 15*. heidinea die 
Munder ewe (without law) lebeten. Roth. 475. People do not like 
to be taken for heathens : bo bin ich niht ein heiden, Ms II. 1, 42*. 
ala ich waere ein lieUien 45**. Yet there is pity for them ; swie 
aie wiren heiden, och was zerharmen umbe sie, Nib. Lament 437; 
and Wolfram, like Walther, speaks of them quite hnmaueljj Willeh. 
450, 15 : "Die nie toufes künde Enpfiengen, ist das siinde, Daz 
mui die sluoc alsam #in vibe (a sin to slay the unbaptized) f 
Gr&aer sünde ich drumbe gibe: Es ist gar Outes hant-getat, 
Zwüo und sibenzec spräche die er h4t/^ they are Qod's handi* 
work, 72 languages wlierein He speaks. 

pp. 2-4.] Heathens in Italy and at Rome as late as Theoderic, 
Kdici. Tbeod. 108. Salrianus de gubero. Dei^ about 450j con- 

TOL. tv. *^^ a 

k to: 



trasts tlie vices of clinstian Romans and Pmviuciala with the 
virtues of heathen Sasoos, Franki, Gepiclse and Huns, and of 
heretical Goths and Vandals; towards the end of hk. 7, he sbjs : 
' Gothorum gens perfida, sed pudica est, Alamannorum inipndica, 
sed minus perfida. Franci ineiidacesj sed hospi tales, Saxones 
cnideUfcate efferi, sed castitate mirandi ; ' and further on : ' Vandali 
castos etiam Eomanos esse fecerunt;' conf. Papencordfc 271-2, 
The Bavarian Ratolf is converted in 788 : eoepi Deum colere, 
MB. 28^, 7. In the times of Boniface and Sturmi we read ; Popali 
gentis illiua (in Noricam), licet essent christiani, ab antiquis 
tarnen pagaHoriim contagns et persrersis dogmatibus infecti, Pertz 
2, 3C6, Alaraauns, who appear in Italy 552-3, are still heathens 
in contrast to the christian Franks, Agathias 2,1, 1,7. Eginhard 
cap. 7 (Pertz 2, 446) : Saxones cuUui dcLemonum dediti ; cullnm 
daem. dimittere ; abjecto daem. citllu^ et relictis patriis caeri- 
moniis. The author of Vita MathiJdis (Pertz 12, 575) says of the 
Saxons and of Widukind's family ; Stirps qui quondam dae7n, 
captus errore, praedicatorum pro inopia idola adoran^^ christian os 
constanter persequebatun 

TheNialssagacap.lOl — G relates the introduction of Christianity 
into Iceland in 995 — 1000. Yet at Nerike by Orebro, as late as 
the 1 7 th cent., they sacrificed to Thor on certain rocks for tooth - 
ache, Dybeck runa 1848 p. 26; and to this day old women 
sacrifice to rivers, and throw the branch on the stone 2, 3, 15. vit 
erum liet&in is said in Olaf the Saint's time in Gautland, Fomm, 
sog. 4, 187 and 12, 84. In the Norwegian districts of Serna 
and Idre^ bordering on Dalarne, there were heathens in 1644, 
Sämling (Christiania 1839} 6, 470-1. }>a kunni enge ma^r 
Paternoster i Straumi, WerlauSl grenzbest, 20. 37- In Sweden 
we hear of Odea^s followers in 1578, 1580 and 1601, Geyer Svea- 
rikes häfder 2, 329 ; in a folk-song a woman dreads the heathen 
that haunt the neighbouring wood; ' locka till Thor i fjäU/ 
Arvidsson 3, 504. Thursday was holy in Sweden till 100 or 
150 years ago (p. 191). Rehipses into he|fheni9m were frequent^ 
thei-e, Hervarars. cap. 20 (Fornald. sog. 1, 512). The secret! 
practice of it was called launblot, Fornm. sog. 2^ 243* 

The Slavs in Poraerania heathenis till begin, of 12th century. 
A heathen festival near Pyritz, and that of Gero vit at Havel - 
berg, Barthold*s Gesch. v. Pomm. 2, 34. 70. Giesebrecht^s Wend, 




gMeh. 2, 2G5. 309. Heathen Raos, Barth. 2, 100-1. Pribizlaus 
of Mecklenburg baptized iu 1104, S7aiitevit*a temple destroyed 

UCB, Lbch's MeckL jahrb. 11. 10.97; The Slavs betw. Elbe 

and Oder were Christiana for 70 years, then relapsed ab. 1013, 
Helmold 1, 16; adhuc euim (1147) Slavi immolabaot daemoniis 
et Qon Deo 08. The Prussians still heathen after conversion of 

Rnssiaiia 1, 1. Some Christiana in Hungary in latter half of 

10th century, Diioimler's Pilgrim von Passau 36 aeq. Some 
heathens io Esthonia at the present day, YerhandL 2, 3G, The 
Lappa were still heathen in 1750, Castren^a Reise p. 69. 

Mixed marriages were not entirely forbidden, as Chlodo wig's 
example shows. Such too was Kriemhilt^s union with the heathen 
Btselj bat she takes cure to have her son Ortliep baptized^ NibeL 

p. 6.] Between heathen baptism (the vainl auna, the dicare 
in Domine deoram, Ureg. Tnr. 2, 29) and christian baptism, 
stands the prim*sig7iaz, Egilss* p. 265, a mere signing with the 
crosa. Thus, Gestr is ^primsigudr, eigi skirSr,* Fornttld. sog. 1, 
314» The pains of hell were made to hang on being unbajytized 
(p* 918).^— Whoever forsook paganica vetustas (Perfcas 2, 342), 
had to renounce the gods : den gotenentfarn = get baptized, Tiirl. 
Wh, 130*. To abjure one's faith was abrenuniiare, ahjiirare, 
rencgare, reneare, Bucauge ; Fr. renter, O.Fr, renoier^ JIHCx. sich 
vemoijierfin, Nib. 1207, L Lament 494, vernoierten sich von den 
Kristen, Livl. reimchr, 5719. M. Neth, vertwgcrde, Karel 2, 75. 
mrnoyeri, Pajin 2, 519. S31. venwyeri rh. verghiert, Maerl. 3, 
140. OHG. untrunneo, md-irunnea a/>a-frunri€a=apostata, rene» 
gatus, Graff 5, 533. U cuwers renole, Ducange ; tornadle, toniadU 
= r©trayant. Other phrases: deti ton/ hin legen, LivL r. 6129, 
Idz^n pam hrUt G3d5. What is meant by : ^eosque (Hessians at 
Amenaburg) a sacrilega idolorum censura, qua »ub quodam 
thrUilanitatU nomiiie male abusi sunt, evocavit' in the Vitv 
ifacii, Pert» 2, 342 ? probably a christian heresy, as p. 34 i 
•ays of Tburingiana : ' sub nomine religionis faUi fraires maxi- 
mmm hereticae pravitatis introduxerunt sectam/ conf. Rettberg 
. 2, 308, ^ The Abrenuntiations declared the ancient gods by 
H name to be devils and unholds. All heathen merrymaking, espec. 
■ moaia i 

K Arne 

aad dancing, was considered diaboUc, pp. 259. 618-9. 770, 
t^ games and customs connected with the old worship were 



now dlaboli pofnpa, gelp inti zierida. Grieshuber's Serm. p. 48 : 
da man singet und springefc lo dm tieveJs dienste ; couf. Aucassin 
m M6on'8 Fabl. 1, 385. Fauriel 3, U*0. 

p. 5.] The mental protest against cliristianity shows itself in 
the continuance of the rough heroic conception of Piu*adise (p. 
819)* The christian paradise was often rejected, as by Rad bod 
the Frisian, who withdrew his foot from the sacred font, because 
he did not care to give up tho fellowship of liiä forefathers in hell 
and sit with a little flock in heaven, Vita Bonif, (Pertz 2, 221). 
Melis Stoke, rymkron. 1, 24, Comp» the contrary behavionr 
of Gudbrand (Maurer bekehrung 1, 537) and of Sighvatr at the 
baptisDi of Magnus, St. Olaf's saga c, 119, Waldemar likes 
huntiog better than heaven, Tbiele 1, 48» nit ze himelriche sin 
woldich viir dise reise, Roseng. 110. mir waere ie liep bi ir ze 
siu dau bi Got in paradls, MS. 1, 178*. muht aber mir ir huldo 
(her favour) werden, ich bell be (I would stay) üf der erden alhie, 
Got liez ich dort die werden (worthies), MS. 2, lo*'. daz himel- 
riche liez ich sin, uud waere bi in ieraer wol also, Dietr. dracheuk, 
ISl**. waz sol ein bezzer paradts, ob er mac vro beliben von wol 
gelopten wiben ? MsH. 1, 82^. si waere getreten durch Flörea 
in die helle, FL 5784'. si me vauroit tniex un ris de vous qu'estre^ 
en paradis, Thib. de N. 69. kestre ne voudroie en paradis, se 
ele nestoit mie 75 ; conf, 113- The hered. sewer of Schlotheim 

* had you one foot in heaven and one on the Wartburg, you'd 
rather withdraw the first than the last,' RommeFs Ge.seb, von 
Hessen 2, 17. fall from heaven to earth, Schwein, 1, 95. come 

back from paradise, Chans, histor, 1, 43. Eyvindr, like christiaa| 

martyrs, endures the utmost pains inflicted by Olaf Tryggvason,, 
and will not apostatize^ Fornra. sog. 2j 107, The Hist. S. Cuth» 
berti says: quadam die cum Onalaf cnm furore in traaset eccleöiam 
Cuthberti, astante episcopo Cuthheardo et tota congregatione, 

* quid, inquit, in me potest homo iste mortuus Cuthbcrtus, cujuaj 
in me quotidie minae opponnntur? juro per deos meos potenteS|l 
Thor et Oihan, quod ab die hac inimicissimus ero omnibus vobis/l 
Twyaden 73-4. The heathenism smouldering in many hearts is^ 
perceptible even in Latin deeds of 1270, Selber tz no. 351. 

p, 5.] A pe*al of bells was hateful to heathens, and therefore 
to giants, p. 9ü0, to dwarfs, p. 459, to witches, p. 1085. 

p, 5.] Even in christian times the heathen gods are credited 



with sundry powers. The idols dpeak. Pass. 307, 2 seq. BarK 
342, 8 or hald their peacs, Pass, 306, 24. 34. The Livl. reimchr, 
1433 seq, says : 

Die Littouwen vuoren über se, 

daz ist gen au t daz Osterhap^ 

als ez Perkuns ir ahgot gap (when P. existed), 

daz nimmer so harte gevros (froze). 
Hence the qnarrel between the old and new religions was often 
referred to an ordeal or miracle: 'probemus rairacalis, quis ait 
majoris potentiae, vestri molti qaos dicitia dii, an mens solus 
omnipotens dominus J. Chr. ^ cries the christian priest in Vita 
Ansgarii (Pertz 2, 702) ; and the rain falls in torrents on the 
heathen Swedes despite their prajiog, while not a drop touches 
him. In Greg. Tur. mirac. 1 cap, 81, the ordeal of water decides 
whether the Arian or Catholic faith be the right one. In the 
legend of Silvester, the Jew sorcerer first kills a bull in the name 
of his God, and Silvester brings it to life «gain by callitig upon 
Christ, W. Grimm's Silv. xv. — xx. 

p. 6.] The Romans too had felled sacred trees: 'et robora nu- 
minis instar Barbarici nostr&e f er I aid impttne htpennes/ Claudian 
de land. Stilich. I, 230. In the same way the Irminsal is de- 
stroyed, and Columban breaks the god's images and throws them 
tn the lake (p. 116. 109), Charles has the four captured Sara- 
cen idols smashed, and the golden fragments dividetl among hia 
heroea, Aspremont IP. 45** — 48**. Idols aro broken in BarL and 
Georg. It is remarkable in Beda 2, 13, that the Cotß himself 
destroys the heathen temple (p. 92 n.). It was a sign of good 
feeling at least to build the old images into the church-walls. 

p. 6.] Heathens, that knew not the true God's name, are not 
always ' wild, doggish, silly,' but sometimes ' die iverden beiden,' 
Titnr. 55, 4, die iinsen beiden, Servat, 19, his sylfes (God's) 
naman, )?one yldo beam aer ne cüSoii, frodfcedera ci/n ßedh hiefela 
wUton, Csedm. 179, 15. 

p. ?•] Trost in one's own strength is either opposed to trust in 
B,ar combined with it. In the Faereyinga-s. cap. 23, p. 101 : 
trfti & m&tt minn ok megin ' and also * ek treystumsk hamiugju 
(genitiB) minni ok sigr-saeU, ok hefir mer j^at vel du gat ^ ; conf. 
* trfla magni,' Fornald. sog. 1, 438. The OHG. .^o mir Ih ! (Graff 
6, 13) roust mean 'so help me I myself.' MHG. has milder 



formulas: sam mir Got and min fielhes lip ! Tristan 21 5^ 2. ala 
in (them) Got und iV eilen gehot, Ernst 171L als im am maolich 
eilen jacli, Parz, 89, 22. ich gelove God ind mime swerde, Karl- 
meinet 122j 34, M. Beheim 26^, 22 aajs : si wolten of in (them) 
selber stän ; and Gotthelf a Erzähl. 1, 146 makes a strong peasant , 
in Switz. worfihip ' money and strength,* A giant loses his slrength 
bj baptism, Eiiaf 39. Doubts of God are expressed by Wolfram : 
ist Got wise? . . . h fit er sin alt gemilete, Willeh. 66, 18. 20* 
hat Got getriwe sintie, Parz. 109, 30. Resisting his will is 'ze 

himele klimmen und Got enterben/ Ed. 3500. On men who 

pretend to be gods, see p. 385 n, 

p» 7n.] God is threatened and scolded, p. 20. With the 
mockery of Jupiter in Plaut. Trin» iy. 2, 100 agrees the changing 
of his golden garment for a woollen, and robbing ^sculapins of 
his golden beard, Cic, de Nat. D. 3, 31. FriJSJnofr said: 'enda 
virSi ek meira by Hi Ingibiargar eun reiSi ßaldrs/ Foniald. sog. 2, 
59 ; and pulled B.'s statue by the ring, so that it fell in the fire 
86. King Hrölfr already considers OSin an evil spirit, iUv audi, 

I, 95. Dogs were named after gods by the Greeks also ; Pollux, 

Onom. 5, 5 cites Kopa^, "Apirvta, Xapmv, AvKirra^^. A dog named 
Lockef Sv. folks. 1, 135. Helbling's Wunsch is supported by a 
Wille in Iladamar v, Laber 269 and Altswert 126, 23. Sturm in 
Helbl* 4, 459 may have meant Thunder. The lime-bitch is called 
Heila, Hela, Dobel 1, 86. Neraoich 720. Alke is Hakelberend's 
dog, Zeit sehr, des Osn. ver. 3, 406, A Ruland about 1420, and 
WilhbreJd, Ls. 1, 297-8, are exactly like men's names. Many 
names express the qualities and uses of the animal, such as Wacker, 
still in use, and leading up to old Norse, Saxon, Ski nan and 
Suevic names, Grimm's D. Sag* 468; its dimin., Wäekerltin, Week- 
herlhtj Wickerleinj Fischart's Spiele 246* 491, Is Wasser, the 
common name of peasants' dogs in the Mark (Schmidt v. Wern. 
253), a corrup. of Wacker? Wackcrlos, Vernim, dogs iu Frosch- 
meus, Bbb.5**,jffwferK?iinKei9ersb.biIg. 140-4-5. Fondling names 
are Harm, Ls. 2, 411. Holle im Cnine p. 30, Bärlht, Garg, 258^, 
Zuckerl, Jucundias. 54. To the Pol. gromi*zmierz, bait-hound, 
Linde 1, 779* answers our HeizehoU, Nie. v. Jeroschin 30, 12. 
Belloj Greift Pack-an^ Pack-anf (Medic, maulaße 647) j Suoche, 
Fichard 3, 245, explain themselves ; also the Boh. greyhound 
JJo'lil, ßy-to; Ot Norse Hifjip and Hoi^ Hrolfkr* saga, Hopf iu 



Eolensp,, 54?/uJa (es-tu-la?), Meoo 3, 394-5. Ren. 25355. Not 
so clear is Strom in Fritz Renter's Joarn. to Belligen 2, 98; is ife 
'striped^ ? or codu. with Strian in Helbl, 4, 456 from striunen, 
to roam ? Smufz in Laber 358 musfc be conn, with schmölzen, to 
tJOttnterfeit the hare's cry, Schmelfer 3, 179. Tragen, Sv". afvent. 
1, 51 is our Fid^df trusty, Grarnr, Fornald. aög, 1, 87, Gifr, Gtri, 
two doga in Fiölaviniis-mäl. Snail, MarkiissoD 174*, OnhUand 
Xorske event, 2, 92. Yrsa, Fornald. sog. 1, 22, Ursa in Saxo. 
Beüelmann in Bürger 474* and StaUmewter in Tieck's Zerbino 
express social rank, conf, Malvoism, Ren. 1664. It were too bold 
to conn. Leppisth in Pauli Sch. u. ernst 77, with Silrar = Lapp, in 
Nialss. 71, or Gtdh, Goz with the nation so called {MicheFa List» 
des races maudites 1, 355, D. tSat^:. 464) ; more likely that the 
8ile-siau sheepdog's name Sachs (Weinhold) meant Saxon ; conf, 
3h. Bodrok, an Obodrite, King Arthur's dog Cabul, Nenn. 78. 
ICiprum, dog s name in MsH, 3, 305*. 

p, 8,] Christ and the old goda are often worshipped together. 
People got baptized and believed in Cbristj en he to 4 Thor til 
»lira stomeSa. Widnkind (Pertz 5, 462) tells, an, 965, of an 
'altercatio super cnltura deorum in convivio, Danis affinnantibus 
Christum quidem esse deum, sed alios ei fore majores deos, qai 
potiora mortalibns signa et prodigia per se ostentabaut,'' ^thel- 
bert of Kent let heathen idols stand beside christian altars, conf, 
Lappenb. Engl, gesch. 1, 140. Tbe converted Slavs clnog to 
their old superstitions, Dietmar (Pertz 5, 735) says of the t^aered 
Ji^ke Glomozi : ' hunc omnis incola plus quam ecclemas veneratur 
ct timet; ' and at Stettin a heathen priest was fur raising an altar 
the god of the christians sido by side with the old gods, to 
cure the favour of both, Giesebr. Wend, gesch. 2,301, — — It 
m only playfully, and with no serious intention, that the Minne- 
song link^ the name of God with heathen deities : 

Ich hin Oof und die minneclicheii Mlnne (love) 

gebeten flelJche nu vil manic j^r, 

daz ich schier nach unser drier siime 

vinde ein reine wip. MS, 1. 184\ 

Vemis, vil edeliu künegiu, 

inch hÄt Got) vrowe, her gesaut 

ze frenden uns in ditzo laut. Frauend, 233, 26. 

Tho longer duration of heathenism, especially of W6dcn* worship. 



among the Saxofis, is perceptible in the legend of tlie Wild Host, 
in many curses and the name of Wednesday* There ako the 
cuatnm of Need-firo was more firmly rooted. The Lohengrin p. 
150 still rebukea the unbelief of the wild Saxons* 

p, IL] Where there was worship of spritigs, the Church took 
the caput aqute into her department^ Hudorfi* 15, 226-7. In 
that spell where Mary calls to Jesus, ^ zeuch ab dein wat (pnll 
off thy coat)j und deck es dem armen man über die sat (over the 
poor man^s crop)/ Mone auz. 6, 473, a heathen god is really in- 
voked to shield the coru field from hail. Quite heathenish sounds 
the nursery rhyme, 'Liebe frau, mach's tiirl anf {open your door), 
lass den regen 'nein, lass Vans den Sonnenschein/ Sch melier 2, 
196. Spots in the field that are not to be cultivated indicate their 
saerednesB in lieathen times, conf. gudenian's lto/I in Scotland, 
the Tothtlis in England, Hone's Yearb. 873-4. To the disguised 
exclamations in the note, add tw Adfuirep ! and the Armoric tan, 
tire I Villemarqud's Barzas breiz 1, 70 ; conf. Pott 1, Ivii. 

p, 12.] To these old customs re-acting on the constitution, 
to the pelting of idols at Hiidesheim and Halberstadt on Littare- 
limj (p, 190. 783) J add this of Paderborn : ' In the cathedraLclose 
at R, just where the idol Jodute is said to have stood, something 
in the shape of an image was fixed on a pole every Lmiare 
Sunday down to the 16tli century, and shied at with cudgels by 
the highest in the land, till it fell to the ground* The ancient 
noble family of Stapel had the first throw, which they reckoned 
an especial honour and heirloom. When the image was dowD, 
children made game of it, and the nobility held a banquet. 

When the Stapels died out, the ancient custom was dropped.' 

Continu. of M. Klockner's Paderb. chron. The Stapel family 
were among the four pillars of the see of Paderborn ; the last 
Stapel died in 1545, Erh. u* Gehrk. Zeitsclir. f. vaterl. gesch, 7, 
379, Compare also the sawing of the old woman (p. 782), the 
gelding of the devil, the expulsion of Death (p* 767), the yearly 
smashing of a wnoden image of the devil, and the ' riding the 
black lad ' in Hone's Yearb. 1 108, Dayb. 2, 467< 

p, 12] The Introduction ought to be followed by a general 
chapter on the contents and character of our Mythology, in- 
cluding parts of Chaps. XIV. and XV., especially the explanation 
of how gods become men, and men gods. 







p, 13-15,] The word god 19 peculiar to the Germanic lan- 
gvmgeB* GaitecL 1, 81 : terre oa lou claime Dieu got. On 
goddess see beginniog of Ch. XIH, diu fjoihelt occurs already 
in Fandgr. 2, 91. In the Venetian Alps, God is often called 
der got with the Art., Schraeller's Cimbr. Wtb. 125, Is the Ital. 
iddio from il dio, which does not account for iddia goddess^ or is 
it abbreviated from domen-ed-dlOf which, like 0. Fr, domnedeu, 
damledeo^ daniredeu, comes from the Lat. voc* domine deus? 
Conf- Diez, Altrom, Sprachdenkm. p. 62. 

60c is not the same word as gnot, though the attempt to iden- 
tify them is as old as OHG, (j^et conf. the Pref. to E. Schulze's 
Gothic Glossary, xviii.) : * got unde guot plurivoca sint. taz (what) 
mit kote wirt, taz wirt mit kuote/ Notker's Boeth, 172. Almost 
as obscure as the radical meaning of god is that of the Slav, 
bogfa^ some connecting it with Sanskr. b'^a|:^Rs, sun, Ilufer's 
Zeitschr. 1, 150, In the Old- Persian cuneiform writing 4, 61 
pccars bog^ha, dei, from the stem baga, Bopp^a Comp. Gram. 
452 ; Sanskr. bhagavat is adorandus. Hesychius has ßayalo'i, 
Zfif^ ^pvyio^ (conf. Spiegel's Caneif. inacr. 210. Wiudisch- 
nMn 19. 20. Bopp, Comp. Gr, 452. 581, Miklosich 3). Boh, 
bAie, bd^tko, Pol. boz§, bozqtkoj godkin, also genius, child of 
lock. Boh. bözek, Pol. bozek, idol. 

Beside guda, gods, John 10, 34-5, we have gnpa, Gal, 4, 8. 
The change of }) to d in derivation is supported by afgndei im- 
pietas, gndalaos impius, gudisks divinus. Neuter is daz apgot^ 
lios,33, 19. abgote sibeniu, Ksrchr, Ö5. appitgot, Myst, 1, -29, 
Xei, beside the neut, abcotir, stands appetgöte (rh. krcite), Troj. 
kr.* 27273, and abgote, Maria 149, 42 ; also masc. in Kristes 
büeheliD of 1278 (cod, giss. no, 870): 'bette an den appitgot/ 
abgotgobide in Haupt 5, 458 is for abgotgiuobida. In the 
Ootlitc ß>o galivga-guda for etSojXa, 1 Cor. 10, ID. 20, where the 
Orsek has no article, we may perceive a side-glance at Gothic 
mythology ; conf. Lobe gloss. 76**. The ON, goS is not always 
idolam merely, but sometimes nuraen, as goiS idl, omnia numiua, 
Smm. 07**. siti HAkon meS Heidin goiS, H^konarm. 21, g(Ui(T, 



usually latratus, is a contemptuous term for a unraen ethnicoram ; 
conf* geyja, to bark, said of Freyja, p. 7 note. 

Our gatze occurs in the Fastn. Sp. 1181. 13*32, where the 
carved 'goezeu' of the painter at Würzburg are spoken of. 
Gods' images are of wood, are splib up and burnt, Fornm. sog. 2, 
163. V. d. Hagen's Narrenbiich, 314. Platers leben, 37. So 
Diagoras burns his %vooden Hercules (Melander Jocos. 329), and 
cooks with it; conf. SuppL to p. 108 n. Agricola no. 186 ex- 
plains Ötgütz as * a stick, a log, painted, drenched with oil,* Low 
Germ, oligotze ; but it might be «n earthen lamp or other vessel 
with an image of the god^ Prohle xxxvi. In Thuringia Ölgötze 
means a baking, 

p. 1 5,] To the distortions of God's name may be added : goUi 
hängender gans ! Geo, v* Ebiugen, p, 9. pofz verden angstiger 
schwiainer wnnden ! Manuel, Fastn. sp, 81. Fr, Alberua uses 
' bocks angst,'' H. Sachs * botz angst.' Is potz, botz from bocks 
(p, 995) ? Similar adaptations of Die^i, Raynouard sub v. deusj 
cidbieii, Meon 4, 462. Ital. saprwH for sacristi. 

p. 15.] The addition of a Possess, Pron. to the name of God 
recalls the belief in a guardian-spirit of each individnl man (p. 
875)* The expressions not yet obsolete, ' my God I I thank ray 
God, you may thank your God, he praised his God, etc.,' iu 
GotthelTs Erzähl. 1, 167 are also fouud much earlier: hevet 
ghesworen bi sinen Gode^ Reiuaert 526. gaoc dinevi Qoie be- 
volen, Mor. 3740. er lobte ^inen Oot, Greg. 26, 52, durch 
meinen Gott, Ecke (Hagen) 48. saget iuwem Öote lop^ Eilh. 2714* 
daz in 7nm Trehiin löne, Kolocz. 186, gesegen dich Got min 
Trehttn, Ls. 3, 10. je lo fere en Mondieu croiro, Renart 3553. 
28465. Mcun 2, 388. son deahle, Ren. 278. 390. Conf. V/üno- 
nem meam iratam habeam,' Härtung, genius. 

The * God grant, God knows ' often prefixed to an interroga- 
tive, Gram, 3, 74, commits the decision of the doubtful to a 
higher power j conf. 'were Got, Gotfc behüte,^ Gmm. 3, 243- i. 
Got sich des wol versinnen kan, Parz. 369, 3; conf. 'sit cura 
denm.' dnz sol Got nibt en-wellen, Er. 6411. daz enwelle Got 
von bimele, Nib. 2275, 1. nu ne welle Got, En. 64, 36,— — Other 
wishes: sd sol daz Got gebieten, Nib. 2136, 4. hilf Got, Parz. 
121, 2. nu hilf mir, bilfericher Got 122, 26; conf. * ita me deus 
adjuvet, ita me dii ameut, amabunt,' Ter. Keaut* i v. 2, 8. 4, 1 




Got hüete dtn, Parz. 124, 17, etc. Got halde iucli 138, 27. 
Got Ion dir 156, 15. Got troeste inch des vater ram 11^ 2, 
Got griieze iucb, Iw. 5997. The freq. formulas ' God blcsa thee, 
greet thee/ addressed espec, to wine. Often in MHG., * bo it 
God who*: Got g% der daz wende; der in ner^ (heal); der uns 
gelücke gebe. Er. 8350. 6900. Hartm. Erst, b, 1068,— [Many new 
examples of wilkomen Got imd mir' are here omitted.] sit mir 
tu Oote wilkomen, Pass. 34, 92. irn und den goten (gods) wille- 
kometi, Troj. kr, 23105. God alone: Got willeknme here von 
Beme^ Dietr, Drachenk. 60*. Me and my wife : wiliekomen 
mir und oach der frauwen win, MS, 1, 57^ bien venuz miner 
frouwen onde mir, Par25. 76, 12. 

The Supreme Being is drawn into other formulas : dankent 
tr imd Ooie, Lanz. 4702. des danke ich dir nnde Oote, Flore 
5913. Got und i« ze minnen (for the love of), Greg. 3819. nft 
Ihz ich alle mine dine an Godes genäde nnde dhij Roth, 2252. 
To intensify an assertion : ich fergihe (avow) Got undo m, Grieah. 
pred. 2, 71. nein iVjA und Got, Ls. 2, 257; like the heathenish 
>' Oden och jag* daz er sich noch Got erkennet, Walth. 30, 7, 
oi und ouch die liiäe, Greg. 271. Gttt und reht diu riten dft 
Itt ze heile. Trist. (Massm.) 176, 26. 177, 2. We still speak of 
com plai ding to God and the world. One could not but love 
her, *da half kein gott und kein ievfel^^ Hofer, Lorelei 234. 
So, 'to her and love': ich h&n gesungen der vil liehen ond 
der Minne, Neifen 13, 37. frou Minne und iV, vil saslic wip 20, 
33. ich wil dir und deinem gaul ziisaiifen, Garg. 240**. 

p* 17.] God has human attributes: par les iaus Dieu, Ren. 
505 ; so, Freyr Htr eigi vinar awjum til J^in, Forum, s. 2, 74. 
par les pies quide Diu tenir, Mean Fabl. 1, 351. wan do Got 
hieas werden ander wtp, do geschuof er iuwern lip selbe mit »iner 
hant, Flore 2, 259. The Finns speak of God's heard. Ho wears 
a helmet, when he is wrapt in clouds ? conf. helot-helm, p. 463, 
Grimnir pileatus, p. 146, and Mercury's hat ; den Gotes helm 
Yerbinden, MsH. 3, 354^ ; conf. the proper name GoiaJielm^ 
Zeuss tra«!- Wizerab. 76, like Siguhelm, Friduhelm. As Plato 
inmkea God a shepherd. Wolfram makes him a judge, Parz* 10, 
27* God keeps watch, as 'Mars vigilat,^ Petron* 77; conf. 
Mars vigila, Hennil vigila (p. 749). He creates some men him- 
plf; Got »elbe worht ir feüezen lip, Parz. 130, 23; gets honour 



by it: ir schöenes libea Mfc Gob iemer eVe^ M8. 1, t43*; shapes 
beauty by moonh'ghfc : Diex qui la fist; eyi plaine tune, Dinaux^a 
Trouveres Art6sien9 261 ; feels pleasure : dap wart eia wuof, daz 
ez vor Oot zo him el was genaeme, LoheMgr. 71, in (to them) 
wnrde Got noch (nor) diu werlt iemer koU, Dietr, Drach, n9\ 
So in O.Norse: Yggr var |?eim Udr, Saem. 251*; cönf. ' nnus 
tibi hie dum propithts sit Jupiter^ tu istos minutos deoB flocci 
feceris/ and the cuneif* inscr* ' Aaramazd^ thuvdm duslita biya/ 
Oromasdes tibi arnicas fiat. 

p, 17-8 n.] God^a diiigence : examples like those in Text. 

p, 18.] Many new examples of God^a * anger, hatred, etc' are 

here omitted. Unser gote siut so guot, daz si dinen tumben 

rauot niht rächen mit einer donre-strälej Bari. 207, 13. ' Got haz 
den lesten ! ' sprächen die da vluhen hin (God hate the hindmost, 
cried the fugitives), Ottoc. 76*. so in Got iemer hazze, MsH, 8, 
195^. daz in Got gehoenef dishonour, Lanz. 3862. er bat, daa 
Got slnen shte über in vil schiere slüetje^ very soon smite, Turl. 
krone 92; conf. ßeoßXaßr)^;^ Herod. 1, 127. Gob tv//ö si beide, 
make them fall, Iw. tJ752, ich wil daz mich Gob ceile und mir 
sehende den Up, Flore 1314. Got si schmde^ MsH, 3, 187\ forfc 
mit dir zu Ooite^ bode ft, Weise comod. 39. Got rech' ez über sin 
kragen, Ottoc. 352*. so miioze mig Got wHorgeUf Karlm. S6S. 
nu brennet mich der Gotes ztui (tooth) in dem fiur, Todes gehugde 
079. 80 enttviehe mir Got, Flore -5277. Got ist an mir verzaget, 
Parz. 10, 30* ist Got an suier helfe hllni, oder isb er dran he- 
touhet (tieaved, daft), 10, 20. die gote gar entdiefen, Albr. Tit* 

p. 20-] The irrisio deorum, ON* god'-gd (Pref. liii. and p, 7n.) 
reaches the height of iosolt in Laxdaela-s. 180. Krisfcoi-s. cap. 
9 I OHG. kot'isceHa blasphemia, MHG. gates schelter, Conf. the 
abusive language of Kamchadales to their highest god Kotka, 
Klemm 2, 318. nh schilie ich miniu abgot, scold my false gods, 
Lament 481. amen zom huob er hin ze Gote: ' richer Got un- 
guoter 1 ' Greg. 2436-42. so wil ich iemer wesen gram den 
goten. En. 79B5, The saints scold (as well as coax) God, 
Keisersb. omeia 12^. vmfhi srhrten über (cried shame upon) 
Gotes gewalt, Wigal. 11558. Got, da bistu eine schtldec an (alone 
to blame), Iw, 1384. Charles threatens him: Karies ten^a a 
DieUj si coufusb son voisin, 'jamais en France n'orra messe ^ 





rnaliOj' Aspr. 35'. te, saiut Denis de France, tu somoilteM et dorz, 
quam fauz tes homes liges tiens en est li gran torzj Guitecl. 2, 
1&6* nemt iawer gote an em seil und trenket si, drench them, 
Wh» 1, 83*. trowet (believes) als dann S. Urban auch, wenn er 
niht schafft gut wein, werd' man ihn nach, den alten brauch 
werffen in bach hinein, Garg. pi-ef. ]0. In the Ksrchn 14737 
Cliarlea threatens St. Peter: und ne mache du den bliuden hiute 
nikt gesanden, din hhs ich dir zestore, dinen widemeu ich dir 
semore* God is defied or cheated; hiss Gott selbnt htmpt (to 
punish as), haben wir vogel und nest weggeraumbt, Garg» 

p. 20-1»] More epithets of God. He is hardly ever ad- 
dressed as dear ; but we find : an smen Uebiin abgoten, Pass. 306, 
20. ir liehen gote 88, 41, der mrte Got, La. 2, 285-6. Griesh. 
22 (5. 9. 17 of Christ), der säeze Got von himel, Griesh., etc. 
to gvasugoiT, Seem. 33*. ixtgenhafter Got, Wh, it*, lö. Got der 
(jmoare, Fundgr* ii* 90, 4L here is said of heathen gods, angels, 
emperors; ein Venus heref MS. 1,55*. haluj drybk^a, Beow. 

136G. God sees, tends, bltjsses, loves, reward«, honours, 

pities^ forgets : Got der miieze din pflegen^ Herb. 6160. Got 
^§mg0ne uns immer mdro 7732. Got gegen inch, Got lone dir 
8092. Got minne dich, Eracl. 644. Got miieze mich eren, 
HsH. I, 59**, daz mohte Got erhartnen^ Wigal. 5342. als im 
Got ergas, forgot. Herb. 15669. so min Got ergaz, Troj. kr. 
14072- des (bim) hÄL Got vergezzen, der tivel hat in besezzen, 
Warnung 343. Our God- forgotten, God-forsakeD.^-^^The poor 
are GoAf# volle, Diut* 1, 438 ; sine aerme, Maerl. 2,230; daz Ootes 
ker (hoai), Güte fraa 1492 ; hence proper names like Oodesman, 
Tmä, Corb. 201, Goda^mannm, Pol. Irmin, 03^ Koiestnan, Trad, 

JayaT. 131. ^The Gen. Ootes intensifies the adjs. poor, wretched, 

ignorant, pure : ow6 mich Gotes armen. Nib. 2090. ich vil Gotes 
armiu, Gudr. 1209, 1. ich Gotes arnie maget, Dietr. Drach. 
did Gotes elletulen, Ernst 3170. der Gotes tumbe, Helmbr. 85. 
der Grotes reine^ Marienleg. 1 89, 428. 

p. 22*] Earthly titles given to God ; der edt*! ktiimr himelbaere. 
Tit. 3382. That of the king of birds : Gott der hohe edle adlet 
ipom himmd. Berthold 331. The M. Lat. domnms is not used of 
Ood^ fvho is always Dominus, but of popes, kiugs, etc., Ducange 
tab V, O. Fr* danie dieu, dame de, R4>ijuef, sub v.; Prov. dami 



drieu^ damri deu, domim dieus, Rajnouard 3^ 68; on dame conL 
p, 299 n. Wallach, dvmnedeu for God, dofnn for sir, lord, Slav. 
InieZj kniaz^ prince, is applied to God in Wiggert's psalm s, conf, 
kueze granitsa in Lisch iirk. 1,9. So ava^^ avaaaa are used of 
kings and gods, es pec» aifUKc^ of the Dioscuri, and the Voc. ava 
of gods odIj. 

p. 22,] God is called Father in that beautiful passage ; )7onne 
forstes bend Feeder onlaeteSj Beow. 3218. Brahma is called 
avu8 patemuHj Bopp's glosg» 217% and Fltamaha^ great father, 
Holtzra. 3, 141. 153; conf. Donar as father, p. 167. In the 
Märchen, God becomes godfather to particular children : in KM. 
no. 12(> ho appears as a beggar, and gives his godson a horse, 
in the Wallach, mürchen 14 a cow. The fays, as godmothers, 
give gifts. The grandmother travels all over the earth, Klemm 2, 
160j conf. anel, baba (p. 041), 2?öio-^a6a, gold-grandmother ; 
moiker (p, 254). 

p. 22.] The Saxon vietod, ON, miöiuär may be conn, with 
Sanskr, mdiar, meter and creator, Bopp's Comp. Gr. 1134, and 
m&tä, mother, creatress ; conf. ra^ia^ Zev^. 

p. 23.] In Homer too, God is he that pours : Zeus createsi 
begets mankind, Od. 20,202. But Zeus p^eci i58a»/>, II. 16, 385. 
Xtoya, II. 12, 281. Poseidon x^^^ d^^i/r, II, 20, 32h Athena' 
f^ipa x^^^* ^^' ^* ^^' ^'^^^^ ^* 'S9b* xdWo^; 23, 150. X'^P*'^ ^f 
12, etc. Conf. p. 330, and ^ Athena ^xe Ko^as,' let her hair 
stream, Od. 23, 156. God is he, 'der alle bilde ginzet/ Diut. 2, 
241 ; der &chepfet alle zit niuwe s6l (souls), di' er giuzet uude git 
in menschen, Freid. 16, 25. the angel * giuzet dem menschen die 
eele io/ Berth. 209. God is ^der Smit von Obefdande, der ellin 
bilde wol wdrhen kan/ MsH. 2, 247*. He fits tfjgether : das 
fiiege Got, Rab. 554. Got füega mir^z ze guote, Frauend. 422, 22. 
do bat si Got vil dicke fu*'gen ir den rdt, Nib. 1187, 1, like our 
eingeben, aaggest. eigehafte hende (victorious hands) Juege in 
Got der guote, Dietr, 8082. d6 fttogt in (to them) Got einen 
wiut, Rab. 619; conf. Gevuoge, p. 311 n. The Minne also fits, 
and Seelde (fortuue) : dir /n*^gd saelde daz beste. Tit. 3375; our 
'fliguug Gottes,' providence. God destines, verhengei, MS. 1, 
74" (the bridle to the horse) ; O^G. firhtmgan (even htmgmi alone), 
concedere, consentire* He carries, guides : Got iruoc uns zu dir 
in das laut (so ; the devil brings you), Dietr. and Ges. 656. mich 



hki selber gewinet Jier Got von himel, Keller's ErziihL ti48, 11. 
We say ' go with God/ safel/^ a-vv Bern ßaiifet^, Bahr, 92, <3. 

p, 23.] Though Berthold laughs at the notion of God sitting 
in the sky, and his legs reaching down to the earth, as a Jewish 
one, there are plenty of similar seosaous representations to be 
gleaned oat of early poems, both Romance and German : ' Deo 
chi maent sas en ciel/ Eulalia; etc. alwaltintir Got, der mir zi 
lebine giböt, Dieraer 122, 24. wauti Got al mag und al guot wil 
99, 18. God is eternal : qui fu et iest et iert, Ogier 4102. 

p. 24.] To explain the Ases we must compare ahura-mazdas 
(p. 934 o.) and Sanskr. asura spiritual, living. Svk Ikti ass |?ik 
heiUa 1 hangi, Fomald. sog. 1,437* RJn <i.«-A^/^jm, Saem. 248'. 
nornir dsknngar 188*. A friSla is called tUa hl6&^ Forum, sog. 9, 
822, fair as if sprung from Ases ? )>4 vex mer dsmegin, iafnhätt 
Qp sem himinn, Sn. 114. äsmegir, Smm. 94**. äsmoÖ^r opp. to 
jötunmo&r, Sa. 109. dsa hragr stands for Thor, Sastu. 85\ Some- 
ttiDefl m 8eema to mean genius, fairy : in Nials-s. p. 100 a Soin- 
fdU-as or Snctfelh-ds changes a man that lives with him into a 
woman every ninth night ; the man is called ^ bnWr 8vinfells-4s, 
arnica genii Svinfelliani. Here also mark the connexion of äs 
with a mountain (fell for fiall?). The Saxon form of the word 
is also seen in the names of places, Osene-dred^ Kemble no. 1010 
(5,51), and Osna-hrugga (conf. As-brü, rainbow, p. 732). Note 
the OHG. Ä^ör-a«j?, spear-god, Folch-ans^ Haupt's Zeitschr. 7, 529. 
That An^ivarii can be interpreted 'a diis oriiindi^ is very doubt- 
fttl, Knupt^s Ztschr. 5, 409 has * des bomes as/ prob, for ' ast ' 
bough, which may indeed be conn* with ' äs ' beam, for it also 
meatts gable, rooftree, firmament, epfia, fulcrum. Varro says 
ilia Lat. dra was onc^ dsa, ansa, sacred god's-seat, v. Forcellini. 
Pott 1, 244, Gr. D. Sag. p. 114. The Gr. alaa (p. 414) seems un- 

mected. Bopp 43** coonects isvara dominus with an Irish aett- 
if aemr, deus, from Fictet p, 20; but this contains fear, vir. 

p. 26.] * Hos eonsentes et coinpUees Etrusci aiunt et Dominant, 
qood una orianiar et occidant una' says Arnobins adv. gentes 
lib« 3 ; does be mean constellations ? conf, Gerhard's Etr. gotth. 
p. 22*3* Does ditüfiga brautir, S^em* 80^, mean the same as äsa, 
cognatorum ? 

p, 26.] As consulting ragin appear the gods in Sanskr, rdga- 
aa# and Etrusc. rasena. The Homeric Zeus too is counsellor. 


ft,r}(JT(i>pj ß'tjTleTa. ' conntlio deoriim immortaliuin, ßo?i«isaii0 deos 
inimort/ says Coesar B, Gall. 1, 12. 14. The pL regln occurs 
further in Seem. 32'*. 34*^ nrjt regitu 3Ö* vU regin, Hakonar-m. 
18 rd& oll ok reg hl. Saam. 248** dSig-rügnir. Aho rögn : höpb, 
hönä, TÖgn, Sü* 176. 'wer gesaz bi Gote an dem rate da diu 
gaote mir wart widerteilet ?^ allotted, Ms. 2, 180". Just aa im- 
personal as the Gen. pl. in OS. regano-^mcdi'pxi sounds another in 
Hauptes Ztschr. 2, 208, where Mary is stjled ^ kuneginne aller 
magene/ vir tut um. 

p. 20n.] The appearing of gods is discussed at p. 836. Saxo, 
ed. Müller 118, speaks of sacra denm agmlna. The gods live 
happy: deormn vitam apti sumuSj Ter. Heaut. iv. 1, 15. d£tt8 
sum, sic hoc ita est> Hecyra v. 4, 3. The beautiful and blithe 
are comp, to them i )jyckir oss Oä^lnn vera, Hak.-m, 15; conf, 
Asa-blö"S above. g& her für ah ein gotinne, Renn. 12277. &a 
wif ghelJc ere godinneUf Maori. 2, 233. alse ochter God sehe 
comen soudej Lane. 31321. Conf, the beauty of elves and angels, 
p. 449. The I. of Cos seemed to produce gods, the people were 
so handsome, Athen. 1, 56. Paul aud Barnabas taken for Mer* 
cory and Jupiter, Acts 14^ 12. 

p. 27.] On gihora armen coof* Massm, in Haupt's Ztschr. 1, 
386 and Holtzm. in Germania 2, 448, who gives variants; sihoi'a 
may have been equiv. to fmuja. Sigora-fred in Cod. Exon- 166, 
35. 264, 8 is liter, triumphorum dominus, A warlike way of 
addressing God in Nib. Lament 1672 is, himelischer degen I 

p» 28.] At the end of this Chap, it ought to be observed, that 
some deities are limited to particular lauds and places^ while 
others, like Zeif^ Traj/cW ijj/to?, are common to whole races. Also 
that the Greeks and Romans (notTeutous) often speak indefinitely 
of 'some god/: Kai rt? Geo^ '^ye^ivevept Od. 9, 142, 10, 141. 
T(? fi€ ßewv 6Xo<f>vparo 10, 157. aßavdrwi^ 09 Ti? 15, 35. Tt9 
deo^ etrcri 16, 183. rtV a-<f»iv toS* eenre ffeayv 16, 3 56. tj fMoXa 
Ttv öfo? €vBop 19, 40, Kai rt9 Oeo^i aifrov iveiKOi 21, 196. 24, 
182. 373. Solemnis formula, qua dii tutelares urbiam evocaban- 
tur e civitatibus oppugnalione cinctis ambiguo nomine si dens, 
si dea, ne videlicet alium pro alio nominando aut sexum confun- 
dendo falsa religione pop ul urn alligarent, conf. Macrob. Sat. 3, 9. 
Nam consuestis in precibus ' sive tu deus es sive dea ' dicere, 
Aroob. 3, 8. Hac formula utebantur Romani in precibus, quando 


MF© terra movisset, sive aliud quid accidisset, de quo auibige- 
batar qna causa cujiLsqae dei vi ac numine effectuoi Sit, conf. 
GetliaB 2, 20 ibique Gronovius. 


p. 29-] Far veneration of a deity the AS. has both wearffifcipe 
rererentia, dignitas, and weor^ung ; the Kngl. worship, strictly 
a dooHj has become also a verb =weorÖ'tnn. The christian 
teachers represented the old woi*ship as diohules g*^lp inti zier Ida 
(pompa). In Isidore 21, 2L 55, 5 aerlos stands for impius. 
Beside the honouring of God, we find 'das Meien ere/ Ms. 2, 
22^aQd 'duvels ere, Rose 11200* D. Sag. 71. Gote dienen, Nib. 
787, 1. or forchte (feared) den Heilant, Roth 4415. Heartfelt 

rotion is expr. by ' mit inneclichen muote/ Bari. 187, lö. an- 
Jiitiehe 187, 36. 14. mit dem inneren gebete. die ajiddht fuor 
£um gibel aus, Wolkenst. p. 24. 

ip. 29 ] Among moet nations, the Chinese being an exception, 

»rship tinds utterance in prayer and sacrifice, in solemn trans- 
mctioaa that give rise to festivals and hightides, which ought to 
be more fully described further on. Prayer and sacrifice do not 
always go together : betra er obedit enn so ofhlatit (aL oblotit), 
Smm, 28**. The Chinese do not pray, and certainly, if God has 
ao body and no speech, we cannot attribute an ear or hearing to 
him, oonseq. no hearing of prayer, BesideSj an almighty God 
tiiQst understand thoughts as easily as words. Prayers^ the 
atteraoce of petition, gratitude and joy, arose in heathenism, and 
presoppose a divine form that hears. Odysseus prays to Atlieua: 
i€Kv0l ^^v, vvp hri Trip pL€P ukov^oi/, cVet irdpo^ ovttot afcovara^ 
patOfAdpov, Od. C, 325. 13, 35G. fcXvSh ava^ 5, 4i5. II. 16, 514 ; 
Poeeidou and Apollo are addressed with the same formula. Gods 
in> greeted through other gods : Veneri dicito multam meis 
f^rbis salutem, Plaut. Pcen. i. 2, 195. But, besides praying 
ilofid, we also read of soft muttering, as in speaking a spell, 
Uisic2 48. 0pf)<rK€V€tv is supposed to mean praying half aloud, 
Creuzer 2, 285. Latin precari (conf. procus), Umbr. perstii 

rou IT. 



{Aufreclifc and Kirchlioff 2, 28, 167) answers to OHG. /ergon 
poscere, precari, N. Cap. 153, Sanßkr. praehj Zeud, perer, Hases 
persnioiu/ tacitus precare, pray silently, * kiitef persnimu/ caote 
precare, A. and K. 2, 168-9* 170. Sanskr. ja/i = submissa voce 
dicere, praesertim preces, Bopp 135*; coüf. jalp ioqui, Lith. 
kalbu: faveas mihi, murmure dixit, Ov, Met. 6, 327 {p. 1224), 
' gebete käuen/ chewing prayers^ occurs in Bronner's Life Ij 
475 j ^stille gebete (hauen/ distil, in Gessner^s Works (Zurich 
1770) 2, 133. 'gebet vrnmen/ put forth, Gudr. 1133, 1. heien 
und himehprehen, Gefken beih 116, daz gebet ist ein süczer 
bote (messenger) ze himele, Ernst 20. Or, prayer resounds : daz 
dm bete erhUngü, Walth. 7^ 35. precibus de urn piihare opimia, 
Ermold. NigelL 2, 273, Prayer gushes out, is poured oufc : alsa 
daz gebet irgley Ksrcbr. 2172. M.Neth. gebed idstorten, Soester 
febde p. 597 ; now, bede storteyi, preces f andere, like tränen st., 
lacrimas fundere. gepet ausgiesseiit MB. 27, 353, 

p. 29.] Other words for prajing: Grk. Moßat I need, I ask, 
tKtrevm and XtVco/iat beseech. ON. heiia a einn, vovere snb 
conditione contingenti : het k Thor, vowed, Oldn. Miseb. 7 (conf. 
giving oneself to a partic. god^ OSinn, p. 1018-9). OHG. haren 
elamare, anaharen invocare, N. Bueth. 146. OS. gruinifi God, 
Hel, 144, 24* 145, 5. Does TrpocrKwito come from Kvviai I kiss 
(as adoro from os oris, whence osculum), and is it conn, with the 
band-kissing with which the Greeks worshipped the sun ; t^i> x^^P^ 
Kva-avT€^f Lucian 5, 133; or from tcvwv^ conf. irpoaKvve'i, fawn- 
ing flattererSj Athen. 6, 250^ see Pott's Ziihlmetb. 255, 'Anwa- 
^etrdai is also used of dogs fawning upon a master, 

p, 30.] A suppliant is not only MUmuin in OHG., but heteman 
in MHG. Hartm. biichl. 1, 263. Prayer, our gebet, is a fern. 
hete : mine flehe und mine bete, die wil ich örste senden mit 
het'zen und mit henden^ Trist. 123, 22 (praying with hands, 
folded?). The MHG» heteuis always joined with mt, as prepos. 
or prefix ; an welchen got er baete, Servat. 1347. ein kreftige 
Stat, do man diu apgot anebat, Karl IÜ*. Is it used only of false 
gods? conf, Pfeiffer's Bari. p. 446. 

p, 30.] TheMHG./e/»m supplicare takes the Dative: deme 
heiligin Geiste vlön, Wernh, v. Nieder-rh. 37, 1 7> etc. But 
with the Accus. : den t6ren flöhen, Freid. 83, 3* alio herren 
flöhen, Walther 28, 33, fleha ze himeie f rumen, N. Boeth. 271 ; 



it, 'gebet vramen' above. Evx€<r0m also takes a DaL : Aii, 
Od. 20, 97. :4e/)tnf 2, 201 . noaeSdtüvt 3, 43. iTrevxe^Oai 'Apri- 
fkiSi 20, 60 ; conf. ^t^Xi? iP^ ^^ ei);^at<f, iu X6yot<;) m-pecrfieveiy^ 
^pQifj^itlXoßaif iBsch. Kam. L 20. 21. 

kp. 31.] Can Gotb. aihtron and OHG. ekcon be from aigan, and 
mean wish to have ? OHG. diccan occurs in MUG. too : dirji'te 
gein Gote, AJtd. bh 2, 149, an in gedujei, pmys, Kdb. Jesu 91, 
lb underdige supplicatio, Serv. 3445. 
p. 81,] Postures in prayer. Standing: äin stet an ir gebete 
in der kapeUen hie bi, Iw. 5886. an daz gebet sHln, Zappert 
K 23- Bowing : diofo (finlffen, bend low, O. iii. 3, 28. sin nigen 
er gein himel gap, made his bow, Parz, 392, 30. Hagen bows 
^^^o the merwomen, Nib, 1479, 1. As the road is kindly saluted, 
^^^b csontrariwise : ich wil dem wege iemer-m^re sm vient swa dft 
hin gfist, be foe to every way thou goest, Amur 2347. The 
Finnic kumarran, bending, worship, is done to the road (tielle), 
moon (kuulle), snn,{püiwällii), Kalew. 8, 103. 123. 145. diu bein 
biegen ^ pray, Cod. Vind. 159 no. 85. On kneeling, bending, conf. 
Zapp. p. 39. ze gebete ^fi'/'tt?, Ksrchr, 605L ze Gote ersiagebete 
lac, Pantal, 1582. er viel an b!u gebet, Troj. kr* 27224. ind 
in die bede^ int gebede, MaerL 2, 209. 3, 247, do hup er ane zu 
reniende: wo irae daz houbit lac, do satzte her di fuze hiö, Myst. 
1, 218. legde hleor on eoriTan, CaBtlra. 140, 32. Swed. böiifalla, 
to kneel in prayer. Daring a sacriHce they fell to the ground 
piirTOVT€^ h a)Sa<s, Athen, p* 511. The Ests crawl bareheaded 
to the altar, Estn. verb. 2, 40. Other customs : the ladiaua 
danced to the Sun, Lucian, ed- Lehm. 5, 130. Roman women, 
barefoot* with dishevelled hair, prayed Jnpiter for rain. The 

I hands of gods are kissed, conf. TrpooKwetv- In contrast with 
looking up to the gods, äi^üj ySXe^a?, Moschus e pi gr., the eyes 
mm turned awatj from sacred objects, Odysseus, after landing, is 
to throw back into the sea» with averted look, the KptjSe^pot^ lent 
htm by luo, airoyoo'ffii rpaTri^rOaL, Od. 5, 350. rapßr^aa^ B* krk- 
pm^€ ßaX* opfjLara, /m7} 0€o^ ttt), 16, 179. 

p. 32.] Uncovering the head : huic capite velato, illi sacri- 
ficaodum est nudo^ Arnob. 3, 43. fliltU capitibus inclinarent 
deh-aciis, Eckehardus a,o. 890 (Pertz 2, 84). iuoi uwere kngelem 
nie, ttml bitit Got, Myst. 1, 83, 25. son chapd onte, Reo. 9873 j 
conf. 'a chäfpll lüpfe, llebel 213. htlme nnd ouch diu liaeielin 






arden schiero ab 

genomen, Lanz, 6838. sitien hehn ev ahe 
bant (unbonnil), und stürzt' in M des Schildes rant ; des hüeteh 
wart Biü hoübet blöZj wan stn zaht war vil gröz^ Er. 8963, In 
1 Cor. 11,4. 5, a man is to pray and prophesy with covered 
head, a woman with uncovered, see Vater's note. Penance is 
done standing naked m water, G. Ab. 1, 7; conf. Pref. Ixx. The 
monk at early morn goes to tho Danube to draw water, wash 
and pray, Yuk li. 7, beg. of Nsod Simeun. The Greeks went to 
the seashore to pray : TtjXe^axo^ 8' dirdrevSe kiwi* ewl 0tya 
ßaKda-OTTj^, Od. 2, 260. ßi] 8' dfcea^p irapa Olva .... äirdvevd^ 
Kiwv ripaO^ o y^paio^ ^ATtoWmvi avafcrt^ IL i, 34. 

p. 33.] Arsenius prays with ypl{fted httmh from annset to 
sunrise, llaerl. 3, 197. in cruris modum coram altari se sternere, 
Pertz 8, 258; conf, ordeal of cross. Praying 'mit zertänen 
artnenj zertrenten armen, Zellw. urk. no. 1029, 775, Hands are 
washed before praying : ;^apa9 vitfrj/ievo? ttoXu;«? dXof;, in the 
hoary sea. Od. 2, 261. 12, 336. Helgafell, }mngat skyldi engl' 
ma'Sr opveginn (unwashen) Hkt, Landn, 2, 12, 

p. 33.] Xdpi^j gratia, is also translated anaf, Goth, anstdi 
audahafta, gratia plena ! OHG, fol Gotes enfiti, 0. i» 5, 18. 
e}istw fol, Hel, 8, 8 ; conf, ' geböno fuUu ' in Tat., and AS, mid^J 
gife gefylled. For giniida Ot fried uses a word peculiar to him- 
self, erngrehtif Graff 2, 412. The cuneif. inscr. have constantly: 
* Aaramazdä miya upast^m abara,' Oromasdea mihi opem ferebat ; 
'vashnä Auramazdaha/ gratia Oromasdis. 

p. 34.] Other ON. expressions for prayer : blutaSi O'Sinn, ok 
biJSr hanu Kta d sitt mä!, Hervar. saga c. 15, öreiSom augom 
ItiieJ ockr jnnnig, ok gefit sitjoiidom si gr, Stem. 194*. mal ok 
raannvit gefit ockr maerom tveim, ok laekuis-hendur me^an 

lifooi, ibid. As the purpose of prayer and sacrifice is twofold,* 

so is divine grace either mere favour to tlie guiltless, or forgive- 
ness of sin, remission of punishment. Observe in IleL 8, 18: 
thiggeau Herron is huldi, that sie llevan-cuning ledes dlefi (ut 
Dens malum averteret, remitteret), though Lnke 1, 10 has merely 
orarrj and O. i, 4, 14 only giufida beitota. He is asked to spare,, i 
to pity: LKvdh Od. 3, 380. IG, 184. <f>€iS€o &' ff^et^v 16/ 185. 
cv ik 'Ckcrn^ y€voVt Lucian 5, 292. * taivu ainomen Tapio/ be 
entreated, Kalev, 7, 243; conf. t6ö€ fioi Kprjrjvop iiXSmp, II. 1, 41. 
Od. 17, 212. (Kl. sehr. 2, 458.) 



The Hiada also looks to the East at early moraing prayer, 

hfmoe he ^allB the South daxa, daxima^ the right. In prayit3g 

to Odin one looks east, to Ulf west, Sv. forns. 1, 69* »olem 

respiciens is said of Boiocalua, Tac. ami. 13, 55. Prayer is 

lirected to the sua, N. pr. bL 1, 300, aod there is no sacrificing 

W sunset, Geo, 228 L On tho other hand, ^ Nordr horfa dyr ' 
CK^cnrs in Ssem, 7*** Jötuaheioir lies to the North, Kask afh. 1, 
83.94. D- Sag. 981. 2. 

p. 35 n.] Mock*piety : wolt ir den heiligen die zehen (toes) 
abl*risien ? Brouner 1, 295, alle heiligen fressen wollen, Elis, 
r. OrL 251. götze-schlecker, Stald, 1, 467, In thievea^ lingo a 
Cfttholic is tolefresser, biUlerfreaaer, Thiele 317*. uiagliavutts, 
gotzenfressor, Carisch 182^^ Whence comes Ital. bachettone ? 
conf* bigot, Sp. beato. die alte tempeUreie^ Spil v. d, 10 jungfr. 
in Steph, 175, du rechte renne umuie id olterj you regular Run- 
ruund-the-altar, Mune schausp. 2, 99. froftimchen, as early as 
Er. Alberns Praec. vitae ac inor. 1562, p. 90". 

p. 35.] On Sacrifice, COD f. Creuzer symb, 1, 17L *opph«r = 

ota,' GL Sletst. ö, 672. Gifts = sacritice», p. 58. si brahten ir 
pt/Jrr und anihelz, Dieiner 179, 25* In Latin the most general 
phrase is rern divinaui facere=^sacrificarö ; we also find comma- 
obmuvere, Aufr. u. Kirchh, 2, 165. Viciitna, the greater 
ifice, is opposed to hostla, the less, Fronto p. 286. To ' obla^ 
turned fiir alien gebilden (before the statues and shrines), ut tenor 
est fandatiouis, cedens pastori ' (found, at Rüden, Westph. 1421, 
Seibertz Quellen d. Westf. gesch. 1, 232) answers the Germ. 
wtsunga riaitatio, oblatio, Graff 1, 1068, from wi^on, visitare* 
feisod^ohlei, visitatio, Schmeller 4, 180. The Swiss now say 
ip£i0fi for praying at the tombs of the dead, Srald. 2| 455. 

p. 35.] On blot, hlosir see Bopp's Comp. Gr. 1 146, Goth. Guß 
blSiaUf Denm colere, 1 Tim. 2, 10. In ON., beside gods^ sacri* 
t>ceft| there are dl/a blot, p* 443, disa blot, p. 402 [and we may 
add the bl6t-nW on p. 557]* blot-liawj and storbUt, Fornra. 
iHjff- 5, 16-4-5. sleikja blot-bulla, Fagrsk. p. C3. A pi-oper name 
i^/J^iitflr, ace. ßlutmä (-mew, the bird), Landn, 3, 1 1 seems to mean 
laros BÄCriticator, = the remarkable epithet blokvogtl, a,d. 1465, 
Osoabr. ver. 2, 223 ; or is it simply * naked bird ' ? conf, epott- 
irogel^ gpcirogel, wehvogel [gallows-bird, etc.] . ON. bloicarijr 
Kprone to curse, for biota is not only consecratej but execrate. 

1293 WORSHIP. 

p. 37 D.] Mit der llofzen haun, H. Sachs iii. 3, 58*. eine 
breite blötze, Chr. Weise, Drei erzn. 194. der weidplotz^ hnntiDg- 
knife, plöfzer, Vilmar ia Hess. Ztschr. 4, 86. die bluote, old 
knife^ Woeste. 

p. 37.] AnÜieiz a vow, but also a vowed sacrifice, as when 
the Germans promised to sacrifice if they conquered, Tac. Ann. 13, 
57, or as the Romans used to vow a ver sacrum, all the births 
of that spring, the cattle being sacrificed 20 years after, and the 
youth sent abroad, Nieb. 1, 102. ir obfer unde antheiz, Diemer 
179, 25. gehtton wig-weor&unga, Beow. 350. aer];on hine dedS 
onsoe^de, priusquam mors eum sacrificaret. Cod. Exon. 171, 32 ; 
conf. ÄIHG. iuwer lip ist ungeaeit, a^aTo?, Neidh. 47, 17. What 
means OHG. frehtan ? [frehan ? frech, freak ?]. N. Boeth. 226 
says of Iphigenia : dia Chalchas in friskinges wis frehia (Graff 3, 
818) ; conf. O'S.frett vaticinium, divinatio (Suppl. to p. 94), and 
AS. 'on blote oSSe on fyrhte/ Schmid 272, 368, where fear or 
fright is out of the question. 

p. 38.] AS. civeman, also with Dat., comes near fullafahjan : 
* onsecgan and godum civeman/ diis satisfacere. Cod. Exon. 257, 
25. Criste cweman leofran lace 120, 25. Like AS. bring is OHG. 
antfangida, victima, Diut. 1, 240. What is offered and accepted 
ties : Theocr. epigr. 1, 2 uses tcelaOac of consecrated gifts. 

p. 30.] To AS. lac add Idcan offerre, conf. placare. lac 
onsecgan, Cod. Exon. 257, 30. lac xenium, donum, Icucdaed 
munificentia, Hauptes Ztschr. 9, 496*. 

p. 39.] On aTrapxai conf. Pausan. 1,31. Callimach. hy. in 
Del. 279. Another definite term for sacrifice seems to be the 
obscure Goth, daigs, massa, Rom. 11, 16 [is it not dough, teig, 
a lit. transl. of (f>vpafjLa ?] Wizot survived in MHG. too : fröne 
wizof, Servat. 3337. Massmann derives hnnsl from hin)?an ; 
Kuhn in Berl. Jb. 10, 192 — 5, 285 from hu to pour, which = (?i;6*i/ 
ace. to Bopp 401. hunsljada (nrevBofiac 2 Tim. 4, 6. unhunslags 
aoTTovSof; 3, 3. uf8neißan = 0v€iPf kill, Luke xv. 23-7. 30, and 
vfsnißans immolatus, 1 Cor. 5, 7 plainly refer to cutting up the 
victim. Eunsaloa in the Ecbasis may be either hunsal-aha 
(-water) or huns-alah (-temple), Lat. ged. p. 289. 290. 

O.Slav, frefca = libatio, res immolata, templum ; irebUhche ßo^fio^. 
' qui idolothyta, quod irebo dicitur, vel obtulerit aut mandn- 
caverit,' Amann Cod. mss. Frib. fasc. 2, p. 64. O.Boh. tfeba. 



WORSHIP» ^^^^^^^m^ 1299 

Boss, treha, sacrifice, O.Sl- Irebiii, PoL iruhic, Sery. triehiti, 
pnrify; conf, the place-name Trchhin, Juni^m, 4, 625^, PoL 
irzs^ha^ pofrieha, oportet, it is needful 8erv. pofreba, Boh» 
pMhrlta^ need ; conf. Lith. PotrimpuH and Antriinp, Atrimp, 
Uauu^eh 216-7. D, Sag. 328. Sacrifice is in Lett, iohar»^ 
Bergm« 142; in Hung- aldovids, Ipolyi 341, 

p. 40.] The right to emend aibr into tibr is disputed bj 
Weigand 1997; conf. DietV^nbach's Goth. wtb. 1, 12. On T€0pa 
gee my KL Sehr. 2, 223; Umbr. tejro n. is some nuknown part 
of the victim. Aufrecht u. K. 2, 294. 373. May we connect the 
Lett, iohars, plague-offering? Some would briog in the LQ, 
zf/er ( = käfer), see Campe under ' ziefer/ and Schmell. 4, 228; 
conf, OÜG. arzibur, Graff 5, 578, and ceepurhuc, n. prop, in 
Kamjan. Keisersb,, bros. 80**, speaks of urigesuber ; we also find 
m$t2uter vermin, conf. undz, uneatable, i.e. vermin, Mone 8, 409. 
The Grail tolerates no ufujezibere in the forest, Tit. 5198. The 
wolf is euphemistically called Ungeziefer, Rockenphil. 2, 28. The 
fetisf^r in the pastures of 'J'yrol are sheep and goats, Hammerle 

With OHG. iinhan, to sacriflce, conf. the AS. img-weor^img 
above» and Lith. totiJciu, ago, facio, Finn, walkutan, 

p, 4[,] The diversity of sacrifices is proved by Pertz 2, 243, 
diversoM nacrificandi ritus incoluerunt; and even by Tac, Germ. 
9 : deorum niaxime Mercurium colunt, cui certis diebus humants 
qttoc^ae hostiis I Hare fas haben t. Herculem ac Marter a concessis 
aniuiatibus placatiL pars Suevoruia et hidi sacrifioat. 

To a saeri6ce the god is invited, is asked to join : KaXici rov 
Oeiv, Herod. 1, 132, eTrifcaXiei t. Ö, 4, 60. iirtKaXiaravrG^; t. 0. 
4T<f>d^ov(ri 2, 39. The gods are present at it, Athen. 3, 340- L 
Why bones are offered to the gods, Hes. theog. 557. prirnitias 
ciborum dec offerenda, Athen. 2, 213. The rising »mokti and 
Mieamnre pleasing to gods, Lucianos Prometh. 19. itc 2e BvfjLuTtüP 
'H^i<rro^ ovic Sx^ß-rrt, Soph. Antig. 1007. Men stren^jthen the 
godt by sacrifice, Haupt's Ztschr. 6, 125. They sivcrifice to 
Wdd» (VVodan), crying: ' Wedki taeri f ^ dear Weda, consume! 
ACoepK our offering, JSchl. «Hoist, iaodeskunde 4, 246. The god 
gtires A sign tliat he accepts : )>a kumu ]mv hrafnar tljugandi ok 
giiilu bitt, as a sign ' at O^inu inundi pe(jii hafa blotit,' Furnm. 
•ifg. 1, 131. 



p, 42 J Parfc of tlie spoils of war given to the God of thsj 
Cbristiaos, LivL Roimcbr. 2070—73. 3398 to 34-OL 6089. 4ö9ö. 
11785. 11915. ^ h rumen f pfert und rUchs man* are to bo burnt 
in cose of victory 4700. 4711, If victima is from vincoj it must 
haye beeo orig. a sacrifice for victory, ON. sigur-gioft victim. 
The ehitn-gang in MüOenh. SchL-Holat, s.j p. 108 was ouce prob, 
the Bame. 

p, 42.] In expiatory offvrin^fs the idea is, that the wrath of 
God falls on the Tictim : olearly so in the scaperfoaif Levit. 1(3^ 20. 
Grieah. pred, 2, 119; conf, Grimm on the A, Heinr. p. ItiO. 
Also in the plarjue'vßerintj at Massilia, Petron. c. 14 L 

p. 42,] Forecasting the future by sacrifice : ante putjnam mise- 
rabiliter idolia immolavit (Decius), Jörn. c. 18. 

p. 42-] Sacrif. til ars also in Forom, säg, 10, 212 : si^un gerSi 
uaran mikit ok hallaeri, var }>a )mt raS tekit at };eir hlaiu&a Olaf 
konmig til ars aer. With Halfdan'a sacrifice coiif, the cKaroß- 
if>6via offered by him who had slaiu 100 foes, Paasaü, iv. 19, 2, 

p. 41.] Human Sacrifice seems to have been an ancient practice 
ia most nations, as well as the burning of live men with the dead. 
On the other hand, capital punishments were unknown or rare* 
Hercules, ad quern Poeni omuibua annis hunuma sac ri fie ave runt 
victima J Pliny 36, 5. Men were sacrif. to Artemis, Pans. 7, 19; to 
the playing of flutes, Aufr. u. K.'s Umbr. Sprachd. 2, 377. In 
lieu of it, youths were touched on the forehead with a bloody 
knife, 0. Jahn on Lycoreus 427 ; conf. the red string on the neck 
in the * Amicus and Amelius/ God, as Death, as old blood-shedder 
(p. 21), asks human victims. Hence they are promised in sickness 
and danger, for the gods will only accept a life for life, Gesta 
Trevir. cap. 17, from Cass. B, Gall. 6, 16. For sacrificiug a man 
on horseback, see Lindcnbl. 68. Adam of Bremen (Pertz, 9^ 
374) says of the Ests : ' dracones adorant cam volucribus, qutbns 
etiam vivos litant homhivs^ quos a mercatoi'ibns emunt, dibgent^r^ 
omnino probatos ne viacnlam in corpore lut^beani^ pro qua reftdart 
dicuntur a draconibusJ While a slave-caravan crosses a river, 
the AbyssinianSj like the Old Franks, make the gods a thank and 
sin oflering of the prettiest girl, Kloden^s Beitr. 49, In spring a 
live child is sacriticed on the funeral pile, Dybeck^s Runa 1844,- 
5 : i l^ann fimu koni hallaei-i mikit a Eei<Sgotaland. enn svä g^ck 
frettin, at aldri mnndi är fyrri koma^ enn ßcim sveinl vaeri bldtaij 



i üa 

er aeSstr raeri }>ar t Undi^ Hervar. saga p. 452, conf. 454. On the 
two Gallehus horns is pictured a man holding a child-victim. Saxo, 
©d. Miillor 121, says of Fro at Dpsala; ^hiimani generis hostlan 
mactareag'grüssusj foeda superts libamenta persolvit ; * he chaoged 
the velerem Uhfitlonls morevu To tlie ^ sacrare aciem ' in Tac, Ann* 
18j 57 (p* 104G n.) answers the ON. valfola^ Hervar. s. 454 Traces 
of Child-sacrificG especially in witch-stories (p. 1081), such as 
teariDg* out and eating the heart. Bones collected and oflbred 
lip, conf, the tale of the good LuLbe p. 520, and the villa of 
Opferheiu now Opferbanm near Wurzburg, sue Lang's reg. 3, 101 
(year 1257). 4, 291 (year 1285). 

p. 46.] An animal sacrifice was expiatory when offered to the 
invading plagae, p. 61U. 1142. Duly edible buasts sacrificed: 
'ctir noQ eis et canea^ ursos et vulpes mactatis ? quia rebus ex his 
deos par tut honorare coelestes, qui bus ipd alimur, et quas nobia 
ad vidam sui numinis benignitate drgnati sunt/ Arnub. 7, 10, 
On Jc^-sacrltice see p. 53. The colour and sex of an animal were 

portant (p. 54), conf, Arnob* 7, 18 — ^20; and in a female, 

hetber she was breeding 7, 22 ; whether it had hair or bristles 
(p. 7o)| conf. ^ dem junker, der sich auf dem fronhof lagert, soll 
man geben als off der hübe gewasscn (grown) ist mit federn, mit 
borBtec/ Weisth. 3, 478. In buying it> one must not bargain, 
Athen. 3, 102. The skin was hung up and shot at^ p. 650. 

p. 46*] The people by eating became partakers in the sacri- 
fice, conf. 1 Cor. 10, 18: ou^l ol eaffiovT€^ xa? öftr/a? Koivtavol 
TOW ouaaaTfipLov eici ; p. 4L 

p, 47,] On sacrificing Barses (p. 664) and its origin, see 
Bopp^s Gl. 24% (Uüamedha ; cunf, Feilalik on the Koniginh. MS. 
lUä. Tyndareus made Helen's wooers swear on the sacrif, /ior«e, 
and then bury it, Pans, iii. 20, 9. Horses sacrif. by Greeks to 
Ueliofl ibt 5, Ov. Fasti 1, 385; by Massjigeta? to the Sun^ Herod. 
Ip 216* White horBes thrown into the Strymoa 7, 113, lUi 
(McMwi) stattm ante aciem immolaio equo concepere votum, ut 
oaeeorum extis dncum et litarent et vescerentur, Florus IIH, 2L 
May the Goth, athvatundi, ßdro^, refer to sacrifice ? and was 
llie bonie burnt with thorn- bushes, or was the fire kindled by 
rubbiti^ with them ? 

The ara in the passage from Tacitus might mean men's heads, 
yet conf. p. 659. It has yet to be determined how far the hudle$^ 



horses and arms of the conquered were offered bo gods, 'lb dedi- 
cate the wicges-erwe, spoils (Diemer 179, 27), seems Biblical. 
Shields aod swords oöered up to MarSj ICsrchr. 3730. The 
Serbs presented the weapons of slain enemies, Vuk Kralodw. 88. 

p, 47 n.] Uors^flesh eaten by witches (p. 1049) ; by giants, 
Müllenh. 414. Fuals eaten, Ettn. unw, doctor 338—40. The 
Wild Hunter throws down legB of horse, Schwartz p, IL Plica 
Polonica attributed to eating horse fleshy Cichocki p. 7* 

p. 49 n.] *4Mf?.^ sacrificed by the Slavs, B Uschi ng 101-2. Cos- 
mas speaks of an ass being cut into small pieces ; see Vuk's pref. 
to Kralodw. 9. Ass-eaters, Rochholz 2, 207. 27L Those of 
Oudenaerde are called kickf^f reters, chick en-muuchers, Belg. Mus- 
5, 440. 

p, 49,] Oxe9i were favourite yictims among the Greeks and 
Romans : rol S* eVl 0ivl ßakdatTTfi; kpä pi^oy Tavpov<; irapL/jLeXapa^ 
^KvQuly^ßQVi tcvat/o'^a irrj, Od* 3^ 5 ; namely^ nine bulls before each 
of the nine seats 3, 7. Twelve bulls sacrificed to Poseidon 13, 
182. To Athena pe^w ßovv fjvtif evpif/jLerafirov aSfifjrjji', fjp ovttü} vtto 
^vyov ^yaj€V avrip* rriv tül iytD jot'f öj, ^vaov tcipacriv Trepi^eua^ 
3, 38a } conf. 426. 437, auratis comibus hostiae immolatae, Pliny 
33. 3, 12. Perseus offei-s on three altars an ox, cow and calf, Ov. 
Met. 4, 755. bovem album Marti immolare et centum Jul voiij Pliny 
22, 5. niveoM tauros immolare, Arnob. 2, 68. At the ' holm- 
gang* the victor kills the sacrilicial bull, Egils-s. 506-8, rauS^^^ 
hann i nj^ju naufa blvÖ^i, Saem. ]\^^. The wise bird demands ^hof, ^^ 
horga raarga, ok gidUnjrJular kyr' 141*. In Sweden they still 
have God^s cows; does that mean victims, or priestly dues? A 
loaf in the shape of a calf is julkuse, Cavallius voc. verb 28^ 37^ 
A sacrißcial cofj\ Keller's Altd. erz, 547. The names Farrenhertj^ 
Biiblemons seem derived from bovine sacrifices, Mone'a Anz. 6, 
2S6-7. A cow and cö//sacrif. to the plague, p, 610 ; a black ox with 
white feet and star, Sommer 150; con f. the coios head, Wolffs 
March, no. 222. A red cow, kravicu buiuu, Konigsh. MS. 100; 
conf. rote kalbela due mdlf Griesh, 2^ 118 (from Numb* 19, 2). 
diu roten rinder, Fundgr. 2, 152. Mone in Anz. 6, 237 remarks 
justly enough, that agricultural nations lean more to bovine sacri- 
fices, warlike nations to equine. Traces of bull-sacrifice, D. Sag* 
128-9. 32, 

p. 50.] To majalis sacrivus answers in the Welsh Laws ' sus 



coenali» quae servatnr ad coenam reg^Sj' Leo Malb, Gl, 1, 83. Varra 
Uiinks^ ' ab suillo genere pecoris immolandi initium primuai sum- 
tum vkletur/ Re Rust. 2, 4. porci duo menses a mammrv noa 
dijanguntur. porci saere*^^ puri ad sacrificium ot immolenttir. 
porci hiCtentes, ataeres, delici, nefrendes 2, 4. (Claudius) cum 
regibas foedua in foro icit, porca caefia, ac vetere feciaUum prae- 
fatione adhibita^ Suet. o. 25. duo viciimcie porctnae, Seibertz no* 
30 (1074)* A frütchling at five schillings shull sfcaud tied to a 
pillar, Krotzenb. w., yr 141*5 (Weisth. 3, 513), The gnw-ftUch- 
ling ID Urban Aug*, yr 1316, seems to mean a sheep, MB. 34\ 
S65, ftUchtg, frischling, a wether, Staid. 1, 399, opferen als 
einen ß'UkmCt Mos. 19, 8. ein fritikinc (ram) dd bi gie. Diemer 
19, 19* With frisctug as recens natus conf. a-tfyayal peoßtjXau 

Lßcrov, -^Esch. Eum. 428. King Hei^Srekr has a göltr reared, with 
12 judges to look after it, Hervar. saga c. 14 (ForriHld. sog. 1, 
463) ; crinf. the yiafffoltr, Norw. ges. 2, 127, 
p. 52-] "Apua fieXatvav i^eviyKare, Aristopli, Ran. 847. Men 
l^nf. a raoi, and sleep on Uh /nth, Paus, lü, 34, 3. Goats sacrif* 
m Juoo : alyoipdyo^ Hprj 15, 7* Nunc et in urabrosia Fauno decet 
icomolare lucis, seu poscet agnOf sive malit ha^do, Hor. Od. i. 4, 
12; conf. bideutal, Suppl. to p* 174. A boy of nine kills a black 
goal with white legs and star, over the treasure, and sprinkles 
liimself with the blood, Somoier^s Sag. p. HU ; a goat with golden 
homjt 150-1. 179. *diu österwiche geb über dehein geiz* saya 
Helbl. 8, 299 ; does it mean that only lambs, not goats, are eaten 
at Basier? A black sheep sacrif. to the devil, Firmenich 1, 206^; 
a Bheep to the dwarf of the Baumann's cave, Gcideke 2, 240, The 
Prasman goat-halhwing is described by Simon Grünau in 1526, 
Neaaelm, ac. Lasicz 54; conf. Tettau and Temme 261. A lie- 
goat sacrif, with itrange rites in Esthonia on St. Thomas's day, 
Poftaart 172. 

p. 52 ] DogM sacrif. in Greece, Pans, iii* 14, 9 ; in Urnbria, Auf. 
und K* 2, 379. To the nickel man a black cock is yearly thrown 
into the Bode, Haupt 5, 378. Samogits sacrif. cocki to Kimoa, 
Liaics 47. When E-^ts sacrif. a coek, the blood spirts into the fire, 
tlto feslhera, head, feet and entrails are thrown into the same, the 
rmi is boiled and eaten, Estn< ver. 2, 39. c/cvßvov^ TrafifieXdva^ 
9mvXtifcmv rpiaiTov^ Upeuaa^, Orph. Argon. 962. The bodies or 
iktns of victitos hung on trees, p. 75 — 9. 650* in alta pinu votlvi 



cümua cervi^ O7. Met* 12, 2Gö. incipiam captaro furas et reddare 
jjina cornua. Prop. iü. 2* 19. 

p* 55.] That the victim ahould be led round was essential to 
©very kind of lustmtion, Aafr. u, K.'s ümbr. spr, 2, 263. fc^pvfce^ 

S* uva aarv Oemv lepijv ifcaropi^ßijv ^Of, OJ. 20^ 276. 

p* 65,] Small sacrificial i^esstls, which participants brought 
with them^ are iDdic. in Edk. goda saga c* 16, couf. 'ask ne 
eskij' ibid. An altar with a large cauldron found in a grave-mound 
near Peccatel, Meckleub., Lisch U, 369. Oa the Cimbrku 
cauldron in Stmbo, see Liscb 25, 218, Out of the cavern near 
Vehnedo a brewing*caoldroii was lent when asked furj Firmeüich 
] , 334^ [«o Mother Ludlam^s canldron^ now in Frenshatn Church] ; 
old copper kettles of the giants were preserved, Faye 9* 

p. 57.] Former sacrifices are indicated by the banquets at 
assizes and after riding the bounds. A victim^s tiesh was bulled, 
not roasted, though roaating and boiling are spoken of at the feaüt 
of Bacchus, Troj. kr. 16201-99, For distribution among the people 
the victim was cut up small : the ass, p. 49,- the gädda into eight 
pieces, Sv. folks. 1, 90. 94; Osiris into fourteen pieces, Buna, 1, 
608. Before Thor's image in the Gu8braods-dalr were laid every 
day four loaves of bread and aldtr (killed meat). Forum, bug. 4, 
245*6; conl. Olafssuga, ed. Christ, 26, Gruel and fish are oü'ered 
to Percht on her day (p. 273); meat and drink to Souls (p. 
913 n.); the milk of a cow set on the Brownies' stone every 
iSuadayi Hone's Yrbk. 1532, 

p, 57,] Smoke-offerings were known to the heathen : incense 
and bones offered to gods, Athen, 2, 73. thus et merum, Arnob^ 
7, 26, Irish iuHga, usga, AS, Mr, thus, nteran, thurificare, Haupt's 
Ztschr. 9, 513^ At each altar they set *eine risten flahses, vm 
wahs-kerzelin und wtrouches koru,^ Dint, 1, 364. Also candks 
alone seem to have been oiiered 1 candles lighted to the devil and 
to river-sprites (p. 1010. 584). Men in distress vow to the saints 
a taper the size of their body, then of their shin, lastly of their 
finger, Wall, march, p. 288; conf, ' Helenii (in templo) sacravit 
ca.licera ex electro mamviae suae if Lens a ra/ Pliny 33, 4, 23. The 
shipwrecked vow a candle as big as the mast. Hist, da la Bastille 
4, 315 ; so in Schimpf u. Ernst c. 403; otherwise a navicula cerea, 
or an argeuiea anchora, Pertz 6, 783-4; a ' wechsln haus' against 
fire, li, Ludwig 84, 19; or the building of a chapel. Silver 


phuyk» and uliip» offered (p, ö9n. 264n.), D. Sag. 59. Pirates offer 
a tenth part of their booty, p. 231 j conf. ivravÖa tqj vato rpujpovK 
awux€%rai p^aX/roOi/ efißoXov, Paus, i. 40, 4. Stones are carried 
or tliro^D on to a grave (otherw. branches, Klemm 3, 294) : on 
Bremond'a grave by pilgrims^ Karlm* 138. To sacrifice by stone- 
throwing» Wolf, Ztachr. 2, 61 ; to lay a Btone on the herma, 
Preller 1, 250; a heap of stones lies round the berma, Babr. 48. 

0. Müller, Arch. § 66, thinks t}iese ipftala were raised partly to 
clear the road. Darius on his Scytliian expedition has a cairn 
mised on the R. Atiscus, every soldier bringing a stone, Herod, 
4, 92* Each pilgrim contributes a stone towards building the 
ohufch» M. Kochj reise p. 422. J, Barringtion, Personal Sketches 

1 , 1 7-8, tells of an Irish custom : By an ancient custom of every- 
body throwing a stone on the spot where any celebrated murder 
had b*^en committed, on a certain drky every year, it is wonderful 
what mounds were raised in numerous places, which no person, 
but snch aa were familiar with the customs of the poor creatures, 
wouhl ever be able to account for. Slrtp.^ of cloth are hung on 
the sacred tree, F*Faber 2,410* 420; the passer-by throws a iwUj 
or a ftt^ on the atone, Dybeck 1845, p. 6» 4, 31 ; or tnUar 4, 35 ; 
the common folk also put peimies in the stone, 3, 29, and throw 
hftadf nwney and efffjshells into springs 1844, 22. si het ir 
opfergoldf« noch wol tftsent marc, si teilt ez siuer soole, ir vil 
lieben man, Nib, 1221, 2 (p. 913 n.). 

p. 57,] Herdsmen offer bloody victims, husbandmen fruit 9 of 
the earih^ D. Sag. 20. 21, ears left standing for Worlan (p. 154 
Beq.) I m bundle of /o^, WolPs Ndrl. sag, p. 269 ; for the littlo 
woodwife ^^ax-*/^m/f or a tiny hnt of stalks rf ßax^ Sclujnw. 2, 
860-9. /fheavea of »traw made for the gods, Garg, 129^', The 
Greeks offered nialhi and ear§^ Callim. 4, 283 ; hie placatus erat, 
seo qui» libavemt nimm, sen dederat sanctae spicea tterta comae, 
Tib. i. 10, 21 ; tender oak^leaveB in default of barley, Od. 12, 357. 
The Indians had grass-offerings, Kuhn rec. d. Rigv. p. 102, as the 
pixies received a bunch of grass or needles. Firstfrnits, 6aXv<Tia, 
lo Arterais, IL 9, 534. The flower -offering too is ancient, being 
one of the Indian five, viz. reading the Vedas, sprinkling water, 
burning butter, itremmg flowm^s and sprays, hospitality, Holtzm. 
3, 123. ITie Sanskr. ie#rx = reh*quiae, flores qui deo vol idolo oblati 
wmi, deinde alicai traduntur ; conf, the ilower-offering of Saras- 



vati, Somad. 1, 120-1, and 'Hallows an oflferiog to the clouds. 
Of kutaja the fairest blottsoms/ Megliadüta 4* For Greece, see 
Theocr. epi^rr. 1. The oil er in g to 'Yen as' is hlnome7i uüd 
vuigerliny Ksrchr. 3746. In Germany they danced round the first 
violet, p- 762, The people call a stone in the forest, three miles 
from Marburg, 'opfer-sboin/ and still lay flowern and corn upon it. 
A rock is crowned with flowers on Mayday, P^öhle^B Unterharz no. 
347. 263. The country folk on the Lippe, like those about the 
Meisuer, go into the Hollow Stone on Easter- day, Firm, 1, 334 ; 
they think of Veleda, as the Hessians do of Holda, The same 
day the Tillan:er8 of Waako, Landolfshausen and Mackenrode 
troop to the Schweckhauser hills, whei-e an idol formerly stood, 
Harrys i, no. 4. 

p. 59 n.] A€7ßov S' adavdrotfTt Seoh, Od. 2, 432. ohov eK-^eov, 
t;S* ctJ;^o»'To fleoi«, H. 3, 296. Before drinking, they poured some 
on the ground to the gods 7, 480 ; whereas the Scythians spilt 
no wifie (Lucian Toxar* 45)» and t!ie German heroes drank minne 
without spilling any, D. Sag. 236-7. poculis aureis memoriae de- 
functorum commilitonum vino viero lihanty Apnl. Met. 4 p.m. 131. 

p. 6L] St, John's and SL Gertrude*8 fninne ; later examples 
in Gödeke's Weim. Jb. 6, 28-9, and Scheller 2, 593. postca 
dominis amor S, Johannts ministretor, MB. 35% 138. pot urn 
earitaiiit propinare, Lacomblet 487 (jr. 1183). dar truoc man 
im sand Johanns min tie, Obtoc. 838'*. Johannes liehe, J, minne 
trinken, Weisth* 1, 562-4. trag una her Sirnt Juham^ min, Keller 
era. 32. si trinkent alsamt sant Hans min 34. In Belgium they 
said : ' Sinei Jans gehi ende Sind Gertroua miime sj met u ! ' 
Men pray to St. Gertrude for good lodging, Eschenb. denkm. p. 
240. In Wolkenstein 114, minue sand Johans means the parting 
kiss. A wife says at parting ; setz ttant Johans ze bürgen (surety) 
mir, daz wir froelich und schier (soon) zuo einander komen, 
Ls. 3, 313 ; conf. drinking the scheidel-kanne, Liintzel Hildsb. 
stifbsfehde 80. In ON. ' bad ]ni drecka rdfnrar rninnl sitt,' Egilss 
p. 213. People give each other Juhn^s hlmanufj at Christnias,d 
Weistb» 1, 241-3. The two Johns are confunnded, not only by" 
Liutpr. (Pertz 3, 363), but in the Lay of Heriger : Johannes 
baptista piVtcernti {cnpbearer), Lat. god. des MA. p. 336. 

p. 63.] On the shapes given to pastry, see p. 501 n. The forms 
or names of mter-fiade (-pancake), i>fadelai (patellata), usier- 



Btuüpka (-scooe), p. 781j furlwiz (Graflf 1, 1104)^ are worth 
badying, Güather 647 : * before this sacred ore thy image now 
"5ft brought^ retaiuds one of Voetius'a straw figure set bufore the 

The Camjing-ohout o/divitie image« was known to the ancients ; 
Syriam deam per vlcos agrosque circumferre, Lucian de dea Syria 
49. Lucius cap. 36. circumgestare deam^ ApuL p.m» 194—6. 
The Northmen of GuSbrandg-dalr carry Thorns image out of his 
house into the Thing, set it up, aud buw to it, St. Ohifs s., ed. 
Christ. 23-6. The men of Delbrück carried about a Jahe god 
Uilgerii) on a long pole, Weisth. 3, 101 n. M-iy Ulrich of Lich- 
tenstein's progress as Dame Venm be explained as a custom 
dating from the time of heathen progresses ? That also waa 
'at Pentecost/ from April 25 to May 26, 1227; Wliifcsunday 
fell on May 30. 

Here ought to be mentioned the sacred festivals^ whose names 
aad dates are discussed in D. Sag. 71-2. ' Festa ea Germania noic 
(it was aideribus iulustris, i.e. ilinni8, new-mooD)j et solemnibus 
epulis ludicra/ Tac. Ann, 1, 50; conf. Germ. 24, where the 
aword-dance is called ludicriuii. Beside feasting and games, it 
was a part of the festival to bathe the goddesses, p. 255. 



p, 67.] For names compounded wJth ulahf see Förstemann, 
Halaze^-ntat in Ratenzgowe (Hallstadt by Bamberg), MB. 28, 98 
(jr. 889} seems a misreading for if a /a /ie^-s tat; and Halazzes-stat 
28, 192 (yr. 923) for Halahhea-stat. For the chap, in Baluze 1, 
755 has ZTa/ao^-stat, where Pertz 3, 133 has again Halaz-stat, 
bot Bened. more correctly j4if«(/a-stat. But even Pertz 3, 302 
lias Halax-stat. Dare we bring in the AS. ealgian (tueri) and 
the Lat. arcere, arx ? D. Sag. 319. Pictet in Origines 1, 227 
eotuiecta alhs with San skr. alka. What means * alle g aasen und 
alken* in the Limbg. chron. p,m, 5? With the Alcis in Tacitus 
eonf« the Scythian KopaKoi^ (fyiXioL Saifioue^^ Orestes and Py lades, 
Locian'a Toxar. 7. D, Sag. 118. 



AS. weoh, templumj weoh ges^hte, Cod. Exon. 244, 6. Donors- 
we in Oldenbörg seems to tneiin D/a teinple ; antl Escli-ii^fv/a ill 
Hesse may be a cornip* of Esuh-weh, though ace, to Försfcem 2, 
111 it was already in tlie 10th cent. Eskine-wag, -weg j conf. 
Wodenes-wege, p* lo2 and OSiiis-ve, p. 159. Even in OHG. we 
find we for wih: za themo we (ah parawe) ploazit, Gl. Ker. 27, 
Id on. Vandils-re, Stem. 166"". Fms-v»', Dipl. Suecan. no. 1777; 
Götti-^fjf (Göte-vi) 1776. Ifc is said of the gods r valda venm, 
Saena. 41^ SkaSi says: fi4 tninom veom oc vöngorn., 67\ VaU 
hallar til, ok vt^» heilags 113* ; does vess belong to ve, or stand 
for vers ? In Saam. 23** (F. Magn. p. 255 n.) ' aUa ve iarlSai'/ 
populomm babitaculnm, is opp. to vive — ütgarSa, gigantam 
habi taenia. The Goth, veih»^ sacer^ OHG. wili^ is wanting in OS., 
A S.J and ON. Cote-m/t, nomeo monasterii (Pertz 7, 460), is 
afterw. Güttweih j eonf. Ketweig, Beham 335, 31. Chetewic in 
Gerbert (Dif^mer's Pr^ef. xxi,). 

p. 68 n.] Ara — äsa, ansa, is a god's seat^ as the Goth, hadiy 
OHG. 2>p''tj AS. hed mean both ara and faniini, D. S^g. p. 115. 
ieotf-gereordu (n, pi.), epulae, Csedm. 91,27» ad apicem gemeinen 
gnnhet, MB. 29% 143 (yr. 1059), gumpetie, Hess. Ztschr. 3, 70 ; 
conf. Gombetten in Hesse* Does the OHG. tbansllhli (Graff 6, 
789) mean nra or area? O, Slav, knmir, ara, idoliim ; conf. Finn, 
kumarran, adoro, incliuo me* On other Tent, words for altar, 
such as ON. stalli and the plur. hörgar, see D. Sag. 114-5. 

p. 69.] OHG. hftruc seems preserved in Harahes-heimj Cod. 
Lauresh. 3, 187, and in Hargenstein, Panzer's Beitr. 1,1; eonf. 
Hercifnim, AS. Besinga-/imr/*, Kerable no. 994, ON. hätim* 
bro'Sora hörgi roeSr, Sfem. 42*. hof miin ek kiosa, ok hioga 
marga 141", Thors-arghf -aerg, -harg^ now Thors- hiilla, Hildebr» 
iii, D. Sag. 115. The hof sometimes coupled with horgr occurs 
even in MIIG, iu the sense of temple, teniple-yard : ze h^fe geben 
(in alrium templi). Mar. 168, 42. ze hove giengen (atrium) 169, 
80. den hof rumen (temple) 172, 5; coof. ON. hoßand, temple- 
land, Munch om Skiringssal 106-7. D. Sag. 110-7. Likewise 
garte, ithi, pL {ihur^ wiesG, aiie {p. 225) are used for holy places, 
Gr. aX<jo9. 

p. 69,] OHG. 2'^fö, AS. b^aro, are supported by IdpariJa — 
nemorosa, which Graff 3, 151 assoc. with kiparida; by AS. 
hearewadf saltüs, Haupt's Ztöchr. 9, 454**, and 'bearo sette, weobedd 




irorhte/ CieJin. 172, 7. Lactantiiis'a ' antistes nemomm, laoi 
saoerdofl' is rendered * bearwes bigenga, wnduhtmrwtu^ weard ^ 
207, 27. 208, 7* Namea of places ; Parawa, Neugart, Cod. dipl. 
DO. aO (jr- 7Ü0) ; BarwUhsijmel, Müllenh. Nordalb* stud. 1, 138; 
ON. Barey^ The» OHG. za theitio part r we, Diut, 1, löO is glossed 
on tlie margin by ' to dome lioen althere, to demo sideu akhere/ 
Gofilarer bergg. 343, 

p. 69 Q*] OUG. lunr, specus, cubile, delubrum, Gmff 2, 129. 
in iuakirum, delabris, Diut. 1, 5cl0*. Uk, lucus, Graif 2, 128. la 
Kudoirs Weltchr. occurs betelochf luciis, pi. beteloecher. Notker'a 
Cap. 143 distinguishes the kinds of woods as wahhn, forsten^ 
token. The Vocab. optim. p. 47* has: silva wilder wait, nemua 
scboeDer wak, lucus dicker wait, saltus hoher wait. Mommsen, 
Uaterttal. dial. 141, derives lucu/f from luere, hallow. There are 
huriis named after divine beings : Frechmhorst, Olvekatih^^ntt 
(ooof. FVecka»tein, Oivehansten, ok )>ar stendr enn Tkorsteinn, 
Landn, ii, 12). It cornea of forest-worship that the gods are at- 
teadad by wild beasts^ Wuotan by wolf and raven, Froho by a boar. 

pu 69,] Worshipping in the still and shady ^ivjijo was practised 
by many nations. * Thou hast scattered thy ways to the strangeiis 
ander every (jreen tree' complains Jeremiah 3, 13. kXvtov 
aKffP^ tpov ^A0tivaif}% Od. 6, 321. iv aXaei Bevoptjevji ^oißov 
AttoW^vo^ 9, 200. äXaea Tlepat^ovaiT}^ 10, 509. aXtro^ vfro 
ateupGV ktcaTtißoXov AitqWxovo^ 20, 278. Athenaeus 4, 371-2, 
oelebmtes the cool of the sacred grove, inhorrnit atrun^ majestate 
ig#n»tif» Claudian in Fr. et Olybr. 125 (on nemus, see p. 048), in 
too l^cft ^/ano, Plaut. Aulul, iv, 2, 8. luetis »aeer^ ubi Hesperi- 
datn borti, Pliny 5, 5. itur in anttquam »ihain, stabuln' a//fi 
/warum, ^n. 6, 179. nunc et in umbroaU Fauuo decet iramoliire 
bms, Hor. Od. i. 4, 1 L nee magis auro fulgentia atque ebore, 
quam tueog et in iia sUentia ipsa adoramiis, Pliny 12, 1, pro- 
oefltas silvae et secretum loci et admiratio umbrae Hdem numiuis 
&ctt, Seneca ep. 41. As the wood is apen above, a A^fe is left in 
the top of a temple, conf . the Greek hypeethral temples: Terminus 
qno loco colebatur, super enmforavicu patebai in tecti/,qüod nefas 
•109 ptttarent Terminum intra tectum conststere, Festus sub v, ; 
eonf* Or. Fasti 2, 071. Servius in yEn. 9, 448. The Celts «n- 
r^tifeä their temples once a year (äiroiTTeyd^.), Strabo 4, p. 198, 
A groT© in Sarmatia was called aKi€v^a Seov, piscatura dei, PtoK 

f Ot» IT* O 



3, 5* The Abasgi in the Caucasus veoeratrcd groves and woods 
(aXarj xal vXa^), and counted trees among their gods, Procop. 2, 
471 ; cöut\ the prophetic rustle of the cypresses in Armenia (p. 
1110)* Even in the Latiu poems of the MA- we find : Amoris nenuis 
ParadisuSj Carm. bar. 1G2. circa silvae medium locus est occultns, 
ubi viget maxi me suus deo caltoa 1(33. In Eck hart 186, 32 the 
Samaritan woman says, ' our fathers worshipped under the trees 
on the mountain/ In Traj. kr. 890 : si wolden gerue husen ze 
walde üf lüildeit rluten. Walther v. Hh, 64-^ ; in einen schoeneu 
griienen wait, dar diu heidensche diel mit ir abgöten geriet (ruled?)* 
In stories of the DevU, he appears in the foreat gloom, e.g. Ls. 3, 
256, perhaps because men still thought of the old gods as living 
there. Observe too the relation of homo-sprites aud wood-wives 
to trees, p. 509. 

Worshipping on mountains is old aud widely spread; coof. &s, 
ans (p, 25), and the VVuotans-^er^*, Donners-Wr/^f, Three days 
and nights the Devil ia invoked on a mountain, Miiilenh. no. 227, 
Mountain worship is Biblical: 'on this mouutaiu (Gerizim)/ 
John 4-j 20; see Raumer^a Palest, p. 113. 

p. 73.] Like the Donar's oak of Geismar is a large holti oak, 
said to have stood near Miiltmusen in Thuriugia; of its wood was 
made a chest, still shown in the chtirch of Eichenried village, 
Grasshof's Mülh. p. 10. 

p. 7 k] On ihegaUwn, see Hpt's Ztschr. 9, 192, and Wilmans' 
essay, Miinat. 1857. summnm et priucipem omu, deorum, qui 
apnd gentes ihegalon nuncupatnr, Wilkens biogr. of St, Gerburgis; 
conf. Wigand's arch. 2, 206. tarfaton discussed in Hitter's christl. 
phiL 3, 308. It is Socrates's SaipLopiov, Plato^s to dyaÖoVt the 
same in Apul. apolog. p. m. 278. Can iheijatho bo for theodoj as 
Tehota is for Thinda ? Förstern, 1, 1 148. 

p. 75.] The hohj wood by Hagenau is named in Chmel reg. 
Ruperti 1071, D. Sag. «7. froiiwald, Weisth. 1, 423. On the 
word bannwald conf. Lanz. 731 : diu tier (heasts) bannen. 
Among holy groves was doubtless the FrUleivahJ, aud perh. the 
Siness, both in Hesse, Ztschr. f. Hess, gesch. 2, 163. Frldeifimh, 
Kemble no. 187. 285; Oswudu 1, 69 is a man^s name, but must 
have been that of a place first. The divine grove Glaslr with 
golden foliage, Sn. 130, stands outside ValhöU ; Seem. 140** says 
Hiörvar5's abode was named GlaaU lundr. 


p. 75.] The adoration of the oak is proved by Velbhem^a Sp. 
hisfc, 4, 57 (ed. Le Long, fol. 287) : Van ere etjken, die men 

In (lesen tiden was gan ginge mede 
tusschen Zichgen ende Die«t ter stedo 
rechte bi-na te- midden werde^ 
daer dede menich ere bedeverde 
tot ere eyken (dat si n cont), 
die aUe eeii crxise gewaftsen sttmt, 
met twee rajen gaende ufc, 
daer menich quam overluut, 
die daer-ane htnc scerpe ende sfaf^ 
en seide, dat hi genesen xaer daer-af» 
Som liepense onder den bom, etc. 

Here ia a Christian pilgrimage of sick people to a cross-shaped 
tree between Sicken and Diesfc in Brabant, and the hanging 
thereon of bandage and staff upon recovery, as at p. 11G7. 1179 ; 
conf. the heathen osclila (p. 78). The date can be ascertained 
from Le Long's Velthem. 

p. 77.] * Deos nemora incoloro persuasiim habent (Samogitae) 
. , . • credebat deos intra arhm-en et cortices latere^ says Lasicz, 
Hpt's Ztschr, 1, 138, The Ostiaks have holy wooda^ Klemm 3, 121. 
The Finnic 'Tharapita' should be Tharapila, Castrcn 215 tbinka 
-pÜÄ is Itild, but Kenvall says i karapU la = horned owl, Esth. tc^r- 
ropil, VerhandL 2, 92, Juslen 284 has pöllö bubo, and 373 
apöUö bubo. With this, and the ON. bird in Glasis lundr, 
IToof. a ctirioQS statement in Pliny 10,47 : in Hercfjnlo Germaniaa 
salin iuviäitata genera alitum accepimus, qaarum phtjiute Ifjniwm 
modo eolluceant noctibns ; conf. Stephanas Stoflief. 116, 

p. 78 n.] Oscilla are usa. don>!, poppets, OHG. tocchun, Graff 
5» 865, They might even be cru/cAejf hung up on the holy tree 
bj the healed (SuppL to 75). But the prop, meaning mnst be 
iiQages. On church walU also were hung offerings, votive gifts^ 
rarities ; si hiezen din weppe hdhen in die kirchtn ait difj jniire, 
Servat. 2890. 

p, 79,] A Celiie grove descr. in Lucan's Phars. 3, 399; a 
JfoTße temple in Eyrbyggja-s. c. 4. 

p. 80.] Giefera (Erh. u. Rosenkr. Ztschr. f. gesch. 8, 261— 



285} suppoees that tlie Umplum Taufanae belonged at once to tbe 
Cherusci, Chatti and Marsi ; tbab Taufana may come from tanfo, 
trunciis {?), and be the name of a grove occupying the site of 
Eresbuvff, now Oher-Marsherg ; that one of its trunci, which haJ 
escaped destruction by the Romans (solo aequare he makes burn- 
ing of the grove), was the Irmennnl, which stood on the Osning 
between Castrum Eresburg and the Carls-schanze on the Bruns- 
berg, some 4 or 5 leagues from Marsberg, and a few leagues 
from the Ball^^^r-borK by Alteubeke, the spring that rose by 
miracle, Ü. Sag. 118, 

p. 80.] To the isanio-dofi in the Jura corresp. Trajan's Iron 
Gate, Turk. Demir kapa^ in a pass of Dacia. Another Temir kapa 
in Cilicia, Koch Anabas. 32. Müller lex. Sal. p. »iG. Ckusura is 
a ntkrrow pass, like OepfLOTryXm, or irvXai aloue ; conf. Schott's 
Deutschen in Piemont p. 229. 

p. 80.] As en strum whb used for teinplum, so is the Boh. 
koMtel, Pol. hoidd for church. Conirersely, ismplum seem« at 
times to mean palatiuin; couf. ^exustiim est palaiimn in Thorn- 
burg' with *exustum est famosiim iempbun in Thoroburg,^ Pertz 
5p 62-3, also 'Thornburg eastellum et palafium Ottonis ' 5, 755, 
The OS* raknd is both templum and palatiiim. Beside 'casulae' 
= fana, we hear of a cella anlefana (ante faua?), Mone Anz. 6, 

p. 85.] Veniens (Ohrocug Alamaun. rex) Arvernos, dehihrum 
illud quod GalHca Wn^xt^vassogalaie vocant, diruifc abque subvertit; 
iniro eoiin opere factum fuit, Greg. Tur. I, 82. The statement is 
important, as proving a difference of religion between Celts and 
(jernmiis: Ciirocus would not destroy a building sacred to his 
own religion. Or was it, so early as that, a chrtstiau temple? 
conf. cap. 39. 

p. 85.] Expressions for a built temple: ' hof M\ hann t 
t^uiiiu, s^v pess tm}i vierkl^ \%i er nu kallat irollüakeiÖ/ Laxd. 6(5. 
»al^ Graff sub v, ; der sal, Diemer 326, 7. AS. reced, OS. raJcud^ 
seems conn, witli racha, usu. = res, caussa, but ' zimhoron thia 
racha,' 0. 17. 19, 38; conf, wih and wiht. Later words: pluoz- 
Auir, Woz-Amjt, Graff 4, 1053. abgot-husAanum 1054. The Lausitz 
Mag. 7, 166 derives chirihhdt AS. cyrice, from circus. 0. SI. 
<zer %, Dobr. 178j Croat* czirhva, CaraioL zirkva^ Serv. izrkva^ 
0. Boh. cjerkeWj PoL eet-kiew (conf, Gramm, 3, 156. Pref. to 





Scholtze XI. Graff 4, 481 ), The Banctiiary^ ON. grläastad'r, is not 
to be trodden, Fornm. sog* 4, 186 j beast nor man might there be 
harmed^ no iutercoiirse should men with w<rmmi have (eugi vilSskiptL 
skjldu karlar viS konar ega J^ar^^ Fornald. sog, 2^ 63. 

p. 86.] Heathen places of worsbip, even after the conversion, 
were still royal manors or sees and other benefices endowed with 
the estate of the old temple, like FlerbeJe on the Ruhr, which 
belonged to Kaufungen, D. Sag. 589, Mannh. Ztschr. 3, 147, 
Many manors (also glthe-hiivh ace. to the AVeisthömer) had to 
maintain 'eisernes vieh, fasel-vieh^' bulls for breeding (p. 93). 
lu Christian as in heathen times, holy places were revealed by 
sij^os and wonders. A red-hot harrow is let down from heaven 
(Sommer), like the Imrnintj -plomjh in the Scyth. tale (Herod, 4, 
b), D* Sag. 58*9. Legends about the boitdiug of churches often 
ha^e the incident, that, on the destined spot in the wood, UghfH 
wer© seen at night, so arranged as to show the ground plan of the 
fotore edifice. They appear to a suh ulcus in the story of Gander^' 
heim^ Pertz 6, 309-10 ; to another, Frickio by name, in the story 
of Freekenhornt^ where St. Peter as carpenter designs the figure 
of the holy house, Dorow. i, 1, 32-3; couf. the story at p. 54 and 
that of Wetfßohrunn, MB. 7, 372. FaUin^ snow indicates the 
?pot, Mullenh. 113; couf. Hille-snee, Holda's snow, p. 268n. 304-. 
Where tlje falron stuopj^, a convent is built, Wigaud's Corv. 
giiterb. 105* The spot is suggested by cows in a Swed. story, 
Wieselgren 408 j by reding ajirimabt iu a beautiful AS. one, 
Kemblono. 581 (yr 074). 

p. 87,] On almost all our German mountains are to be seen 
fcohnarks of gods and heroes, indicating places of aucieut worship, 
e.^, of Brunhild on the Taunus, of Gibich and Dietrich on the 
Uartx. The AUerhatenberg in Hesse, the 'graadfather-hills ' 
elsewhere, are worth noting. 



p. 88.] Religion is iu Greek edtrißeia and ffprjafcela (conf, dpff- 
atc€v^p p. 107). Kar €v(ri߀iav = piej Lucian 5, 277. Rt!itjio = 
iurrata lectio, conf. iatelligere, Lobeck's Rhematicon p. 6a* It 



is rendered iu OHG. glosses bj hnt, Hattemer 1, 423; gote-deJiH 
devotio, cote-dehtigi devout, anadaht intentio, attention Graff 5, 
163. Pietas, peculiarly, by * Jieim-ynlnna unde inthj^mlmia/ Hatt. 

I, 423. CrödittcheU, Servat. 762, is slmm-piety, conf, p* 35 n. 

* Dia fretus' in Plant* Cas. 2, 5 = Gofce foralatac, O. i. 15, 3. 

p. 86»] Gndjat (joS'l, seems to be preserved in fcbe AS, proper 
name Ooda, Kemble 1, 242. For ap')(t€pev<:f Dlph, has auhumistfi 
tjudja, Matt, 27, 62. Mk. 8, 31 ; but auhumiats veiha, Job, 18j 13. 
The priest hallows and is liallowed (p, 93), conf. the consecration 
and baptism of witches. Gondul consecrates: nu vigi ek pih 
nndir oil )>aa atkvae^i ok skildaga, sem OSinn fyrimaelti, Fornald. 
sog. 1, 402. The words in Lactant. Phoenix, 'antistes neroornm, i 
ktci veneranda sacerdos,' are rendered by the AS. poet : bearwea 
bigenga^ wudubearwes weard 207, 27, 208, 7, The priest stands 
before God, evavTL rov ßeov, Luke 1, 8: giangi furi Got, 0. i, 4, 

II. The monks form 'daz Gutes her,* army, Reinh. F. 1023, 
The Zendic ätkrava^ priest, Bopp Comp. Gram. 42. Spiegel'»! 
Avesta 2, vi. means fire-server, from atara fire. Dat. athre. Pol. 
»TAadz priest, prop, prince or sacrificer, Linde 2, 1 1 64'* \ conf. 
Sansk, xi govern, kill, xaja dominans. 

p. 89.] Etvart priest: ein etoart der abgote, BarL 200, 22. 
Pass. 329, 56, etc. ewarde, En. 244, 14, prßstor und ir ewe 
mesier 243, 20. 

p. 89 n.] Zacharias is a /mod gomo, Hel, 2, 24. Oar kluger 
mann, khtge fmu, still signify one acquainted with secret powers JH 
of nature; so the Swed. 'de klokar/ Fries udfl. 108. The phrase " 

* der gtiote mmi^ denotes espec. a sacred calling: that of a priest, 
Marienleg. GO, 40, a bishop, Pass. 336j 78, a pilgrim, Uolr 91. 
Nuns are gttote froivcn^ Eracl. 735. kldster nnd giwte liuie, 
Nib. iOOl, 2, etc. die goede man, the hermit in Lane. 4153-71. 
16911*8, etc. So the Scot. ' gudemau's croft' above; but the 
name GutmanS'hau^eu was once W6tenes*hüsen (Stippl. to 154). 
BonS'hommea are heretics, the Matiichseans condemned at the 
Council of Cambery 1165; buonuomtni^ Macchiav. Flor, 1, 97. 
158. The shepherds in 0. i. 12, 17 are guoie man. EogL good- 
fnan is both householder and our biedermann. Gr6a is addressed 
aa g69 kona, Seem. 97*; in conjuring: Alrün, du vil guote (p, 
1202 n,) 

p. 89.] Christian also, though of Germ, origio, seems the 



OHG, heit'haß sacerdos, from heit = ordo; hence^ in ordinem 
sacmm receptus, MHG. lieithafte liute, sacerdotes, Fandgr. 1, 
94 ; coQf. eiiha/f^ herrea, Ksrchr, 1 1 895. AS. gepungen, reverend, 
and espec. religiosuSj HomiK p. 34 i. 

p. 90,] Agathias 2, 6 expressly attributes to tbe heathen Ala- 
manns of the 6th cent, divmerg (/irivreiv aud '^(pTjü'^oXoyoi^) , who 
dissuade from battle; and princes in the Mid, Ages still take 
clergymen into the field with them as counsellors : abbates pii, 
scioli bene consiliarii, Rudi. 2, 253. Ordeala are placed under 
priestly authority, Saem. 237-8* In the popular assembly the 
priests enjoin silence and attention: silentiutn per mcerdoie», qui- 
bas turn et coercendt jus est, imperatnr» Clerm, 11. In addition 
to what is coll. in Haupt's Ztschr. 9^ 127 on 'lust and unhist/ 
consider the tacituA preeari of the Umbr. spell, and the opening 
of the Fastnachts-spiele, 

p. 91 .] The Goth, propjan^ itftprnpjan transl. /imi^ initiare, and 
yv^yd^etv, exere^re GDS. 819; may it not refer to some sacred 
fonctioQ of heathen priests, and be connected with the Gallic 
druid (p. 1036 n.), or i-ather with ßniär (p. 423)? Was heiinc 
said of priests and priestesses ? conf. ' heilac huat/ cydaris, Graft' 
4, 874; Heilacfiat, Cod, Lauresh. I, 578; Heilacbrunno, p. 587; 
Heiligbär, p. 667-8. Priests take port in the sacrificial feast, they 
consecrate the cauldron : sentu at Saxa Sunnraanna gram, hann 
kann helga hver vellauda^ Sflöm. 238*; so Peter was head-cook 
of lieaven, Iiat. ged, des MA, p, 336. 344. Priests maintain the 
MOered beasU, horses and boars, Herv*-8. cap. 14; conf. RA. 592. 
Ill beating the bounds they seem to have gone before and pointed 
oat the sacred stones, as the chiireh wardens did afterwards ; they 
rode especially round old churches, in whose vaults an idol was 
soppoeed to lie* Priests know the art of quickening the dead, 
Holt^iD. 8, 145. They have also the gifts of healing and divina- 
tion: larpofiavrt^, vEsch. Suppl. 263, 

p, 91.] In many Aryan nations the priestly garment is wldte, 
Qtweotm augur pallio Candida velatus, umber et Romanus trabea 
pitrpiirea amictos, Grotef- inscr* Umbr. 6^ 13. Roman priests 
and magistrates have white robes ; see the picture of the flamen 

* Tb© M^rrtj loterpretB dream», cntrftile, flight a of birds, but k no speÄlcer ol 
«esdas, xF^t^^h^^^ Vvk^m. i. 34, 3, [Id Pluto's TimojUB 72 13, ;*dxrti (fr. ^jiaij'o^uot) 
to ltk0 iaftpir«>d trpeaker of oraclea.] 



dialis in Härtung 1, 193. Scliwenck 27; amictua veste alhii 
Bevir et praetx^r, Petroa. 65. The Cimbrian priestesses in Strabo 
are Xetr^^eißovef; (p. 55-6) j and tbe Gothic priests in Joro. cap, 10 
appear in candidis vestibos. The Gallic dm ids are arrayed in 
wfnie (p. 1206), the priest of Gerovit in mtow-ivhiie, Sefridi v. 
OttoniB p. 128 (Giesebr. Wend, gesch, 1, 90). In the Mid, Ages 
too white robes belong to holy women, nuns, die goede man met 
wüten clederen, Lane. 226G2-70. 

The Gothic pilcatt (Kl. sclir. 3, 227. GDS. 124) remind m of 
tbe ^ tria genera pileoniMf quibus sacerdotes utuntur : ape^r., ttttft' 
tu8t galerus* in Suetonii fragm. p. m. 335. The picture of a 
bearded man in Stalin 1» 161*2^ is perbaps meant for a priest. 
The shaven hair of Christian and Buddhieit monks and nuns is 
probably a badge of servitude to God ; GDS. 822. 

p. 91.] Snorri go^i, like the AS. coifi, rides on a mare, 
Ejrbygg. a. 84 ; and the flamen diaha must not mount any kind 
of horse, Klausen /En. 1077. Hartimg 1^ 19i. Possibly even 
the heathen priests were not allowed to eat things with blood, 
but only herbs. Trcvrizent digs up roots, and hangs them on 
bushes, Parz. 485, 21 ; in a similar way do Wilhelm the saint and 
Waltharius eke out their Uves^ Lat. ged. d. MA. p, 112, 

p. 92.] Among gestui-es traceable to priestly rites, I reckon 
especially this, that in tho vindicatio of a beast the man had to lift 
op his right hand or lay it on, while his left grasped the animal's 
right ear. The post a re at hammer-throwing seems to be an- 
other case in point, RA. 65-6. GDS. 124-5. Kemblo 1, 278 

thinks colfi is the AS. ceofa, diaconus* 

p. Oil] Christian priests also are called ' God's man, child, 
kneht, scale, deo, diu, wine, trut/ or ^ dear to God/ conf. Mann- 
bardt in Wolfs Ztschr. 3, 143, Gotes man (Snppl. to p. 20-1). 
Gotes fcüii = priest, Greg. 1355. Reinh* 714; or = pilgrim, as 
opp- to welt-kind (worldling), Triat. 2625. der edle Gotes kneht, 
said of Zacharias and John, Pass, 346, 24. 349, 23. 60; of the 
pilgrim, Trist, 2638. Gotes riter, Greg* 1362. ein wärer Goti» 
scale, ICsrchr. 6071. OHG. Sota-de<;, Gotes-iit^o, fern, -din {conf. 
etile De, cukkf servant of God, Ir. sag. 2, 476). der Gotes intt, 
Pass. 350, 91. Among the Greek priests were dj^^deoi^ Lucian 
dea Syr. 31 ; conf. the couiicii deoram, Tac. Germ. 10. Ampbi- 
araus is beloved of Zeus and Apollo, i.e. he is ^dyri^. On his 





dt!ath Apollo appoints another of tlie same family, Od. lo, 245, 

p. 93.] If priesthood could he hereditary, the Norse goJSi 
mast have been free to marry, like the episcopus and diacotias of 
the early ChriBtiana (1 Tim, 3, 2. 12) and the Hindu Brahmio. 
Not so the Pruss, waUilU or waitlltr, Nesselm. p. xv. aüd p. 141 ♦ 
To appoint to the priesthood is ia ON. sujna goffonif or fje/a, 
tlioQgh the latter seems not always to imply the priestly ollice : 
|»eir Toro gumnar ^oJum signaJirf Seem. 117*". gefimi 05oi, 
Fomm. s«jg, 2, 16S, euii gaf haiin (Braodr) gutTunntHt ok var 
hanti kallaSr Guf-hranar, Fornald. sog. 2, 6; his son ia GuS* 
mnodr, and his son again Gu^Jljraudr (=0H6. Gota-bemht) 2, 7. 
Does this account for divuiatmi being also hereditary (p. 1107) ? 

p. 93*] The god had part of the spoils of war and huntiog 
(p. 42), priest and temple were paid their dnes^ whence tithes 
arose : hof-iollr is the io]l dne to a tempie, Fortim. s* 1, 260. On 
priestly dwelliogs see GDS* 125, 

p. 94.] German divination seems to have been in request 
even at Rome: harospex ex Germania missus (Domitiano)i Suet. 
Domit, IG. Soothsayers, whom the people consulted in particular 
eases even after the conversion, were a remnant of heathen priests 
aod priestesses. The Lex Visig. vi, 2, 1 : ' arioios, armtpiceg, 
vaiir:inanU8 consulere/ and b : ' execrabiles diviuurttm pronun~ 
tiaiionm intendere, salutis aut aegritndinis responsa poscere.' 
Liutpr. 6, 30 : ' ad arijoit vel arlolas pro responsis accipiendis 
ambnlare/ and 31 : 'in loco ubi arloli vel ariolae fnerint.' 

The ON, spd^nuiÖ'r is called rdO'-Hpakr, Ssom. 175% or fram-viss 
like the prophet Grlpir 172V l7o\ ]>iifram um «er 1 75**\ farit 
er |>az ek forvxHAuc 175^- |Wi ölt um »er orlog for 176*\ Gripir 
Ijgr eiyi 177**, Gevarns rex, divlnandi doctissimus, iudustria 
pruwaghrum excultus, Saxo Gram. p. 115, {conf. p. 1034. 
1100). The notion of oraculum (what is asked and obtained of 
the gfods), vaticinium, divinatio, is expr. by ON. frett : frettlr 
tog^a, Saem. 93'. frStia beiddi, oraeuk poposci 94*. geek til 
freiiart Yngl. 21 (Grk, x^aaBai^ ni öe^, inquire of the god). 
CquC frßhtan, Suppl. to p. 37; OHG, frehi meritumj Jrehtic 
tnentus, sacer; AS. fyrht in Leg. Cnnuti, Thorpe p, 162. 

p, 95-] German women seem to Imve taken part in sacrifices 
(p. 5Gti,); women perform sacrifice befuro the army uf the Thracian 



Spartacus (b.c. 67), who had Germans under him^ Plutarch Cr 
c. 11. The Romans exclutled women, so do the Chereraisses, p. 
1235-6, the Lapps and the Boriats^ Klemin 3, 87. 111-3. 

p, 95-6.] A druias GalUcaoa vatirinam^ is mentioned by Vopis* 
ens in AureL 44, in Numer. 13-4; by Lrampridins in Alex. Sev. 
60. Drnsus is met by a apceies harlHirae mnlienii hum ana amplior, 
Suet. Claud, c. 1. Dio Cass. 55, 1. Chatta wuHer iHiflcimtns Suet. 
Vitel. c. 14. Veleda receives gifts: Mumiua Lupercus inter dona 
missus Veledae, Tac. Hist. 4, 61. A modern folktale brings her 
in as a goddess, Firmenich 1, 334-5, On Albrnna conf. Hpt^i 
Ztschr. 9j 240. Of Jeliha it is told in the Palatinate, that she 
sought out and hewed a stone in the wood ; whoever sets foot on 
the fairy stone, becomes a fixture, he cannot get away, Nadler p. 
125» 292, Like Pallas, she is a founder of cities. Bryuhild, like 
Veleda, has her hall on a mottntain, and sits in her tower ^ Vols, s, 
cap. 25. Hother visits prophetesses in the waste wood, and then 
enlightens the folk in edlto vioiiHs vertim, Saxo Gram. p. 122. 
The wkiU ladij of princely houses appears on a tower of the castle. 
The witie Durte lives in the toiuer, MuUenh. p. 314. When mis- 
fortune threatens the Pedaseaiis, their priestess gets a long beard, 
Herod. 1, 175. 8, 104» Women carve and read ranes : Kostbera 
knnni /ikit rftna, Siera. 252"*, ra^i riina 2b2^\ Orn^ reid ritnar k 
kefli, Forum, s. 3, 109. 110 (she was born dumb, p. 388). In 
the Mid, Ages also women are particularly clever at writing and 
reading. RA. 583. 

p. 98.] To the Norse prophetesses add Qroa volva, Sn. 110, 
and Gondul, a valkyr, Fomald. s. 1^ 308. 402, named appar, from 
gandr, p. 1054. 420. Thorgerür and Irpa are called botli hörga- 
bril&rf temple-maid, aud Hohia-brüdr after their father Holgi, 
p. 114. 637, A Slav pythonissa carries her sieve in front of the 
army, p. 1 111-2 j others in Saxo Gram. 827; conf. O. Prnss. 
waidlinue, Nesselm, pref. 15. 


p . 1 04 n . ] The Goth, ma n le i ka , H G , m a n n alt It h o (conf. mSpui ^ ] 
fr, dnjp man), lasts in MHG. weh sine tnanlichj Fandgr. 2, 123, . 


^1 s 

guldta manlichj Servat 2581. 
Btands, Notizenbl. 6, 1 68. 

p. 105.] Though Tacitug mentions no iraag^e in human shape, 
but only signa aod formae {f^ßtjieftqao et i^iijna quaodam detracta 
luHg ID proelinm ferant, Germ. 7, oonf. vargr häagir fyr vestan djrr, 
ok drftpir ijrn yfir, Soetn. 41^') ; — ^yet the expression' jrwwenipsum, 
81 credere veils/ used of the divine Mother in her bath, cap. 40, 
does seem to point to a statue. 

p. 106.] In the oldest time fetishes — stones and logs^ — are 
regarded as gods^ images, Gerh. Metron. p. 20. Gr. to ßpiraf; in 
Itie Tragic poets is a god's image of wood (conf. el/ctifv), though 
nfey 1, 511 says 'of clay;' ^oavor, prop, graven image fr. few 

scrape, often means a small image worn on the person, e.g. the 
Cleo in Paus, iii, 14, 4; ayaXfia, orig. ornament, then statue ; 
^Siop, liter, little-animal 15, 8. Statues were made of parliciilar 
kinds of wood» ^oauov ayvov, of the vitex agnua-casNis 14^ 7 
(conf. ramos de vohilisglmo ay no cnsto, Evag. Fel. Fabri 1, 156-7), 
ms rosaries of mistletoe were preferred, cum paupere culta stabat 
in exigua lUpieus aede deus, Tib. i. 10, 20, Irish dealbh, deilbh, 
deilhhin^ deilbhogj imago, statu a, ligora. Beside the Boh. modla, 
idolum (fr. model ? or fr. modliti, to pray ?), we find balwan, block, 
log, idol, Pol. biilucaiif Miklos. bal*van\ Wall, balavanv^ big stone 
(p. 105 n.), which Garnett, Proceed, 1^148, connects with Armoric 
'peulvan, a long stone erected, a rough unwroughfc cohimn.' 
OHG. avara (p. 115-6) stands for imago, statua, pyramis (irman- 
sftl), pyr», ignis, Graff 1, 181 ; conf, Oriacheg'twtfra (p. 2^7) ; OS. 
avaro fiJius, proles, AS. eafora. The idea of idoltim is never 
clearly defined in the Mid. Ages: the anti-pope Burdinus (a.b. 
1118-9) is called so, Pertz 8, 254-5. Even Beda's *{dolh eervire' 
2, 9 is doubtful, when set by the side of 'daemonicis cultibus 
aervire * 2, 5. 

p. 107.] On Athanaric's worship of idols, conf, Waitss*» Ulfila 
p, 43. 62. Claudian de B. Getico 528 makes even Aluric (a.t>. 402) 
exclaim : Non its di Getici faxint manesque parenhim I Compare 
the gods' waggon with sacer currm in Tac. Germ, 10 and Suppl. 
to 828-9 below. Chariots of metal have been found in tombs, 
Lisch Meckl. jb. 9, 373-4. 11, 373. 

p. 108.] That the Franks in Ciovls's time had images of gods, 
is proved furtiier by Remigius's epitaph on him: Con tern pE^it ere- 


dere mille Numina, quae variU horrent portenta ßjuris. On tt 
other hand, Gregory of Tours's account (1, 34) of the Alamann 
king Chrocas in the 3rd century compelling St. Privatus in Gaul 
to sacrifice to idols, is vaguely worded: Daemoniia immolare com- 
pellitur, qnod spnrcam ille tarn exsecrans quam refutans ; on 
Chrocus cunf. Stalin 1, 118. 

p. 108 n.] Old idols in churches were placed behind the 
organ (Meliasantea orogr, p, 437 — 9) in Duval's Eichsfeld 341. 
'An idols^ chamber was in the old choir/ Leipz. avant. 1, 89 — 91 ; 
'the atigels out of the firewood room/ Weinhold's Schles. wtb. 
17**; fires lighted with idols, conf- SuppL to p» 13 — ^15. Giants* 
ribs or hammers hung outside the church-gate, p. 555 n.; urns 
and inverted pots built into church- walls, Thiir. mittb. i. 2, 
112—5. Steph. Stoflief, p. 189, 190. A heathen stone with the 
hoof- mark is let into Gndensberg churchyard wall, p, 938. 

p. J 13.] The warming (baka), anointing and drying of gods' 
images is told in Fri'b|iiofs-3- cap. 9 (p. 63). But the divine 
snake of the Lombards was of gold, and was made iuto a plwte 
and chalice (p* 684), The statua ad huraanos tact us i^ocalU^ Saxo 
p. 42, reminds of Memnon's statue. Some trace of a Donar' s 
image may be seen in the brazen dorper, p. 535. On the arm* 
rings in gods' images conf. the note iti Müller's Saxo p. 42. Even 
H. Sachs 1, 224'* says o£ a yellow ringlet: *du nähmst ea Gott 
von fiissen 'rab,' off God's feet; and ii- 4, 6**: ihr thet es Got von 
füssen nemraen. Four-heaileJ ßgures, adorned with li^ilf- moons, 
in Jaumann's Sumloceune p, 192^ — i. On nimbi, rays about the 
head, conf. p« 323 and Festus : capita deorum appellubantur fas- 
ciculi facti ex verbenis. Animals were carved on such figures, as 
on helmets ; and when Alb, of Halberstp-dt 456** transl. Ovid's 
' Ilia milii niveo factum de marmore signum Osteudit juvenile, 
gerens iu vertke picum/ Met. 14, 318, by ^ truoc eineu speht vf 
ainer ahseln/ he probably had floating in his mind Wodan with 
the raven on his shoulder. Even in Fragm* 40* we still find : 
swnor bi alien gotes-bilden. 

p. 114n.] Gods' images are instinct with divine life, and can 
move. Many examples of ßtjares tünuii.(j nuntd in Bütticher's 
Hell. Temp. p. 126. One such in Athenaeus 4, 439; one that 
inruH Its face, Dio Cass, 79, 10: sacra retorseruut oculos, Ov. 
"let. lOj 69Ü ; one that walks, Dio Cass. 48* 43, iSpwet ra foara 

teal teivicrai, Lucion ed, Bip. 9, ^2, 120. 378; deorum »udasse 
sitnulacmj Cic. de divin. 2, 27* simiibicruni Apollinia Cumnni 
quatridiw flevif, Augustiu, Civ. Dei 8, 11; Lmiuvii siBiulacrum 
Janonts sospitae larrima9He, Livy 40, 19; lapidiim ßetus ^ stB^tneL- 
Tum lacrimae, Claudian in Eutrop. 2, 43. simulacrum Jovis 
eachinnitm repeute ediditj Suet. Calig. 57. Flames burst oat 
from head aod breast, Herod. 6, 82. An Artemis drops her sJtithl, 
Pans, iv. 13^ 1. Not only are they spoken to (interdiu cum Capt- 
toiino Jove secreto fabulabatürj inodo insusurmns ac praebeus 
idTicem aurem, modo clarius, nee sine jurgiis, Suet. Cal ig. 22), 
bot they ans wrer* Being asked, ' visne ire Romam, Jmio?' she 
nodn and says yea^ Livy 5^ 22. 

The same in Teutonic heathenism. Thör's image walks and 
talks, Fornra, s. 1^ 302. Aa Thorger^'s image bends its hand 
to keep the gold ring on, Mary's does the same, see above, and 
Ksrchr. 13]42-26o.323. Vine. Bellov, 25, 29 foil, by Heinr. de 
Henrord ad an. 1049, A Virgin sets the Child down, and kneel» 
to tt, Marienleg. 228 ; the Child is taken from her^ Pass. 1 44, conf. 
Gee* Ab. 3| 584. A Mary recetves a shot ^ and saves the man it 
! aimed at, Maerl. 2, 202. A Crucifix embraces a worshipper, 

Keisersb. seel. par. 75**; hows to one who has forgiven his mortal 
foe, Sch. u. Ernst 1522 cap. 628; *dat cruce losede den voet^ undo 
slotte ene,' kicked him, Detra. 1, 7. An image ti7«?a the perjurer^s 
hand off*, Sch. n. Ernst c. 249 ; speaks, Alexius 444. 490. Maerl. 
2, 201 ; and iuruM round, KM. 1 (ed. 2) xlix. The stone visitant 
in Don Juan nods and walks. Gods' images fall from heaven 
ace. to the Scythian legend; so does the figure of Athena, Paus. 
i, 26, 7. Or they are stolen from abroad, da ei^ocati, e.g. a 
Juno (Gcrh. Btrusker p. 31), and Artemis from Tauris, »Schol. to 
TtieoCT* J oonf. Meiners 1, 420-3, So, in the Mid. Ages, relics 
were stolen. Again, idols are imxshedf Imthedf Schol, to Theocr. ; 
eonf, the Alraun, p. 1203. They wero even solemnly burnt; thus 
tu thö Boeotian da&dals, every GO years, 14 oaken images of Hera 
were consigned to the flames, E. Jacobins Hdwtb. d. ür. u. Rom. 
mythol. 394. 

p. 115.] The numbers three and fmir in conn, with gods' 
ima^s occur even later stiil. At Aigu on the Inn near Rottal- 
CDunster, next the Malching post-house, a St. Leonard's pilgrim- 
Age I« made to five brazen idols, the biggest of which is called the 



Worthj, The peasants say none but the worthy man can HfTb it. 
If a youtli after his first confession fails to lift the figure, he goea ' 
to confession again^ and cornea back streugtheneJ, The festival 
is csalled The three golden Saturday nights in September» A girl I 
proves her virgioity (also by lifting?). The Austrians have a; 
Leonard's chapel too, yet they pilgrim to Aigfi, and say ' he is 
the one, the Bavarians have the right one/ conf. Panzer's Beitr. 
2, 32—4. A nursery- tale (Ernst Meier no. 6, p. 38) describes a i 
wooden sculpture in the shape of a hor§e with four heads, three 
of which belong to Donner, Blitz and Wetter, evidently Donar^ 
Zio and Wuotan. 

p. 118.] Similar to the irraen*piUar with Mercury's image in 
the Ksrchr,, is a statue at Trier which represented Mercury flying, 
PertÄ 10, 132. The Lorsch Annals make Charles find gold and 
silver in the Irmenseule, There are also stories of mice and rata 
living inside statues, Luoiau somn. 24 ; in Slavic idols, says i 
Saxo; the Thor that is thrown down swarms with large mice, 
adders and worms, Maurer bek. 1,536. What Rudolf of Fulda 
Bays of the Innlutinl is repeated by Adam of Bremen (Pertz 9, 
286). ^irmesuwel der cristenheit,^ Germania 1, 451, conf. 444* 
The Roman de Challemaine {Cod. 7188, p. 69} describes the war 
of the Franks with the Saxons : 

En lenr chemin trouverent on moiisliet' 
jrr%\ que li Saisne orent fat pieca edifier. 

^ une idole y avail, que I es Saisnes proier 
venoient come dieu touz et gloirefier. 
quar leur creance estoit selonc leur fol cuidier 
quele les puist bien sauver joustieier. 
Neptusniis ot a nou en lonneur de la raer. 

One is reminded of the lofty Irminsul by the story of an idol Lug 
or Ildlltfgj 60 cubits high, in the Wetterau, Ph. Dieffenbach 291 
(heiliger loh ?). 

p. 121.] On Caesar's ' Sol et Vnlcanusei Lmia,* see GDS. 766. 
The InJiculus comes immediately after the AbrenuDtiatio, in 
which Thuner, Woden and Saxnot have been named ; its Mercury 
and Jupiter therefore stand for German gods, as indeed several 
German words are used in it : nod-fyr, nimidas, frias, dadaisas. 
The Abreountiatio requires you to give up the trilogy Thuner, 


WöJen, Saxnöt, and all the unholies that are ikeir fellows ; so 
there were three heathea gods, and more. On the trilogy conf. 
Pref. li. Uv*, and in Vereliasj snb v. blotskap, the passage oot 
of the Trojamanna-8. p. 34, where BrutQs invokes Th6r, OJiin and 

p. 122.] Saxo's way of looking at the Norse gods is noticed 
p« ä&l-o. The thunder-god, who is Thoro at p. 41, and Thor at 
p. 103, he once names Jupiter, Besides, he has Fluio and Dii — 
OUiious as ValföSr 3G. 140-7 ; and Proserpina — ^qX^ 43. 

p. 123.] LepsiQs, Einl. p. 131, says the Egyptian week had not 
7, bat 10 days. ' Nine days' time ' is a common reckoning among 
savages, Klemm 2, 149. To nundinae corresponds ivrri^Lap, yet 
Nieb, 1, 308, and 0. Müller Etr. 2, 324 think the Romans had a 
week of 8 days. The seven-day week is Semitic, was unknown 
to Greeks or Romans, and rests on a belief in the sacred uess of 
the namber 7; conf. Nesselra. on the origin of the week {Koaigsb. 
deutsche gesellsch., May 22, 1845). Titnrel 2753 : 

Die sieben stern sieben tugende halfcent, 

Die muozen alle mensche haben, die dd ztt der tage waltent. 

The Provencal names of days in Raynouard sub v. dia, O. Fr. 
de*mierkes for mercre-di, de-venres for vendre-di j conf. Roquef. 
SQppL V. kalandre. 

p. 125.] MHG, 1. Snnnentac, MS. 2, 190\ Amur 1578. 

1609-21. Griesh. 114. 141. siintac. Pass. 299,68. 81. II. 

maniac^ Fraueud. 32, 11. maeniags 82, 1. III. aftennaentag, 

HatssK Ixviii*. aj'tennoniag, Uhl. volksl. p. 72a. zlstag and 
linjilag, Wackern. Bas. hss. 54-7 ; also Schweiz, geschichtsfr. 
1.82-3. lOK 4, 149. cimtag, Weinth, 1, 759. z ins t ag j Bietr. 
dracfa« 320*'. Justinger 59, Keisersp. zitfttigj Tobler 458. eritag^ 
Fundgr. 1, 75. MB. 27, 89* (1317). 132» (1345). Lang reg. 
4, 711» (1300). Grätzer urk. of 1319, etc.; but ibid, erehtag, 
J3IG. Sehwube tintenf. ly. 50. erdagm Hartlieb, Superst. H., 

J. 31-2. erichiag, Beheim, 76, lö. H. Sachs 1, 20ö^. Hütten 

358» trtdttg in Guben, 48, 32. IV. mitworh?, Bas, hss. 57. 

miitoclw^ Diemer, 357, 5, von dem rniiechen, Tund. 44, 27, des 
miiiidieii, MB. 27, 90 (1317). 27, 98 (1321). dm* mldechen, 
Gratzer urk* of 1320, mitich, mitichen, 1338. midechonf Griesh. 
2, 48. 'an dem nehsten gnctemtag (!), Schreiber 1, 486 (see p. 
124 n). V. Records of the 14th cent, waver betw. donresdag 



BDcl donredatj. Dunrdac, Pass* 57, 87, etc. dmulersiufj, dunderg" 
tag alw. in Conr. of Weinsbg. dorHage, Scliweix, gescUichtsfr. 
3, 2au (1396). Dimredmjli, Maltzan 2, 0. Hpt ZtseUr. 5, 406. ' 

donredai/hj MaUzan 2, 45. VI. phmcztag, Be beim 78, 8. MB. 

27^ 131* (1343). vntach, Griesb. 2, 48. frthkyj, Griitzer urk. 
of 1310. des vrmjtitgitH, S. Uülrich, 1488. 

p. 125.] OS* riieäe have to be guessed from the fullow- 

ing later formst I. sundaeh, Ssp« sotuhnj, Putn. I486. Klempin 

488. IL ma7tdag, ibid. HI. dinsdag, Cobi. urk, of 12ÜL 

Höfer no. 5. dinsiag, 1316, ib. p, 112; dijnsdais, p. 277. dince- 
dngh^ Pom. urk. of 1306, p. 354. din»cdag^ Magdeb, urk. of J 
1320, p. 142. dinstaghj Quedl. of 1325, p, 1711. dingstdagf 
Eairnsbg- urk. of 1332j p. 258. dgtustdg^ Sieberfcz no. 652. 6i58 
(1315-43). dlnMdftg^ Ditm» laodr, of 1417 ed. Michels, p, 32* 
dijmthedach, Detmar 2, 287. ditischedach, Weistb. 3, SB, 90. 
dyngsitidag, urk. of Maltzaa 2, 270. dlnciieilagh 2, 34. ding he' 
stedagheSf dingded., dgrtttted., dijagesd^ 2, 179. 210. 207. 142,, 
dhusfeihigeH, Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 405-406. dutgiftedag, Hammer* 
broker recht. Did any Low Germaa district in the Mid. Ages 
retain Tisdag? Scarcely: all seem to have forms beginning! 
with diu, agreeing with Nethl. dinsdiig, and corrup. from the 
older disendach ; hence oor present dienstag. JJinsfag appears 
as early as 1316 at SchleuÄingeu, 1320-2 at Erfurt (Hoter p. 120. 

146. 153). dingesdag, Klempin 488. IV. gtidhtftda^, gudens* 

dag, Höfer no. 6. 7. (1261-2). des jnitweken^, Maltzau 2, 88. 
in deniß nutwekmie 2, 113. den nigdweken, Hpt Ztschr. 5, 406. 
des vtiddewekeneSf Höfer 166 (in 1323 at Halberstadt), mitd- 
wekeiies 370 (in 1331). riiedewekes 360 (in 1324). middeweko, 

Klempin. Wdtmresdadi, Ssp. dimredag, Klempin. dunredagh, 

urk. of Maltzau, 2, 6. Hpt 5, 406. donredagh, Maltzau 2, 45.* 

VL vridadij Ssp, frigdag, Klempin. Vll. sunavent, Ssp. 

2, 66 (one MS, satersdach), »onnavendf Klempin. saterdag ia 
Nethl, and Westph,, not Saxoa, saterstagj Seibertz 724* (1352). 
satirsdachj Marieulieder, Hpt 10^ 80-1. satenftag^ Spinnr. evang., 
Cola 1538, title. lu Frei dank 100, 15, one MS. changes ' s nones 
tac' into salersdach, itoterdag, Firmenich 1, 301^; sorrmchteg 1, 
495 at Eupen. 

M. NfiTHL. 1. sondnch, Decker's Lekensp. 1, 38. II. 

maendachf Decker ib. 111. dinxdach^ Decker, disda^g desdag^ 



Coremans p, 49, dUendaighes^ Hedu p, 443» De klerk 1, 804. 

^nda^h, ULI. Ij 415.— — IV. woonsdiich, Decker. V. donre- 

hf Decker, dondvrdack, Laac. 13970, ^VI. vridach^ Decker. 

den vtindaeh, Lane. 25310, sfrindaghes, Maerl, 3> 284. sfrindaeck», 
D© klerk 1, 708 in 1303. VII, mtenJach, Decker. la the 

5Ven van Jezos p. 27-8. 74-5, 234 the Jewish notion of Sab- 
is lamelj rendered by saierdavJi. 

p, 126.] Fbis. IIL tihsdt, tUdejj, Hpt Ztaclir. 1, 107. 

VIL A fuller form ^ sn-avend ' occurs in the Gen. snavendea, 
Anhalt urk, of 1332, Höfer 163. 

Xorth-Fris, forms in OuUen, p. 38. IV. Weadansdai, 

Landesknnde 4, 248* Wlnjsday iu Silt, Mullenh. 167. V. 

Tursdei and Tüsdei. VII, in = evening, eve, as in 'glide e'en 

to ye,' Shaksp. good-m, 

AS. IV, Mercoria die, hoc est Woduesdag^ Kemble 5, 94 

(in 844) , 


-III, iweiada^e, 
ON, ID Gula)?. p. 9.- 
porsdagr, VL Freadagr. 

SWED. 1 

IV. wensdaie, Garner, Procdgs. p. 232. 
—III. Tffsdagr, IV. O^ensdagr. Y. 

VII, püatiTagr, 
sunnmuiaghr^ ostg. (conf. 


löifhurdiigh, ostg. 

NoRW. IV. mckedag. 

p, 126 D.), 
VI. Freadag, Dipl. Norv. voL 3, no. 

787 (in 1445), 

Jot. IV, Vaensdag, voiti8dau, Molb. dial. 653. VI. Freta. 

VH. Luara, Foersom, p. 12. 

Anöl. IV* Vüusdaw, 

p. 127 n.] On the Roman altar in Swabia, see Stalin, 1, 111. 

, On the circle of planetary gods, Lerscli in Jb. d. Rheiulande iv. 

183. V* 298 — 314, The 8 figures on the altar may signify the 

gods o[ nundinae* The Germ, week has Odin in the middle, his 

sons Tyr and Thor next him ; Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, 

p. 129.] Snorri too, in hta Fornmli, has interpretations and 
comparisons with the Bible and classical mythology, Freyr ho 
identifies with Saturn (p. 217). 

p, 130.] The Ests, Finns and Lapps name the days thus : — 

EöT. L pühhapääw, holy day. II, esntaspääw, first day, 

HL ieUipääw, eecond day. IV. kesknädde!,^ mid-week, V, 

' The Sla?ic oed^liA, orig. Saada j, now mesna week. 




nehjapääw, foarth day. TL rede (redi), fast-day ? VIT. taii*] 
päaw; poölpadWy half. day. 

Finn. 1. samiuntaL IL mnanmu IIL twtai, IV. ke$ki* \ 

wiych), V. tnorstaL VI. peryandat ; is this Per an' s day dis- 
placed (conf. Perendan below)? or, as the Finos have no F, a 
corrup. of Fredag ? [Prob, the latter, conf, Peryedag; and the 
Finns are fond of adding an N.]. VII. lauwandai, 

SwED. Lapp. L alhlt. IL manodag. III. (Mug. IV. kasha 

wakko. V. iliorendag. VI. penjedag, Vll. lawfjdag. 

NoRW. Lapp. 1, »odno helve, II. vuosarg. IIL viangebarg, 

IV, gaskvokko, YLfastobeive fast-day^ and penjedag^ 



p. 13L.] The name of the highest god, whom the other gods 
f^evve as chlfdrm their fitther (Sn. 23), often occars in OHG., like, 
Uerrgott much later > as a man's name: Wofau, Schannat 312,' 
Woatan 318, Wuotan 342* 38(5-9. Lant^obardio glosses havei 
Ofirtft and Godan, Hpt Ztschr. J, 557; conf, Goddn 5, 1. 2. In 
the Abren. we lind Wode^ii ; perh. Wedan too is OS. (Suppl. to 
154); on Wodan conf. Lisch MeckhJb. 20, 143, AS., beside 
W6den, has Otkan (Sup. to 5) ; O^oUj Sal. and Sat. 83 ; Eowäefi\ 
(p. 1Ö1 n.). Nth Fris. Wede, Wedke, Mnllenh. 167. Wedkl taeri r 
Landesk. 4, 24Ö. For Norse OSinn, once Oddiner, conf. Munch 
on Odd's 01. Tr. 9i. Andonf Yngh c. 7, Does Audim in Norw.i 
docs, stand for OSin ? Oden in Ö3tögtL = hin onde, AlmqTist' 
37 1\ In the Stockh. Adress-calender for 1842, p. 142, are 
fictually two men named Odhu Rask, Afh. 1, 377-8, takes the 
Lett. Vldvut for the Vodan of tlie Vides {Let tons), while Vogt Ij 
141 makes Widewud^ Wnidewnd a Prussian king. With Vut in 
the Grisons, conf. Vtiodan in the Valais, of whom M. C. Vullie- 
min relates in his La reine Berte et son temps, Laus. 1843, p. 3 : 
' Un jour on avait vu Wuodan descendre le Rhßtiej telle etait du 
moins la croyance populaire, Vipee nite dana une main, un globe 
d'or dans I'antre, et crianfc rigon haionassou (fleuve souleve toi) 1 
et le fleuve s'clevant avait detruit une partie de la ville.' On my 
inquiring (through Troyou) if the name in the story was really 



Waodan, the answer was distinctly Yes, and the town destroyed 
Wft8 Martigny. Carisch 182** has vutt idol^ which some derive 
from vuliiutf voult^ face, or portrait, others from viAum ; confc 
magliavatts (Snp* to 35 d,). 

p. 132.] Wnotan from watan^ like tfeo? from dUiv, Sansk. 
vadanaa, Schleicher in Kiihn's Ztschr. 4, 399. He stands closely 
conn, with weaiha*, OEG* wetar, aer, aether, and wind (Sup, to 
115) ; he is storm, byr, furia, wild hnnter, uma, Ymir, Jumala, 
spirit ; he is also called Ofuir, Vafu^r, Vafj^nl^nir, But why in 
Siem, 3** does 05inn give und, and Hoenir oSj when surely OJSiun 
ohoold give 6S ? The Bar. wneteln is known to H. Sachs ; das 
68 aufwudUt grün in griin (of herbs) v. 377**. wudelt das kraut 
auf, V. 378^; conf. WuoHhjoz, Wodt^lijedt, p. 367 n., and Woden's 
relation to Geat, p, 164-5. We can put him on a par with ZeuSj 
Indra, Loptr : a^/p, oy av rtq oi/o/iaaue fcai Aia, Meineke'a Pragm. 
com* 4, 31. -^schylus in Bum, 650 says of Zeus: ra S' SXKa 
iravT avm re teal KUTto <rrpi(f>aip riOTjaip, ovBey aaß^ali'ü^v ^ivet,. 
Zens merely tofic/wgj breathes upon lo, and she conceives Epaphot' 
(the touched), jEsch. Prom. 849 — 851, i^ iira^iis tcd^ iTnwPoia^ 
AmSf -^sch. SuppL 18. 45, i^uTrraip 312» ötVai? iTriTrvoiaifi 
m iraverat, 576. Ducange sub v, Altanus has a peculiar gl, Aelfrici : 
Altanas Voäen^ quae vox saxouice Wodauam seu Mercuriura 
«omit (conf» p. 1G2 n,). In Wright 17'* ' Altanns /»uti«^«/ olherw 
|K>dea is turbo; altanus anster is a wind. On WolJan see Hpt 
Ztschr. 5, 494. 

p, 1S2.] With Otfried's gotewiwto conf- a Schlettst. gl. of 
the l^th century : * sub tyrannoj under themo gwlowoden.* Der 
%cust€rtch, Ser?at. 2853, ein tobender w,, BarL 254, 21 ; conf, 
gwythi p. 150 n. In the Eifet the wild host is called WoJe^Aieev^ 
and a savage monster of a roau lF»otZc*-woor, Schmitz 1, 233 
In the Wetteran band of robbers was one Werner Wattwuitwutt, 
Schwenker 574. Pfister 1, 157. 162. 

p, 133.] It is not Svtö^r, gen. Svinns, but Stiäur ok Svi?Srir, 

gwu Sviffin'9, in Seem. 46**. Su. 3. 24. 195. Beside val/a^lrf 

h0rfiiöit (p. 817), O^iim bears the names Httjana, Hertelir, 
Ommmrr, Ler. rnyth. 041*; conf. Herjans dh, Stern. 213^. fleifg^i 
O* ok 1 folk nmskaut 5*. valr Id }>at a sandi vitinn enum 
rbey gja Friggjar faSmbyggvi (ibi caesi in arena jucuere, dedicati 
imocalo qai Friggae amplexibus delectatur), Su, 1848^ 236. 



Non humile obscurumve genus, non funera plebis 
Flnio rap it vilesqiie animas^ sed fata poteDtiim 
Implicat, et cJaris complet Phlegetbonta figaris, 

Saxo Gram. 36. Tlie boar's head in the Alaraanii order of 

battle is expressiv acknowledged by Agathias 2, 8 (Stalin 1, 160). 

p. 134,] With Paul the Deacon^s account conf. the older 
Retting in the Prol. leg. Kotbaris in Hpt Ztschr. 5^ 1. There 
Wodttn and Frfia remind you altogether of OiTlnn and Fritfg in 
the Gnmnisrnä.1. O. is called Sigr-höfundr, Egilss. 640, and his 
dwelling Sigiümr, Yngl. 5. Sn, 15. 

p. 136.] On name- giving, ON. nafn-festi, see GDS. 153-4. 
With HliAscialf conf. Valasktulf, p. 81 7 n. Does OHG. Biighen- 
Bcelp belong here? Cod. Lauresli. no. 2597, The Gl, Sletst. 
15, 7 have ncelb foruice, also those in Hpt Ztschr. 5, 196. scf^Jp 
forniXj Graff 6, 479. bisdlbä in clida. Dint. 1, 342; and clida 
belongs to HiiS, OHG. hlit, operculum, llie Lex, myth, 434 
explains HIiKskialf as porta coeli tremens. 

p. 13G-7 D.] Qod^s chair means also the rainbow (p. 733) j 
Qod^s Utile chair, among the Lausitz Wends, the corpse-bird 
(p. 1134). The German märchen of the Tailor who climbs the 
Lord's chair, of iron-booted Ferdinand, of faithful John and 
strong Francis, who arrive at a heaven with many doortt (conf. 
WolPa Deut, mär. u, sagen no. 5, KM. no. 3, 35, Müllenh. mar* 
no, xii.), resemble the Greek notion of Zeiis*s thi-one and the 
several doors through which he attends to the prayers, vowa < 
and offerings of men, Lucian*s Icaromenippus, c, 25-6. 

p. 138.] Wunsch f rvish, seems akin to Sansk. vanglcsh, vdnrh 
opto, desidero, Bopp Gl. 315*. Pott 1, 235, which Bopp thinks 
identical with Welsh gwanc, desire. Wish in O.Fr. is souhait 
(p. 951n.) and avel, pi. avianx, Ren. 25131, 26828. pins bei lui 
uestnefst sonhdidleTy Ogier 1, 140. WitJisch is god of buss and 
love, who wishes, wills and brings good to men. We still speak 
of God as the giver of all good, all gifts, Kl. Sehr. 2, 327-9. 
Wünschen is to romance, exaggerate, imagine : sam ez gewunschei 
waere, Rab. 240, ob ieman wiimchm sohle. Nib. 281, 3. 780, 1. 
und der nu «?. solde. Ecke 202 (Hagen). Also to wish into 
being, create, Wigal. 327. 887. 5772. so viel nur immer Gott 
Vater ir. kann, Zingerle 2, 64. mit wurtsch^ by divine power, 



Tit. 347; and conversely veriüänsch^in to annihilate» wün»cheti 
lerneo, to learn conjuring, MüUenh* 395. 402» [Of wünsch as 
the Ideal, a p^6 and a half of examples is here omitteil.] 

p< 141, ] Wish personified appears most freq. in Hartmann, 
which is the more reuaarkablöi as ho got no prompting from hia 
French original. The last line on p. 138 : 

der Wunsch het in gerneUtert sft, Greg. 1097- Er* 2740. 
only reminds as partially of a French poet, Thib. de N. 95;- 

beneet soit le maistre 
qui tale la fist naistre ; 

while Cfarestien^s Erec has nothing similar, either here, or in 
describing the horse (Hartm. Er. 7375), or the palace and twenty 
Udies (8213-77) ; and where Hartm* boasts of his Enite : 

man sagt daz nie kint gewan 

©in lip 80 gar dem Wtutscfw glich. Er* 330, 

Chrestien's Erec 407 has merely : 

qoe tote i avoit mis s- entente 

nature, qui faite I'avoit (conf* vv. 4lo» 425). 

PpBwm tly, however, in his : 
ich waene Oot sinen vltz 
ao si bate geleit 
▼on »choene und von saelekeit. Er. 338, 

where Chreatien had said, v. 429 : 

onqnea Dex ne sot faire miauz 
le De0| la booche, ne les iauz, 

Unrtin. draws nearer to his prototype again. His Wunsches 
f^wcUi often occurs in later writers : 

beschoenen mit Wunsches ge walte, Flore 092 7. 
IT Bj) allor wolgestalt 

gur tn de» Wurntche« gewalt, Meleranz. 8708. 
Wutij^cfies gewalt hftn, Berth. 239. 240. 
hie Wunmhes gewalt, hie liep ane leit 

in immerwerender Sicherheit, Hoinr. Suso in Die ewige 
be phrase becomes more and more impersonal : 



si hat an ir wünsch gewaU, Altsw. 98. 
an im Hb der wunftchgewaJtt Dietr. drach. 41'^, 
drier wünsch^ getvalt, MS. 2, U5^^ (KM.=* 3, 146-7). 
geben mit alles wnn»che8 gewali, Pass. 298, K 
aller wünsche gewalt, Ubh volksl. 1, 21. 

conf. i^ovala^ rv^etF itapa rov Aio<i aiTijaatrßat orov iinövyiu^ 
Athen. 3, 24. [Another page aud a half of examples is here 

p. 143 n,] Even Wolfram in Wh. 15, 7 has 'des Wunschea 
zW; and des Wuns4'he8 parmlts actoally occurs in Bari. 52, 8 
and in the Rudolf. Vilmar p. 64. 

p, 143,] Wish is the metiog, moolding, castings giving, 
creating (p. 22, 104 n. 139), figuring^ imaging, thinking, faculty, 
hence also i machination, idea, image, figure. There is about Wish 
some thing inward, uttered from within : der Wunsch tthtet, 
Troj, 3096, uz tiefer sinne gründe erivnjischtt mit dem raunde 
2960. Aparfc from the passage in the Iliad, ;^apt? answers to 
wünsch, not only in Lucian's Pro Itnng. c. 26 p. 52 : KOfitjif raU 
y^apidtv uTretKacef but, as God imparts wishing, it is said of 
Hermes : 5? pd t€ 'rrdi^ratv dvdpiiiTrwP epyoiai X^'P^^ *^^^ kvSov 
oird^ett Od. 15, 319. Beside des Wunsches ano and heilwÄc, we 
have also a wunseksee and mun^ehbrimne, Pröhle's Unterharz, s., 
no. 345 ; a Wunffrhherg in Panzer's Beibr» 1, 116, We tt scheuhorch 
in Hpt Ztscbr. Ij 258, Wun,<ckiiburfj m Henricos Pauper 115, 
Wiuischelhurg a village near Glatz. * Joannes WuHMhelberg doctor 
vixifc circa an. 1400/ Flacius cat. test, verifc. 782, in Zarncke*a 
Univ. Leipzig 764 an. 1427,888 an. 1438. A iVünschmichelhach, 
Baader^s Sagen no, 345 ; a Wün»chens^ihl near Marksohl, Thurin- 
gia ; a 'super Wüiuche* and WtinBcheiJor/] Rauch 2, 198» 200. 

p. 143*4.] Forstemaan has no name Winisc, IVunscio, which 
would mean wisher, adopter, but Karajan quotes Wensco and 
Sigiwunh (for Sigiwunsc, conf, Sigt^r), and Sigewnses-hoh, about 

Eichsfcadt (For Sigiwunsces-holz), MB. 31, *M'^i^ year 1080. 

The Oiihmf'ijjar are called nun nor Herjans, OÖius raeyjar, Sn. 
212*. Oskopfur might be connected with it and explained as 
'sfcragem, campum election^ aperiens ' from opna aperire, of 
which tlie Vols* saga c. 18 makes uakaptr* Beside the Wuscfred 
of Deira, a later one is mentioned by Beda 138, 19. 153j 5. 




p. 1*15.] As Who tan sends wind and weather , and sfeills the 
stormy sea, it is said of the christian God : daz er uns alle tage 
dienet mit tveter ioch mit winij Dienier 89, 18. In Parzival, 
Feirefiz ascribes it to Juno that she daz weiet fuocie, fitted 750, 

5 ; dem Junoiegap segeh Ittft Ibl^l ; segdweter fuogte 767, 3. 

H yggr be terror, yggdramll means the horse o! dread, thes sbortn- 
courser, perhaps the rnsbing god himself, as we know that OSinn 
bears the sarname Yggr^ and is always figured as the rider in the 
ftir, the furions hunter. In that case Yggdrasih askr (Pret li.) is 
the storm ful god's ash. O^inn is also Uropfr, alte damans, conf. 
Ot£G. bruoft, clamor, Graff 4, 1137: Hroptr glaSr, Hpt Ztschr. 
3^ Ibi; Hroptat^r, p. 196. And the snru&me Fartna-fyr, Far ma- 
gud^ may not be out of place here, as dens vectnrarum uauticarura, 
from farmr, onus nauticura. Meflngi\ Sööra, 272" is parh. conn, 
with mafr, seamew. Other by-names are Fengr, Saam. 184"* 
Vols, saga c. 17, p. 157; Svafnir, Saem, 93"; Fiolttir, Saem* 
10». 46\ 184\ Vols, saga c. 17, p. 157 and con£. 136. 193. 200. 
323. He is 'inn reginkunngi baldur i bryujo,* Saam, 272'*, 
p. 145.] Similar expressions for dying are : AS. DryMen 
ean, Beow. 373* ON. kenna einom attünga brautir til OSittt 
fidti, Ssem. 80**. far till Oden^ Geyer 1, 123; conf. gefa Od'td, 
Landn. 5, 10. The miser collecting treasures is said in Sweden 
to tjena Oden, Geyer 1, 123. KL sehr, 3, 197. 

p. 145 n.] The conception of O^inn as an evil being is olear 
in the ON, 'hvaö'a O&ins latum ?^ quid hoc mali est? shortened to 
'bv&& latum/ quid hoc rei est? Wormius mon. dan, p. 11 ; lät 
ia amissio, mors; conf, our ' was des teufels ? * Fornm. sog. 3, 
1 79 has ' ofögnu'Sr sendr af OÖni/ mischief sent from 0. ; Oämn- 
düBll 1), 151 periculosus, insociabilis, difficilis, is interpr. ' illr 
viSf&ngs' 12, 430 J O&lnndmla 6, 374 periculom, infurtuniym, 
interpr. ' vandraeSi, vandamal, naudsyn' 12, 430, Deell itself is 
mansuetus, a£fabilis. 

p. 147.] OSin'a outward appeamnce ia alluded to in many 
other places; hinn einetjgji Friggjar faSm-byggvir, On. 1848 p. 
236. He is Uengikiaptr, labeo, coi pendet maxilla, Sn. 1 IG (p. 
]075o*); Harbarö^Tj Flaxbeard, from hör, linum ; to SigurSr 
appears the Longbeard, and helps him fco choose Grani, Vols, c. 
13. GDS. 688-9. To Saxons ' Otbinus os piko obnitbeuä ' answers 
his samame Orimnir larvatus, from grima. As 'Grimnir^ he 


ahews himself to men in the guiae of a beggar to try them, e,y. to 
Geirrö8r ; as 'Gestr bliudi ' to HoilSrekr^ as 'GängniSr* to Yaf- 
{»röSnir. Compare the German miirchen of the old Beggar- 
womaOj KM. 150, whose clothes begin to burn, as Grimni's did, 
la the case of HeiSrekr, Gestr guesses riddles for another, as the 
miller or shepherd does for the abbot, Schmidt 85 — 9. Again 
OSinn appears as the ooe-ayed hondi Hratit, and bestows gifts, 
Hrolf Kr. saga c. 39. 46 (Fornald. s. 1, 77. 94). The Fornm. 
8. 5, 171-2 says : 'hann var stnttklaeddr, ok ha^i sidan hatt niSr 
fyrir andlitit, ok sft ögerla dsjunu hans; skeggjutSr var haon ; ' 
cont the bUiid (one-eyed ?) Hatt, Sv. afventyr 1, 363. GDS* 
578. Swed. legend gives OSinn a pointed hat, uddehati, which 
agrees with the pecuhar shape of certain tombstones, wedge- 
shaped, like a man-trap. But he is called han^a-dröttinn, 
Vitterh. acad. handl. 14, 73. Now addehatt is nsn. a dwarf's 
hood or cape of darkness ; hence also he appears as ' lord of 
dwarfs/ At the same time the hat is a wishing-hat and Mer- 

Lenry*s hat. He appears as an old rnan^ or as a hunter an high 
%or»0 with three hounds which he gives away to a youth; and 
a Smäland story expressly names him Oden, Sv. folkv. I, 212. 
Qainmal ffräman gives advice, bat may not stay beyond cock* 
crow, Anridsson, 3, 3, Similar is the ofie-ej/ed witch, Norske 

event. 141-2. In Germany too we can now find many traces 

of this divine apparition. A Gniymantlej a Broadhat often turns 
np in nursery tales, see Haltrich p» 10. 89. 44; an old man 
fetches the children, p. 4» He appears as Old One-e\je 45. 55, 
as Ston^goai 44, Wild-cat 63. God comes in the gnise of an old 
hiygar, stands tjiHlfather^ and gives gifts, KM. no. 26 ; or as a 
gre^'bearded viatmikint Frommann's Munda. 4, 328 ; conf. the 
eld beggar-woman, KM. no. 150; as Orte-^ed Flap-hat, Alsatia 

.1856 p, 131. A grey gmith heals, Hpt Ztschr. 1, 103. In St. 

rllartin's cloak and hood Simrock sees Waotaa's wishing-cloak, 
Haiiiiisl. xvii. 

p. 147.] When OSinn Imrled the spaar, then, says the 
Volüspä, was the first war in the world. He is geira droltinn, 
i39* geiri Mnda9ir oo gefinn O^i, Stem. 27^ marka mk 
O^ni, p. 1077. Under Otto II L a man in a dream, after taking ' 
a pious vow, was transßxed by ttco lances of the martyrs Crispin 
and Crisp inian, Pertai 5,. 787. The giant Oden m St. afvent« 455 



(same versions omit the name) possesses costly things, as the 
god does his spear. Out of sach notions sprang the OEIQ. names 
KSrans, Folchan^f, Hpt Ztschr. 7, 529. Is this spear more like 
Apollo's destructive dart, or the sceptre of Zeus (p. 68Ö) f la 
the name of the Lombard royal line of Gunginge conn, with 
Gungnir f GDS. 687-8. 

p. 148 n»] In Herod. 4, 15 Aristeas is called Apollo's raven, 
t^, priest^ as Porphyry tells ua the Magians called the priests of 
the Suo-god ravens. Three ravens fly with St- Benedld, Paul. 
Diac. I, 26, In Goethe's Faust 12^ 127 the witch asks Mephis- 

topheles : Bat where are your two ravens ? Doves sit on Gold- 

Mariken's Shoulders, Miillenh. 403, A dove sits ou the head and 
shoulder of a boy at 'IVier, Greg. Tur. 10^ 29; one perches three 
times on the head of St. Severus, Myst. 1, 226-7, another settles 
on St. Gregory's shoulder 1, 104. 

p. 148.] Flugu hrafnar tveir of Huihars ÖJ^lum, Hugiuu til 
hnQga^ enn ä hrae Muninn, Sn. 322. The ravens daily sent out 
return at dÖgurSarmuli 42 ; conf. F. Magnusen's Dagens tider 
p. 42. fara ViÖ^ria grey valgiorn urn ey, Ssem. 154*. hrafnar Imlr 
flaga me* |?eim alia leiS, Nialss. 80. On Odem foglar, Odens 
wvalar, see Sup. to 159. 

p. 148.] Oö'in^Neptimus resembles both Poseidon and Zeus, 
who rise out of the sea as bolls, OSinn shows himself to Obif as 
ft boatman, nokkva maÖ't% Fornm. s. 2, 180; and, as the man in 
the bo<it, fetches Sinflcitli's body, Vols. c. 10. Like him are the 
divine steersman in the Andreas {Pref. xxiv. xxv,), and the 
thirt^^ntH man who steers the twelve Frisians, who has the axe on 
his shoulder, throws it at a well-spring, and teaches them justice, 
Richth, 439. 440. Yet we also come upon O^^iun Ilnikar as a karl 
afhiargi, Seem, 183-4. 

p, 149.] Byr^ Burr is O'Sin's father, p, 348*9. gefr hann 
(O,) hijri brognom, Ssdtn. IVi^. A fair wind, ON. oska-bytr, is 
in the Swed! rhyming chron. önttko bor. Even the German may 
very likely have had a ivunsrh-bur as well as wunsch-wint, for we 
find in Pass. 379, 19 ; in kam von winde ein ebene bur, die in die 
segele di el Qoc« 201,29: do quam ein also geltche bur* 380, 
78: daz in wart ein guote Imr. On the other hand: sA er den 
uini se wungche h&t, Er. 7795. Wunsches weter, Urstende 125, 85, 
Oct sehaof im sanften süe^^en wint, Ernst 5^ 238 (Sup, to 145). 

1834 WODAN. 

The himmlische kind makes guten wind, Osw. 960-5. 1220 ; but 
also the storm wind 1137. 2731. To the Greeks it was Zeus 
espec. that sent a fair wind : Jto? ovpo^, Od. 15^ 297. Zeif^ oipov 
laWev 15,475. Zeh^ evdve/io^, Paus. iii. 13,5. Also a '£/)/a^ 
iipio^ is named ' inter deos qui ad pluviam eliciendam a mago 
ad70cantur,' Cass. Dio 71, 19; and Hermes or Theuth was the 
Egyptians' rain-god 71, 8 (Sup. to 175). 

p. 150.] With the AS. dialogue betw. Sat. and Sal., conf. 
Eemble's Salomon p. 323 : Mercuriua gigaa. In Altd. Bl. 2, 190 
the other dialogue is entitled ' Adrian and Ritheus,' and contains 
the words : ' saga me, hwft wrlLt böcstafas aerest ? ic |?e secge, 
Mercuriua ae giganC In Smaland there rides a man resembling 
OSinn, with fiery breath, and a rune staff in his mouth, Hpt 

Ztsohr. 4, 509. Theuth not only invented letters, but dice : 

TreTTcm?, tcvßeia^ as well as ypdßifuiTa, Plato's Phsedr. 274. 
And QSinn is not only the finder of runes, but lord of dice- 
throwing. An ON. dicer's prayer is (Sup. to 1234) : at )>ü 
Fiölnir falla Ifttir, ßat er ek kasta kann ! F« Magn. lex. myth. 646 
(Fiölnir = OSinn, Sup. to 145). And there was a proverb: )?ft ert 
ecki einn i leik, ef Offinn styffr ßik. On the Devil as dicer, conf. 
p. 1007. Players invoked Thörr and OSinn, Frigg and Freyja 
together with Enoch and Elias, Christ and Mary, F. Magn. lex. 
myth. 646. 

p. 150 n.] On Owydion and Don see Villemarque's Bardes 
brotons 388. The milky way was also called ' Arian rod merch 
Don,' Davies's Mythol. 205. Leo in Hpt Ztschr. 3, 224 derives 
Gwydion from gwyd, mens, fjkivo^ (p. 162 n.),like OSinn from ON. 
ocTr, mens. The Irish dia Oeden, Grael. di ciadain, ciadaoin may 
indeed be expl. as ceud aoine, first fast; but see O'Brien 168V 

The sentence in the Prol. legis Salicfe : ' Afercuriua Tnsmegistus 
primus leges iEgyptiis tradidit,' comes from Isid. orig. 5, 3. 
Tervagan, Ten;igani may have to do with Trebeta, Gesta Trev. 
(Pertai 10, 131). 

p. 154.] On Wodenes-berg, -husen, ^wege conf. Förstern. 2, 
1566. in Wodeneswego Pert« 8, 6W; de Wodeneswege 8, 676. 
Vudenesvege, Lisch, Öneu 2^> 161 ; Gudenswege, 2^, 136. Again, 
Wodonesberg, Lacomb. 1, no. 97. 117. Witanea-bere (Wuotanes?), 
Cod. dipL Javar. 95 (an. 861). Mons Merairii, Fred^ar c. 55. 
Then» )roii«ii«6eon/, Kemble 5, 78. 137. Wodclanbeorg 3, 457. 



Wonhline 3, 415. 5, 112, 29L Woncumb 5, 78. 137, Wodnes^ 
dene 5, 238, Wödnesdlc 3, 403. 413. 452-5-0. 460-4-6, 5, 215. 
238. Wonlmul 5, 235. 6, 355, Wmhks geat 5, 78. 137. 
W6n9ioc 3, 227 (Kl. Scbr, 2, 57). Wonäc, quercua Jovis 3, 458. 
Won^alre (-aider) 4, 459. But how are Wonred, Wonreding, 
Beow. 5925-88 to be explained ? OS. Wtita7inpeckia for Wedanea- 
speckia (-bridge, wooden bridge), Liitizel J 2, 53. Nth Fris, 
WedeS'hoog, Wens-hog, WinU-hog, Müllen li, 167, Other names 
in Nordalb. stud. 1, 138. Weadanaiikj Jb. f. Schlesw.-holst. 
landesk. i, 248. Woftfßeih in Holst^eiu, OS. Wmhmforjij now 
Wunstorf (Kl, sehr. 2, 58), can ace, to Förstern. 2, 1578 be traced 
back to Wungeresdorf. Wunlnsdorpj Caas. Heisierb. 9, 18. 
W6fenesJi4if€u, Trad. Fuld. ürunke 38, 221. Cod, Fuld. no. 610 
p- 274, now Gutmanns-hausen (Dronke 237'), A Wons-husen in 
Weimar, and one near Nidda, Landau's Weiterau 218. Wonaaz, 
Bamb, verein 10, 108, A Womee» betw. Baireut and Bamberg; 
yet conf. ' in der wonsass,^ MB. 27, 141, and wonsasaen, Schm. 4, 
80. Kl- sehr, 2, 58. A Sigeboto de Witonien-geseze (Wuotanes ?) 
ia MB. 11, 167. About the Fichtelgebirge lie also Wnnsiedel 
(Wotanes-sedal ?), Wonsgehai, Wonngthitu, Woinlsgehäti, Wohns- 
gehaig, a village on the Neunberg by Mistelgau, Baireut, Panzer's 
Beitr. 2, 101. 'flumen quod vulgo IVotiiipriinuo dicitur,^ Sin- 
nacber» 2, 635. IFa/a/i-brunuon, Lacomblet I, no. 103. 

p. 154.] OSinu is a rider; hence called Atrial, he who rides 
>? (as Thörr is Hiorri^i, p, 167 n,); couf. also Yggdrasils askr 
id the story of the World- tree, p. 960, The Hervarar-saga 
(Fomald. 8. 1, 4b6) has a riddle on OSinn and Sleipnir. On a 
rune-Btone in Gothland is supposed to be carved ' Oden aud his 
eight-legged Sleipnir,' Djbeck 1845, 91. The horse is often 
mentioned with him: 'om Oden och haus hägtar^they saj in 
upland and Gothland ; iu Smulaud thej speak of * Odeus rdaU 
ßfa krubba,^ Rääf j conf. the * huuter on high horse,' Sup. to 147. 
A. bone with fix legs in Haltrich 35-6 ; with eight 49; aa eight- 
legged talking sun-steed 101. 

p. 155 n.] ' Odinus pascit equos suos in follem iHclusns,* P411 
Vidalin 610 ; conf. ' i bälg binda/ Vestg, lag. p.m. 48, veit eo 
at ec heck vindga meiSi ä naetur ttllar nio, geiri unda^r ok gehuu 
05ni sialfr sialfum mer, Sßem. 27** (see note on KM, no, 146), 
Charles also splits a stone before the battle, VV achteres Ueidn, 



den km. 42-3 ; coof, the story of the Swedish general 45, and 
that of Hoier, Benecke's Wigal. 452. In Irish legend too the 
divine hero Fin Barre has his horse shod by a mortal smithy and 
jpgglea the fonrth leg in, Ir. sagen 2, 85 ; conf. Kl. sehr. 2, 450. 
p. 157.] In the district, of Beil ngries, Bavaria, the bunch of 
ears is left for the IVandl-gaul, and beer, milk and bread for the 
Waudl'hunde^ who come the third night and eat it up. If you 
leave nothing, the beaver (biltoer-schnitt) will pass through your 
fields. In the last cent, they still kept up a harvest-feast called 
Waudls-mähef setting out fodder for the black steeds of Wände, 
wbile they drank and sang : — 

heilige sanct Miiha, 

beschere übers jähr rneha, 

so viel küppla, so viel schöckla, 

80 viel ährla, so viel tausend gute gährla. 1 

If the reapers forgot, they were told : ' Seids net so geizig, and 
lasst dem hei Igen S, Miiha auch was steha, and macht ihm sein 
städala voll ; ' couf, the less complete account in Panzer's Beitr» 
2, 216-7, Three stalk» are left for Oswald^ three ears tied three 
times round with flowers, viz, the cornflower (centaurea, blue), 
the Motze (red poppy, papaver rhceas), and camomile. The red 
poppy is also called Miedei-magu (Mary^s mohn), Panzer 2, 
214-5-6, Schm. 2, 555. 608; in Swabia, Her-got*s kitele or 
man tele. The Russians leave a sheaf standing for Volos (Voles), 
'toward Volos's beard (borod).' 

p. 159,] O&ins-ve occur» (988) in ' episcopatns Otheties* \ 
jWi(je7^s{s/ Lappenb. Hamb. urk. no. 5. On-sjo, Oden-ajo in 
Skane, Rostanga-socken, lies over a submerged castle named 
Odinsgärd (see the story in Sup. to 946), Dy beck's Buna 1844, 
32-3, In Ons-Mfia were washed the old meu that threw them- 
selves down the cliff, Geyer J, 115. Onfiängei^ in Smaland. 
OdenS'hnmn in Upland, Wendel-sockeu, Dyb. Runa 1844, 90. 
With Woden wm-hte weos, conf. Wo 1 dan hewing his church-door. 
Wolf s Ztachr. 1,69. OSinn, unlike Thorr, hardly ever occurs i 
in names of men : Rääf 235-7 gives Odhanlcarl, OdhinkarL 

p, 159.] On the plant- name IVodert^nngd^ -star, see K, 
Schiller's Ndrd, pflanzenn. 32 ; conf. 'Epfj.ov ßai^, Mercorii 
BurculuB, filix, and *Ep^ov ßordviov, herba mercurialis^ Diosc* 4, 



183-8. - Several birds were sacred to OSinn : ' korpar^ hSkar, 
ßtatar bör man icke skjata, emedan d6 äro Odens foghir, dem 
m^n vid Olofsmässan hnr hon sij i Mia dinjary da ban plocker 
och tager eu stor del af dem, Ardea nigra, en temligen ator 
fogel af hager- slägtet, kallas Odem /tvala,' Eäaf; see Sup, to 
p, 148. 

p. 160,] Wwm^lei suggests uU^Yi^r, p. 207, KL sehr. 2, 58, 
Who off a thief has cut the thumbs^ To him good luck iu throw* 
ing comes, Garg. 192*. Do they say anywhere in Scandinavia 
Odensfingerj Onsfinger? Ace. to F. Magn. lex. myth. 639 the 
htn^t were sacred to OSinn and Mercury ; conf, the Tables of 

p. 162 J Odlnn, T}i6rr, Freyr in Snorri's Edda 131 answers to 
OÖ^inn, Asabragr, Freyr in Saem. 86**; and invocations in Swed, 
folk-songs give him the first place: * hjalp mig Oihin, thu kaji 
hast f bjalp mi Ulf och Aj^mer Qry I ' Arvidss. 1^ 69. The same 
in Danish: 'hielp mig Oihin, du kan beit ! hieJp mig Ulf og 
Attmer Qribl* Syv 48. Asmer Gti = Asa-grim ; conf. ' hielp nu 
Qtleti Asagrim ! * Arvidss. 1 , 11. 

p. 1Ö2 n,] On Zens rpiro^ and Tpnoyiveia, conf. Welcker^s 
Trilogie 101-2, At bauquets the tbird goblet was drunk to 
Zeus: TO rpirov tcS St^rr^ph Passow s.v. «rcarrj^. Athena rpifij, 
Babr. 59, L 

p. 1 G2.] Otiinn = Udr, Ssöm. 46» ; = To/nhdr 46^ ; ^ prim 46V 
But where do we find Timpji outside of F. Magn, lex, myth. 
644? conf. Egilss. 610, where we can scarcely read Thriggi 
for Tveggi, On the Sansk, Ekafm, Bvitas, Tniaa see Kubn 
in Höfer 1, 279. 28K9, Zend. Thraefaono, ThrUa, Spiegera 
Zendav, 7. 66. Thi*aetaono=:Feridun, = the three-quicercd^ says 
Leo 3, 192*5 (Ist, ed.). 

p, 16;L] ON. Vili [weak decl., gen. Vilja] would be Goth. 
Vilja, OHG. Willo. The strong gen. in ' bruSr Vilis,' Egilss, 
610 is evid. a slip for Vilja, though we do find the strong nom. 
Vilir in ITngl. saga c. 3. May we conn. Tili with tbe Finn. 
veil, Lap- vdlja^ Alban, ß^Xd, f rater ? GDS, 271. 

p. 163 n.] Munch 1, 217 thinks Miihothm arose from mis- 
onderstanding metod ; to me it is plainly Fellow -Otbio^ like oar 
mit-regent^ etc. Saxo's 0Uei*u9 is the Eddie Ullr, as is clear 
(torn hie using a bone for a shipj Saxo p. 46, Yet Ullr seems a 



jumble of Saxo*s Olleras and Soorro's Vilir, Yngl c, 3 {KL sehr, 
5,425): skip Ullar, Sn, Hafn. 420 = 6kiöldr; mir ÜUar 426. 
Ydalir, bis hall, Sasra. 40\ UUer mgr, F, Magii. lex. 7ö6. 
üliar hißli, Sffitn. 45^ j hringr ü. 24"8»; 17, fi^yJ = Baldr 93V 
Ullr IS Thör-a stepson, Sn, 31. 101-5; boga-j veiSi-, öndr-, 
Bkialdar*as 1Ü5. 

p. 165.] I miglit have spokea here of OSin'a relation to his 
wife Frigij^ p. 299, and to Shad'i, whom the Yogi, saga c* 9 calls 
his wife. 



(Conr Kl. Schr. 2, 402—438.) 

p, 166.] Donar stands related to dime.n exteodere, expansion 
of the air (Hpt Ztscbr. 5, 182), as roi/o? to retVa), jet tonare is io 
Sansk. stan^ resembliiig arivrmpt arovo^ and our stöhnen^ Kl. 
sehr, 2, 412. In AS., beside Thunor^ of whom there is a legend 
(p. 812-3), we have also Dhor, Sal. and Sat. 51. So the rubric 
over John 5, 17 has panres-addg, while that over John 5, 30 has 
purs-dmgi and the Norman Dado calls him ThuTj Wormins 
mou. 24, The Abren* has Thnner, dat. Tkunure, MHG. still 
ditnre, Pass. 227, 81. Dietr. draoh. 1 10'\ deHdunres sun (Boaner- 
ges), Pass. 227, 59 (K!. sehr. 2, 427). For the compound Swed. 
tordon, Dan, tor den, the Korw. has tkardamij Faye 5, the Jemtl. 
fornt Almqv. 297, Weatgütl. thorn and Ma«. In the Dan. miirchen 
Torden'Vejr means Thor, as Donner-wetisr in Germ, curses stands 
for Donar. The Swed. Lapps call the thunder- god Tlerme^, 
Klemm 3, 86-7, Osfciaks Tonitm 3, 117^ Chuvashes Torai Tor, 
Yakuts Tmiam, Voguls Turom, Rask's Afh. 1, 44. 33. 

p. 167,] ON, rei^ is not only vehiculum, but tonitrn : lystir 
reiÖ' (al, j?ruma), Gula]>. Hafn. 498. Norw. Thorsreia tonitru, 
Faye 5. Danish critics regard Oknporr as a different being from 
Aaa]>6rr, and as belonging to an older time ; yet Sn. 25 places 
them side by side, and looks upon Tbor too as ÖkuJ^örr, conl 78. 
He drives a chariot; conf. the Schonen auperst. about Thor^ 

KilsaoQ 4» 40-4.^ la ÖstgötL tbe äska is called goa ; wben it 
thtinders, they say *goa gar/ Kalen 11*; goßtr kör, Almqv» 347, 
bat also gomoT gar 384, and kortihonden gur 385. In Holland : 
' onze iieve Heer reed (drove) door de liicht.' Father God is 
rolliDg d'brenta (milk-vessels) up and down the cellar steps, 
Wolfs Ztschr. 2, 54. Can the old kittel^kar (kettle-car ?) of the 
giant with two goaU refer to Donar's chariot? Müllenh, 447 j 
oonf. KL sehr, 2, 422. Thörr carries a hasJcet on his back : meis^ 
uirnmeis, Ssem, 75*. Sn. 111. OHG, meisa, Graff 2, 874. 

p, 167.] God thunders : die blikz^en und die dotirelege sinfc 
mit gewalte in sfiier pflege, MS. 2, 166*. Zeus raises tempest; 
ore re Zev^ XatXawa retvr), U. 16, 365 j 'what doth Zeus?' 
meant how's the weather? 0. MiUler's Gr, gesch. 1, 24. 
Jopiter, alles weters gewalt het er, Ksrchn 1152 (p. 630). In 
France: ni oistau nea Dmnledeu ionant, Aspremont 22**. nes 
Deu ionant ni poistau oir, Mort de Gar. 145-9. noissiez Deu 
ionant^ Garins 3, 205 ; conf. * si gran romore facevano, che i tuoni 
Bon si sarieno potuti ndire,* Decam, 2, 1. When a thunderstorm 
comes on, men say: 'schmeckste paar üchHel ? merkste a 
Bcheindl?' Weiiih, schles, wtb. 82; * ecce ubi iterum diaboluS 
Escendit!' Casa. Heist. 4, 21. The Rnssians shout words of, in- 
sult after the retreating tempest, Asbjörnsen's Hjemtnet 193. 

p. 163,] Thunder is God (or the angels) jda^ing at howU : 
nm Herr ^peeli kegeln, Schütze 4, 164. die engel kegeln, 
Müllenh, 358 ; conf. the skittle-playing in the Odenberg, p. 953. 
Or it la anger, and the thunder-bolt his rod, Pol hoiy prsjten. 

p» 168.] The same Taranui is in the Vedas a sornanie of Indra 
the thunder-god, he that passes through, from ttiran — trans ; 
snd so Peran may be conn, with iripa (but see p. 171, and Kl. 
»chr. 2, 420)* Welsh iaran thunder, Gael, iau'neachf tatrnearbachj 
tiso iorrunn, Taranucnu/t, Mone's Bad. urgesch. 2, 18I-. In 
Bargaudy a town Tamodnrujn, whose later name Totmerre and 
* le Tonnerroig/ Jos, Garnier 51, prove that the notion of thunder 
hkj in tbe old name ; conf. Kl. sehr. 2, 412. 

p. 169 D.] Thörr heitir Atli oc äsabragr, Sn. 211% conf. Atli 
208*. The Lapps call their Tiermes aiyeke, and his deputy 

* Th« 
Leifieu* « 

UlorriSL SsDi. 211», atid EindriSi need not oonfilct with the 
^ rhiirr walk« or eU© drives (p. 167 n.), lu Sn. 101 he ia culled föstri 
<p« 187. 2a7). In Sn- Furiuali 12 Laridt U called Tliur'& i>ou, and 
. . .»Lrij who has a wife Glura,. 



yunkare, sior-rjmthare. Klemm 3, 86, tbe Ests their Pikker wana 
essüj old father. Verb» 2, 36-7 ; and the American Indians their 
Supreme Being the granflfatheTy Klemm 2, 153* With the 
moan tains Eizel^ Allvater we may perh, associate a high mountain 
Oeischaii, Helbl. 7, 1087 (now Öftscher), from SL otets, 70C. 
otche, father; conf. KL sehr. 2. 42 L 

p. 170 n.] The St. Bernard or Great Bernard is called ' 
Montjottx, A.t, 1132* On the jugum Pmimnum, dens PenninuSf ' 
see Zenss 34, 99. Dieffenb. Celt. I, 170< Several inscriptions 
' J ovi Pmiino, Penino' in De Wal no. 211—227. A Mount of 
joy in Meghadota 61 ; in Moravia the Radosf^ joy, Finn, tla-kivi, 
stone of joy, Kalev* 3, 471. 

p. 171.] Comes ad Thniej^esberhc (yr. 1123), Erh. 150; apnd 
Thunei-esbei-g 133, Sifrit do Tonresherc (1173), MB. 33% 44. 
Sifridos de Donreshcrch (1241-58) 33*, 68. 90. Of a dragon it 
is said ; er hete wol dri kiele verslunden (swallowed) und den 
iJunre^herc, Diefcn drach. 262'' (str. 834). vom Donresberge, Hpt 
Ztschr. 1, 438. A Donnerffhcrg by Etteln, S. of Paderborn. AS. 
^ihuireshd, Kemble 3, 443. 4, 105. 5, 84. BmireHfild 3, 304. 
5, 131, couL 6, 342. Donereshnmno, Ztschr, f. Hess, gesch. 1, 

p. 171,] With Slav, grom^ hrom (Kl. sehr. 2, 418) put our 
LG. grummeln of distant thunder, Ir. crom, C7*uim thunder, Fr, 
grommeler growl; also Lifch. gnuija it thunders, growimmas 

p. 171.] To Lith. Perhtnas musza, Nesselm. 41 1**, and P. 
grauja, grumena 286*, add the phrases : Ptrrknutt twyksterejo (has 
crashed), P. uzdege (has kindled); Perkuno szowimmas (stroke), 
P. growimmas (peal), P. imbas (Hash); perkumja thunderstorm. 
The Livl. reimchr. 1435 says of him : als ez Peri «no ir abgot gap, 
daz nimraer so harte gevrotf. Near Büttenhof in Courlaod is a 
Perkunstein with legends about it, Kruse's Urgesch. 1S7. 49; a 
Perkuhnen near Li bau. Pehrkones is hedge- mustard. The Lapps 
have an evil god or devil jierkdj ptrgalak, Finn, perkele, Kalev, 
10, 118, 141. 207. 327 (Sup. to 987). 

p. 172.] In Finn, the oak (tammi) is called God's tree^ puu 
Ynmalan, Kalev. 24, 98. 105-7. 115-7; conf. Zeus's oak p. 184, 
robiir Jovis p. 170. Ju-glaus, -dio? j9a\avo? — castanea, Theophr. 
3, 8* 10. Diosc. 1, 145. The oak being sacred to Thorr, he slays 


the giatite that take refuge uader it; uader the beech he has no 
powier over them. It has been remarked, that lightning pene- 
tmteB twenty times as far into the oak as into the beech. Fries 
botodfl, 1,110. 

p, 172.] A Swed* folksong (Arvidas. 3, 504) makes Thftrr 
live in the mountain: locka till Thor i fjalL Benide Fiargvin^H 
daughter Frjgg, another daughter 7ör<^is called OSin's wife, and 
IS mother of Thdrr. But if Th6rr be = jPair^unt, he is by turns 
OSin's father and O^in^s son ; and he, as well as Frigg, is a child 
of earth (iörS), Kl sehr. 2, 415. GDS. 119, 

p. 173*] Of Enoch and EliaSj who are likewise named together 
in the ON. dicer's prayer (Sup. to 150), we read in Fuudgr, 
2, 112: 

sie hänt och die wal (option), 

daz sie den regm hehabin betalle (keep back rain) 

swenne in gevalle (when they please), 

UDt in abir Idzln vUezen (again let flow) ; 

ir Äungin megin den himel besliezen (shut up) 

unt widir flftuon (open), 

s6 si sich wellint muon. 

The Lithuanians call Lady-day Elyios diena, Ilyios diena, on 
which it begins or ceases to rain. They derive it from ilyia, it 
sats in (to rain) ; is it not rather Miasms day ? Elias legends of 
Wallachia and Bukowina in Schott. 375. Wolf Ztschr. 1, 180. 
Oo his battle with Antichrist conf. Griesh, 2^ 149. 

p. 1 74.] Hominem fulgure icium cremari nefas ; terra condi 
religio tradidit, Pliny 2, 54. Places struck by lightning were 
sacred with the Greeks, and were called fjXvataj tVi/XtJo-ta, be- 
cause the descending deity had visited them. They were not to 
be trampled : hoc modo contacta loca neo intueri nee calcari 
debcre fulgurales pronuntiant librij Amm. Marcel K 23, 5« One 
peealt»r rite was thoroughly Etruscan : such a spot was called 
Mfmialf because a two-year old sheep was sacrif, there, Feat us 
tub vv. bidental, ambtdens. O, Miiller's Etr. 2, 171 ; the railing 
loond it was puteal, and may be compared to the Ossetic skinpole : 
bidental locus fuhnine tactus et expiatus ove, Fronte 277. Cattle 
äimtk iUml by Ihjhtnlng are not to he eaten, Wostendorp 525. 
p. 175,] icTo^j.ümbr. savUu^ Aufr, u, Kirchh. 2, 268. ve &' 
TOL. IT, 1 



äpa Ztv<t iravvv^o^^ Od. 14, 457* Atben, 4, 73. to»' AC aXTyflctj? 
(pfL7}p hta KoaKivov ovp€tv, Aristopb. Clouds 373 ; ooof. imbrem 
in crihrum gerere, Plaut. Ps. i. 1^ 100. Aio<i 6fißpo<:, Od. 9, 
HL 358. ovT€ JleXoTTOJo^iTiW wev 6 Oeo^, Paus* ii. 29, 6. An 
Egypt, inag'iati conjures tlio nir-god Hrnnea (jhv aipiov) for rain, 
Cass. Dig 71, 8. Indraj who lias tlie thnnderbolt, is also god of 
rain; when he disappeared, it rained no more, Holtzm. 3, 140. 1, 
15. In Dalecarl. shaunnan äk, the shower-man rides = it thun- 
ders, Almqv. 258; conf. Goth, shira vindis = XatXai^, OHG. stur 
tempesfcas, grando, AS, scur procella, nimbus, ON. shut nimbus • 
(KKschr. 2, 425). 

p. 175.] Another rain -procession in 1415, LindenbL 30L 
Petronius^s ' uvidi tanquatn mures' is like our MHG. in EracL 
142^ : s6 sit ir naz ah eine mus (from Enenkel), wet as a drowned 
rat. A prayer of the legio tonamt, likewise under ^I. Antonine, 
brings on torrents, Cass. Dio 71,8. A Hungarian prayer for rain, 
Ungarn in parab. 90; others in Klemm 2, 160 (Kl. sehr. 2, 

p. 176.] PiUer, Kalewipoeg 3, 16. 23. 358. 16, 855. pikker^ 
taati 20, 730. On pikJmr and pikne see Estn. Verh. 2, 36-7. He 
is the avenging thrice-nine god, that appears in the lightning, 
and with red-hot iron roil (raudwits) chastises even the lesser gods, 
who flee before him, like the giants before Thor, to human hearths 
2, 36 — 38, Pikne seems an abbrev, of piJkäinen, tonitru, which 
occurs in the Finnic form of the Esth. prayer for raiu, Suomi 9, 
91, and comes from pitkli longns ; pUkaikäinen longaevus, the 
Old = Ukko, says Gastrin myth. 39, or perhaps the long streak 
of the lightning. On Toro^ Tooj\ Torropel see Estn. Verb. 2, 92. 

p. 176.] TJhko blesses the corn, Peterson 106. In a waste 
field on the coast of Bretagne St. Sezny throws his hammer, and 
in one night the corn grows up into full ripe ears around it, 
Bret» Volkss. by Aug, Stuber, prob, after Souvestre. 

p. 177.] The Thunder*god must be meant in the story of the 
red-h'ardnl giant and the carriage with the golden he-fjoaf, Wolf 
Ztschr. 2, 185-6. With the N. American Indians both Pahmi- 
oniqua and Jhächinfhiä (red thunder) are men's names, Catlin 
tr- by Bergh. 136. 190-1. 

p, 178.] The three phenomena of lightning are described as 
simultaneous in Hes, Theog. 691 : Kcpavvol tKTap afia ßpovrj} re 





mat aaT€poir7j wariovro. Distinct from fulgur is a fonrhli notion, 
fuigurailo (sine ictu). 

p. 178.] FuIqut is callod />7/A%^, fia late as Juatinger. Bllxhertj, 
now the mined castle of Piixburg (Pliekhs-perckh in old docs.), 
Btands in the Münster valley near Colrnar, oppos, a dwarf's mouu^ 
tain, ScliöpÖin Als, dipL no. 1336. des Snellen MiekeH t\ic, Freid, 
375, huneJblifke, Servat. 397. 1651. Roth* 3536. In Styria, 
kimlatzen to lighten, weterhlkke fnlgnra, Hpt Zfcschr. 8, 137. 
welterleich, Stalder 2, U7, hab dir das plah fener ! H. Saclis 
ii. 4, 19*, hhte light in th anders torms, Schwab's Alb. 229. 
Lightning strikes or 'touches*: mit blitz gerührt, Felsenb. 1, 7. 
It arises when gparJat are struck with the fimj axe^ p. 18D". 
813; af "^eim llomom leiptrir qvomo, SaDm. 151'. KpoviBi]^ a<f>i€t 
^toXocvra xepavvov. Od. 24, 539. apyt^ri tcepavpw 5^ 123, 13 L 
triMuJcum fülgar, Festus, Varro ap. Non, G, 2, Sen. Tliyest. 
1089. ignes trUulci^ Ov, Met 2, 8i8. Ibis 471. tela iriHuIca^ 
Clandian iii. Cons. Hon. 14. geneni fulminum ina esse ait 
Caecina, conHiUarium, nnctorttatift et statu», Am. Marc. 23, 5 ; 
conf. O. MiilK Etr. 2, 170. The Etruscans had nine fnlgnrafcing 
^ods 2, 84. In Romanicj lightning is mm%^ form, also calaverna, 
clialavera; stragUisch, sagletiai saetia lightn. that pierces, also 
Intscherna (lucema?). Lith. zaibas lightn., Ferlaino zaihas streak 
of lightn., from xlbeti to shine, Nesselm. 345, Mere fiilgnratio, 
«nmmer-lightn., distant, feeble, that does not strike, the Finns 
cjall Kalevaji iultft, K. valktat, i.e. Calevae ignes, bnita fulnnrin. 
aiitttmnalia» or kapeen Inlet, genii ignes. Lightning is named 
wvp At6<t, Hebr./re of Qod, 

p. 178 D.] Blcclcev, jilediazan, heaven opening, reminds of the 
Bastarnae, who thought, when it lightened, the sky was falling 
OD them, Livy 40, 58 ; conf. Duncker p. 84. In Servian songs 
munya is the vila's daughter, ijrom her brother. Mheis, moon, 
tDarriea Munya, Vuk 1, 154 n. 229— 23L 

p. 178»] Toniirus is tonirU (^lilancha, Hattem. 3,598*', ton- 
merklapf, Justinger 383. 'thunderclap words,^ Fr. SimpL 1, 231. 
d6ze$ klac, Parz. 379, 1 1 . Troj. 1 223 1 . 1 4603. donreHcal, Fundgr. 
2, 116, imuif^rbatz, Garg. 270^ 219\ from donerböz. ON. 
tkrmiga ioiiitra, conf. skroggr falminana. Dan. tordenskrahi, 
LG. gntmmpl-wier, ^schnür, 4 aar en (-cloud), Lyra 
see Sop. to 171, We say thunder roUt, grollt [if 



distant^ gromiuelt]. As lightn. is a bird's glance, thunder is J 
the flapping of its whtgif, Kleraro 2, 155. Zeus's ea(fh holds his] 
lightnings, and an ettgle raises the storm- wind, p. 6'^S ; cont the] 
bird of Dawn. 

p. 179.] Fulmea is OHG. (hnarstrdla, Graff 6, 752 andj 
lanarudiU, GL Jan* 19L Graff 2^ 707. bltc-srJioz mit (or, an) 
dnnr-slegen, Pass. 89, 49. 336, 9. des donres schuz, Freid, 128| 
8. donretttrdl der niht. enschiazetj TurL Wh. 11*. donifitrdlt 
Griesh. 151. die dotierhlicke, Fundgr. 1, 73* donreghlicke, Freid, 
123, 26. des donrMac, Pundgr. 2, 125. 'ob der doner z'aller 
frist slilege,, swann ez hlekztmd \%t/ if it struck every time it 
lightens, W. gast 203. swaz er der heiden ane qimm, di 
sluoc er also ein doner sän, Uother 2734. do sluog er also dor 
thone}', for dem sich nieman mac be warn, Diemer 218, 8. schür» 
»hie, Helbl. 8, 888, wolhenschoz, Lanz, 1483. weferwegen, Pass. 
33Ö, 10. 2, OHG. droa, drewa is both minae, oraculum, and 
fulmen, ictus» Graff 5, 246 ; because lightn. is a bodefu! phenom- 
enon ? 0» Fr. es foLlres du ciel, Ogier 1, 140. foudre qi art^ 
Guiteclin 2, 137, Le tonnerre a sept differentes formes pour se 
manifester aux Polognots. II tombe en fer, alors il brise tout| 
en/fw, il brüle ; en soajfre^ il empoisonne; en genuille, il etouffe; 
en pondrc/\\ etourdit ; en pterre, il balaje ce qu'il enviroune ; 
en boiSf il s'enfonce oil il tombe, Mem. Celt. 2, 211. 

p. 180.] On ihundirholtit see the 9th Bamb. Bericht p. 1 1 L ' 
Beside dvunentteint we have wetteratein, krotimisiein. Again : 
Beire Out, nnd liezt du vallen her ze tal ein stein, der mir 
derslüege, Suchenw. 78, 175. A fragment of thunderbolt healed I 
ovm* in the hand imparts to it enormous strength, Hpt Ztschr. 3|^^ 
366. A donnersiral of 24 cwt, hangs in Ensheim church, Garg^^H 
216\ Vestgötl. ThorS'käjl (-wedge), Swed, Tltor-viggar (-wedges), 
Sjöborg's NomencL f. nordmka fornlemningar 100, Indra's bolt 
and flash are svaruti^ from svar, sky, sun, Benfey 1, 457; conf. 
fiXvatay Sup. to 174. Like elf-shoi is the Sansk. 'vitulum veluti 
mater, lisk fulmen Marnfes sequitur,' Bopp Gl. 364'*; conf, mugi- 
entis instar vaccae fulmen sonat 262\ Athena alone knows the 
keys to the thunderbolt chamber, ^^sch, Eum. 727, like Mary 
in the nnrsery-tale of the forbidden chamber in heaven. Lith. 
* Perkuno knlka,^ P.'s ball. Serv. strelilsa, arrow, 

p. 181 J Miolnir reminds of SI. m^hfiya, molnia aarpa'Tnj, which 



Miklos. 50 derives from mleti, cooterere. The hammer is the 
sitnpte^ world*old implement^ iQilispensable to nearly every trade, 
and adopted by not a few as a symbol. At boundaries the ^ | 
hamarsmark was deeply graven, a cross with hooked limbs j * L 
afUirwarda a crossed oak served for a landmark^ Kl. sehr, 2, 4tJ. 
55. In blessing the cup (signa fidl) the sign of the hammer was 
made : bann gerSi hamargmark yfir, Häk. go Sa saga c. 18. Thor 
iDeS tvngum hamrum is also in Landstad 14. Thor's image has 
m greni hammer in its hand, 01 helga s. ed* Christ, 26, Fornm. 
sog^. 4, 245. That the hammer was portrayed and held sacred, 

■ is shown by the passage in Saxo^ ed. Müll. 6^0 : Magnus^ inter 
cetera traeophorum suorum insignia, inuMiiafi j^onderis malleoä 
quQs Joviales voeabantj apud insula rum quandam prlsca virorutn 

■ religione eultotf, in patriam deportaodos curavifc. That was betw. 
1105 and 1135. In Germany, perli. earlier, there were hammers 
and clubß as emblems of Donar on the church wallj or built into 
the town -gate ; to which was linked a barbarous superstition 
and a legend of the cudgel, Hpt Ztschr* h, 72. To the same 

_ cycle belong the tales of the devU'.f hammer, which is also called 
P danrurrkuhl, hammerkuhl, MüUenh. 268. 601 ; conf. p. 999. Pikno 

carries Hghtn. as an iron rod, see Sop. to 176. 
m p. 18 L] Thörr a /oe to gtants^ p. 531. As Wödan pursues 
I the subterraneans, so he the giants. They will not come to the 
I feast where Tordenv&ir appears, p. 189. 537. In Schonen, when 
^kj|tligbte&s, it is Thor ßoifgltuj the intUn^ Nilss. 4, 40. der (devel) 
^Hmer onsih vihtet mit viuren (viurJuen, fiery) sirdleiij Diemer 

p. 18L] Hanier sla bamer, sla busseman dot! Miillenh. 603; 
ccnf. Hermen sla dermen, p. 355. bim hammer! Corrodi Pro- 
fesser 16* 58* Vikari 1 1 . tummer und hammer, Prof. 96. ' May 
hearen's forked Ivjhtu, bury yon 10,000 fathofns underground 1 ' 
do widertno ez balde, oder dir nimet der donner in drln tagen, 
dm lip, Wolfd. 331, 3. 4 (Hpt Ztschr. 4). A Danish oath is 'ney 
f%ane gud!* Warmii Mon. Dan. 13. dass dich der Donnerstag 
(Tlmrsday — Thor), Ph. i^. Sittew, 2, 680. donnsfig ! du donnsHgs 
_ bob 1 Gotthelfs Erz. 2, 195-0. The Lithuanians, says 2En. 
SjrlTJQSy «scribe to Pereunnos a great hammer , by means of which 
ibe sun is rescued from captivity, JEn. Sylv, in den Kurland. 
L 2,0- N. Preuss. prov. bl. 2, 99; conf. Tettau u. Temme 



28, Lith. * kad Perhms pakiles deszimt klafterin tave i zema 
iti-enktu ! ^' may P. arise and strike thee 10 fathoms in to the 
earth, Schleicher bur. der Wiener acad. 11, lOö. 110. The Etrus- 
cans ascribed the hammer to Maniiis, Gerh* 17. 

Beside the hammer Thorr had his me'jin^fjiar^ar^ fortitudiiihs, 
roboris cingula, aud iini-ifreipr^ chirotecas ferreas, Sn. 112-3. 
er kann spennir |?eim (megingiorSum) urn sik, |?ä vex homun 
ds-mtgn hillfu, So* 26. )>a spenti hania megiiufiörö'tun 114, 
Ulis belt of might reminds us of Lauria 90li. 890. 1928; ze- 
brechent sin ijuritUiif do hat er von zwelf man knijt, A girdle 
imparts strength and wiftjom, WigaL 332, and shews the right 
road, 22-3. A girdle that stills hunger^ Fierabras 209 ; conf. the 
hunger- belt, A v^tduriae zona in Saxo ed. Mulh 124-. Like Tlier*s 
girdle is tbe blue baud in Norske folkev. no. 60, p. 365, 374-6. 
Müllenh. Schl.-holst. mar. 11, Moe's iutrod. xUi* 

p. 183.] In the Alps the salaumnder^ whose appearance be- 
tokens a storm, is enlled ivMir-giogo, Schott's Germans in 
Piedtiioüt 3O0. 316. A female stag-beetle carries red hot coals 
into houses (Odenwald). 

p, 183*0.] The harba JovU is held to have healing power, Caes, 
Heisterb. 7, lo. Jovis herba, hits-loek^ Moneys Quellen 289*. 
hüs'louch, Mone 8, 403. duiidi^Aottht crassala majtjr, Mone's Qa. 
283*". dunJar-lukj Dybeck 1845 p. 61, Jovis caulis, semper- 
vivum maga., Diosc. 4, 88. AS. pumtr-un/rtf barba J. ; fiouse^ 
leek planted on cottüge-roufs. Hone's Yrbk, 1552 ; conf. p. 1214. 
Tbe Swiss call the donnerbesen hexcnbesen, witch's broom. Staid. 
2, 42. Nemnich calls glecoma hederacea doitnerrvbej gundrebe, 
Tho donnernessel, urtica dioica, resists thuader, Finn, Vkon- 
tuhüio, fungus, fomes; Ü, nauris, rapa; JJ, lummet, caltha palus- 
tris; UMört-lehti, folium (lappa). Jovis colus, Aio^ iqXaKaTrj^ 
clinopodium, verbena, Diosc. 3, 99, 4, 61. Jovis madius, cata- 
nance, herba ülicuia 4, 132. i€pa rov Beov ^tjt/o^ at Dodona 
Paus. 1, 17* Jovis arbor, Ov. Met. 1, 104. A thuader-tree in 
Tyrol, Wulf Ztschr. While redbreast and beetle attract light- 
ning, the wanueiiweihe repels it, p. 674. It was a universal 
practice to rivg the church^belU to drive the thxmd*^r awaj, i.e. the 
heathen god, for bells are Christian. With the Thracians shoot- 
iug was a sdeguard against thutider and lightning (p. 20), as 
elsewhere agaiost an eclipse, p. 707, 


p. 184.] Note the Henneberg superstition about the haber- 
g^iss or himtnehziege^ phalangium opilio, a spider (Maler Müller), 
in Bruckner's Henneb. 11. By horsgok was formerly meaut a 
real hoi-se, Eiina 3, 14-5. The heaven's-goat is in Finn, taivnan 
vfiohi; she hovers between heaven and hell, bleating in the air, 
Schiefn. Finn. wtb. 612. Another Lith. name for it is daiujaus 
i>iy/r, Nessel m. 31, and Lett, Pehrkon ohsohf Possart^s Kurl. 228. 

The H^misqviSa calls Thorr ha/ra druiiinn ; his goats are 
iann-tjuioittr and tann-grls7ilrj dente frendens, as Lat. nejrendea — 
ftrietes (or porci) nondnm freudenteSj ihat have no teeth yet. 
Tiinnguiostr (tooth-giiasher) is also a man^s by-name, Kormaks, 
54. 134-6. 

p. 186*] Donerswe, Ehrentraut's Fries, arch. 1, 435. Hpt 
Ztschr. 11, 378. de Donrttpah, NotizenbL 6, 306. It seems 
ThnrU'lo in Trad, Corb, is not Thonares-loj but giant's wood, 
p. 521 ; yet AS. Thunresltd, Kemble 3, 443. 4, 105. 5, 8*. 243. 
Scand, Thorsleff, Molb. dipl. 1, 173; why not Thors-? In 
Sweden are Thorsby, Tiiorshdlia^ Thorslnndiif Thorstuna, ThorsvL 
Tiiorsäker, Thunfäng, Thorsäif, Thorso. On Thorstuna, -äker, conf. 
Schlyter Sv^. indeln. 32, TJiA^rscrig in Fixnen, TIwrähöi in Schles- 
wig, Müllenh. 584, In Norway Thörseij, Thörsnes, Thitn>höf^ 
MoDch om Sk- 107. Thorsnea, Landn. 2, 12, took its name from 
a piil&r with Thör's image being drifted thither. Thoritharg = 
ThorskaUa, Hildebr. torn, 3. Thorsborg ^ GntaL 94, a limestone- 
monntam 317. Thorshafn in Faroe, 

p. 187*] To the few German proper names compounded with 
Donar, add Uonarprehl^ Hpt Ztschr, 7, 529, Alhdmmr is conn, 
with the plant albdona» In Kemble no. 337, for * Thoneulf ' read 
Thoncrvlf. The Sax. Chron., yr, 920, has i^tircyteL An 0. Irish 
niiioe Tordealbhach ( = Thoro similis, says O'Brien) is worth 
QOtingt Tharhdli in the Heidarvigasaga, King Toril, whose 
lightuing scorches the sea, burns up forests and devours the city 
(Hpt Ztschr. 4, 507-8), is apparently Thor himself; perhaps 
Torkil ? for Thorild is fem.; conf. Thorkarl, p. 181 n. 

p. 187.] Thör's by-name of Vtngthfjir, Saem. 70*; Elndridl, 
Sup. to 167, foot-note. He is hard-huga^r, Saem. 74^, as the 
UUxa is hardraSr, p. 528. Again, fostri Vlngnis ok ///tJrM = föstri 
tlUrriöa, tSup. to 167. lar^ar burr, earth's son, Saem. 70*. 68\ 
1Ä7 ; Fiorgy/tjur burr, HloÖijnjar burr, Yggs barn 52*, Is Veort 



the same as verr, vir ? coiif. AS. weor, but tie ON. in od ifi cation 
would be viorr. 

p. 188.] Thorr, imagioed as a scm (in the Edda Be is either a 
youth or in the prime of manhood), does not accord well with the 
* old greaUgninäfather,^ In Stem, 54^ he is a sveinu^ but in 85^ 
A^'ahrtj/jr. Are we to suppose two Donars, then ? That in the 
North he may have been feared even more than OBin seems to 
follow from the fact that so many names of men and women 
contain hia name^ and so few that of Odin, 

p. 189.] His sons by larnsaxa are Magm Bud MoSij Sn. 110 
(couf. p. 823), he himself being endowed with k^^megin and hs- 
m6ffi\ larnsaxa is elsewhere the name of a giantess. He calls 
himself Magna fa-Sir^ Smm. 76*. His daughter becomes the bride 
of Alvls 48^*^'; is she ThrüSr, robur, whom he had by Sif ? Sn. 
101-9. He is himself called prnÖ'ugr äss, S^em. 72^ pruÖ^aaldr 
goSa 76*; and hia hmnmer pru^h a marr 67^. 

p* 191.] Neither the log-peUing at Hildeaheim (with which 
conf* 'sawing the old womau,^ p. 781-2) nor the whecl-njlling 
near Trier (Hocker's Mosel-ld, 1852, p. 415) can be connected 
with Jupiter, The latter ceremony, mentioned first in 1550 and 
last in 1779, took place thus. On the Thursday in Shrove^week 
an oak was set up on the Marxberg (Donnerab., Dummersb*), 
also a wheeL On Invocavit Sunday the tree was cut down, the 
wheel set on lire and rolled into the Moselle. A wheel, especially 
a flaming one, is the symbol of thunder, of Donar ; hence the 
lords of Doimcrsherg, burg- vassals to Cochheim, bear it on their 
coat-of*arms, Hontheim 2, 5, tab, v., likewise those of Moll (thun- 
der), while those of Hammerstein have three hammers in theirs. 
The signum of German legions, the 14th and 22nd, was the rolu: 
there is a tile with ' Leg. xxii.^' and a six>spoked wheel stamped 
on it. Mainz and Osnabrück have such a wheel on their 
scutcheon, Mainz as escutcheon of the legions (Fuchs*8 Mainz 2, 
94. 106). Krodo in Bothe's Sassenchr, can-ies a wheel (p. 206 n.). 
Has that heraldic wheel anything to do with the term riideU' 
fuhr er f ringleader ? 

p. 191.] On keeping Thursday holy, see especially Nilsson 4, 
44-5. tre Thorndags-qvuMav, Dyb. Runa 4, 37. 43, Cavallius 1, 
404. In Swedish fairy-talts spirits appear on thifrifdags-natt, and 
bewitch. If you do any work on Trinity Sunday, the Hghhung 

zio (tiw, tyr). 


will strike it ; hence women are unwilling to do needlework that 
day, Hpt Ztschr. 3, 360. Similar desecration of holidoyft by weav- 
ing, spiuning or knitting m often mentioned ; Servab. 2880 ; 

»wir ß&zea undo wäben, 
L d6 die lautliute erten disen tac . • . 

■ ßchiere runnen din weppe von bluote, 

H daz ez uns des Werkes erwante. 

A pooK girl spins on oor Lady's day, the thread sticks to her 
tongue and lipsj Maerl, 2, 219, Of women spinning on Saturday, 
«ee Miillenh. 168; they that spool flax in church-time oo Sunday, 
torn into stone, Reusch no. 30. Bpinniug was forbidden on 
Gertrude's day and Berchta's day, p. 270-3 ; among the Greeks 
on Bacchas's day, p. 911. Nevertheless the yarn spun on such 
holy days has peculiar virtues, p. 1099; conf, the teig- fallen, 
dongh-kneading on Holy Saturday night, Superst. G, v. 194. 
Yet again : Si quis die Domioico boves junxerit efc cum carro 
ambulaverit, dextermn bovem perdat, Lex Bujuv, vi, 2, L • 


p. 194.] In Umbrian the nom. was still Jiw, dat» Jtfve^ voc. 
Ju^aier, Aufir. n. Kuhu Ztschr. 1, 128 ; Juvas luvjrfjisf Jupiter 
liber, Mommsen 139. What of Finn, taivas^ coelum ? or even 
Öatf/30^, the Assyrian Mars (Suidas) ? A divergent form, ' vater 

Zi* in Miillenh, nr. 410. Dyaus is not only coelum, but a 

Vasu-god, who for stealing the cow Nandini has to go through a 
human life, Holtzm, 3, 101 — 6. Parallel with the ideas belonging 
to the root div, are those developed out of Sansk. «ur, splendeo : 
9ura deus, »nrja sol, »var coelum. 

p. 194.] Spiegel, Zendav. 6, connects Öeay with dhi, Lith. 
iiirra# god, d^ive goddess, dievaiflz (godkin) thöuderer, dievaiis 
(goddeaskin) rain-goddess; conf. Pott's Etym. fursch. Ist 
ed, 56*7. Benfey's Orient 1, 510. 

p* 195.1 Wackernagel in Hpt Ztschr. 0, 19 retains Tidsco = 
daplex, and explains it as zwitter, two-sexed, just as Lacbm. 
makes taisc = bimus, two years old; and Müllenhoff agrees with 


ZIO (tiw, TYB), 

thetii 9, 2(\l, In that case Tuisco would have nothing to do with 
Ziu, aiKl Tiieitus must have indicated the mar^ellous hermaphro» 
dite nature. It is a question whether Zio^ Tio have not per- 
petuated himself in the ahirm aad battle cries zieter, zeter, 
tiodute, tianutl and iu ziu dar naher , Parz. 651, 11 ; see Gramm. 
3, 303, RA. 877. Leo in Hpfc ZtscUr. b, 513. Again^ did zie^ 
tie (assembly) origiDally mean divum, as iu 'sub divo, dio'? 
The Prov* troubadours have sotz dieu — suh divo, under the open 
sky, Uiez's Leb. d. Troub. 166-7; yet it may 'mean sub Deo. 

p. 195*] From div splendeo (Lith. zilwil) come tlivt diva 
coehiiu, and divarif divasa, divana, contn dina^ dies, Bopp Gl. 
168. In Caes. B. Gall, 6, 18 Diespiter is called Dhpaler, abl. DUa 
patrej 0. Miill Etr. 2, 67 ; conf. Dissunapiter^ p. 225. The 
Etruscan panels have sometimes Tiiiia for Tina. 

p* 19S.] The Germaui sacrificed to their Mars for victory: 
veüita spoUiß douabere quercu (Mavors)^ Claudian iu Ruf. ljo39, 
haic praedaB priniordia vovebantur, huic truncis suspendehautur 
exiivias, Jörn. 5. hosiiles sufipeudlt in arhore cristas^ CI. in Huf. 
1, 346. Kuhn Üuds many points of comparison between Wuotan 
and the Roman Mars, whom he takes to have been originallj a 
god of spring. Märs = Miiruta3 is a by-name of Indra, Hpt 
Ztschr* 5j 491-2, To T^r Vlga-guÖ' corresponds ' Mars des wigs 
got' ia En. 5591. Troj\ 8140. 8241. Ma. 2, 198*»: Mars siHtes 
gtif. Christian writers suppose an angel of victory marching in 
the front of battle : coram eo (Ott one impemtore) angelus penea^ 
quern victoria. Mara is a mere abstraction in Erm. Nig, 2^ 2: 
straverat adversos Marsqne Deusque viros, and Pertz 8, 228 : jai 
per ordiuatas omui parte acies Mars crufmtus cepisset frendere ; 
couf, p. 203. 

p. 198.] Zieahurc, Augsburg, Hpt Ztsclir, 8, 587, Diuspvrch, 
Lacomb. 83 (yr 904), Tusbur^ 205 (1065), Dtndmrg, all = Duis- 
burg, TLietm. 5, 3. 9. Düseburg, Weisth. 4, 775. A Doesburgh 
in Gelders; Ihisaberg, Ttjssenberg, Wolf Ztschr. 1, 337. Denherg 
near Vlotho, Redecker 59. Dei^euhtirg, Diesenherg ; Tistedej Hamb, 
liber actor, 331-2. Tllsvad^ Tliawaih, in JutL, Molb, dipl. 1, 9, 
Zirelberg near Schwatz in Tyrol^ H, Sachs i. 3, 251*; conf. p, 
298, Zim, Zlsenhimj, GDS. 54L 

p. 199.] Add Tived, TUved, Tivebark, Dyb. 1845, 50-9. MHG. 
zidelbastf Gervinua 2, 233; conf, Zigeliuta, p» 1193. 



zio (tiw, ttb). 


p. 200.] The very old symbol of the planet Mars cf stood 
apparently for the war-god's shield and spear. Here T^r reminds 
us of O^iun and his Güngnir, p 147. With tlfe idcnian conf. 
iiffiBsi tacen^ Cod, Exon« 236, Vi; süjorfacen lü9, 3, ahjorediccii^ 
fri^viacen circamcisiou, note on Eleue 156. Ctedm. 142, 29. 

p. 202, J Judges often held their court on Eitag^ see Kalten b. 
1, 563^**. 580*; and judgment may mean war, decision, RA. 
818-D* Was a sword set up iu the court? On FamarSt Fanmans 
see GDS. 529. 619. 

p, 20*i*] The trinity of the Abrenunt. requires a ffodj not a 
mert^ hero ; for that i*eason if no other, SaJwnot must be Mars, 
or at lowest the Freyr of the Upsal trinity. With Saxnedt 
compare larnmjfa^ Thor's wife, Sn. 110. In Pomerauia they 
still swear by ' doner sexen/ in Bavaria ' meiner aechsert/ Schm* 
3, 193-4; conf. *meiu aix I ' 

p. 205.] On the divine Chem see GDS. 612» Lucian supplies 
I ilidditional proofs of the Scythian worship oi' the sword ; Toxaris 
38 : ov fta ^ap tov "Avefiov Kal top 'Akivuktjv* Scytha 4 : aXXd 
trpo^ Akivukov teal -Za/ioXf iSo?, rwy warpwüfv )}pXv 0€mv, Jupiter 
Trag* 42 : Stcv0at Atapäfcrj i^vovreq Kai Opaiee^i Zaft^oX^tSi^ Conf, 
Clem. Alex, admon. 42. GDS, 231. Priscus, quoted in Jörn, c. 5, 
ed. Bonn 20Ij 17. 224, remarks on the sword: Ap€o^ ft<^o? oirep 
OF Upop xal irapa r^v SfCvÖiKOii^ ßaaikiwv, ola Si} 
TflS i^Qp<p Tcav TroXip.wv uvaKeip>€Vov, iv TOi? iraXat a^avia6?}vat 
^ovois, f tra Sia ßoof; evpedfjvaL The Mars of the Alans is men- 
tioned by Lucan 8, 223 : duros adtrni Miuiis Alanos. The 
forship of lance and sword among the Bomans is attested by 
Justin 43, 3 ; Nam et ab origine rerum pro diis immortalibus 
veteres hcuttas coluere, ob cujus ruligiouis me muri am adhuc deo- 
ram simulacris hastae adduntur; and SueL Calig. 24: tre» yladios 
io Decern snam praeparatos Marti uHorl addito elogio cousecravit. 
^B sword, preserved in Mars^s tomple at Cologne, was pro* 

dted to Vitellius on his election, Mascuu I, 117, Later tiiey 
toelt before the sword at a court-martial, Ambraser liederb, 370; 
conf. Osw. 29G9 : 

do viel er nider QE siuiu kuie, 
daz swert er an biu haut gevie, 
und zoch ez uz der scheide. 

1352 zio (ttw, ttr) 

der helfe des nilit vermeit, 
daz orfc (point) liez er niden 

To Svantevit, Saxo ed. Müll. 824 givee a coni^pietme (franditatis 
V7iai8* The Indian Thugs worship on their knees an axe or bill| 
which is mysteriously forgedj Ramasiana (Calcutta 1S36.) 

The war-god has also a helmet, witness the plant nanaed "Apfo^ 
Kvvi), Tyr-hialmj p, 199. 

p. 206,] Hre5-cjninges, Cod, Exon. 319, 4, said of the wicked 
Eorm auric, and therefore probably from hreS, hreSe, crudelis (p. 
290); while Hre^goiuvi 322, 3 answers to ON. ReiSgotum, ' Red 
red brengfc I'aed raed,' where the Walloon has ' Marg, Mars/ 
Coretnan's Ann^o de Pane. Belg. 16; conf. Ret-monatj p. 290, 
We are not warranted in referring Hro^rs (or hrö?$rs) andscoti, 
H5^misq. 11, to T^r. 

p. 206 n.] Zeuss 23 believes in Krodo, and thinks Beto in 
Letzner is the same, Crodio, Cod. Lauresh, 1634; Crodico 
1342. Croda, Kemble 1, 143; Creda \, 159, 177. Kro^ie dnvel, 
p. 248. I am not sure but that Nithart^s Kroiolf (Hpt 117) has 
after all a mythical sound, and it is followed by a similar compli- 
ment Uetelgöz, p. 367 n. Krathabothl in LüntzeFs Hildesh. 51, 
KreetpfuM, Kteeikind, DS. 1, 415. A ' rivus Krodenhek/ Falke'a 
Trad. Corb. 612. KroHorf in Halbei-stadt country, conf. Krotten' 
»fein for Donnerstein. 

p. 207.] Sim rock tbinks T^r is one-handed, because a sword 
has only one edge. Does a trace of the myth linger in 'rw& ich 
weiz dei wolves sant (tooth)^ d4 wil ich hüeten (take care of) 
miner hant/ Freid. 137, 23? or in the proverb ^ brant stant as 
dem dode (Tio ?) eine rechte hant/ Wolf Ztschr. 1, 337 ? Conf. 
the Latin phrases ; pugnare aeqvo, pari, certo, ancipitej dubioj vario, 
pntj^rio, suo Marte. Widakind has coeco Marte 1, 6, like coeco 
furore 1, 9. When fighters see the battle going against tbem, 
they leave off, and acknowledge wv wpo^ rov ßeov a^ixriv o aymv 
yevotro, Procop. 2, 641. The fickleness of victory is known to 
the Od, 22, 236: ovtto) Trdyj^v 5/Sov erepaXxia viKfju (conf. 'ein 
Hie-und-dort,' Geo- 5748), Victory and luck are coupled to- 
gether : fig und saelden geben, Albr. Tit. 2920-33. an sig u. 
savldeii verderben 2929. 

p. 208.] Companions of Mars : drcumque atrae Formidinis 



jra, Jraeque Tnsidiaeque, dei comitatus, agantur, Aen. 12, 335. 
Luctun comifcatur eon tern (Tisiphonen), Et Favor et Terror^ trepi- 
doque Imarua vnltU;, Ov, Met. 4, 485. Bülona^ Favor, Fonnido, 
Claud, in Ruf. 1, 342; Metus cum fratre Pavore, De laud, Stil.; 
Itnpdua hoiTibilisque Met us ^ In Pr, et Olybr. 78, Belfiara rraviKa, 
-Prucop. 2, 550, panicua terror, Forcell, sub V7, pan, paDicus, 
panic folHi^e-rustling fright, Garg, 25t)^. So tlie Weed, volksl. 
2, 266" make Trlahh, Strakh dwell Id a dismal haunted spot j SI. 
ririakhftriatf, tremor^ is perb. the Goth, jjlahs. The Finu, kammo 
tgeuiud horroris, horror. There is an ON, saying; ' Oltar er 
Aremat t flocki |?d fl^a skal ' ; is that from dtti, tiinorf conf. the 
ÖtUr in HyndiulioS. ' Thi\ skaut (shot) >eim ttkdk i brtagu ' 
' skaut xkelk I bringu ok c/iffi/ where skelk aud otta are 
saaatives of skelkr aud 6tti, timer. Goth, agia disdraus ina, 
iwe fell upon him, Luke 1,12; conf. AS. Br6ga and Etjesa, Andr. 
ii. and diu i^alit-egese, Diemer 266, 23. OHG. gefieng tlio 
mili forhta, fear took hold of, T. 49, 5. There is personification 
ulso in the Romance ^ negus dcu pot ir, si mos torna t^spavertt, Albig. 
'4087. A different yet lively description is, * so that the cat ran 
up their backs,' Garg. 256^ 218». Beside Hilda-Bellona (p. 422) 
appears a male Hihlo/r, Saem. 7o\ like Berhtolt beside Berhta. 

p. 208.] Ty^Vf who la the HymiaqviSa accompanies Thor to 
the abode of Uymir^ calls the latter his father, and Hymi's cou- 
oubine his mother; he is therefore of giant extraction; conf. 
Uhland'a Thor 162-3. Is this TJr not the god, as Simrock sup- 
^aes him to be (Gdda, ed. 2, 404) ? 



p. 210.] The Yngl. 13 calls Freyr veraldar goJ, Saxo calls 

Pro dear urn »atrapa. Goth, frduja stands not only for KvpiQ^, but 

for 0(6^, The Monachua San gall, says (Pertz 2, 733) : tunc ille 

r verba, qui bus eo tempore superiores ab infurioribus honorari 

9inalcerique vel adulari solebant, hoc modo labravit : ' hwte vir 

domine, laeHfice rex 1 ' which is surely */ra henro I ' OS,, beside 

i^ etc,, has the form /nioÄo, HeK 153, 1 ; if it had a god's name 

that would account for Fros-d^ i.e. Fri's aha, ouwa^ ca. 



AS. has other compoiinfls, freäbeorlifc (frealibeort) Hmpiiliis, Lye 
HTid Hpt Ztsclin 9, 408«*; freÄtorlit limpidus 9, 511% conf. Donar- 
peril t ; fre^raede expeditus {frealirfBcIe, Lye) ; freadruman jnbilare, 
freinbodian nnntiare ; a fem. name Freeware, Beow. 4048. In 
Lohen^. 150, zuD dem fron — to the holy place. ON. lias also a 
frdnn nitidus, comscns. From Fris. fräna may we infer a frd 
dominus ? Bopp (GL 229'') conjecfc. that frdnja may have been 
frabuja, and be conn, with Skr. prabhu, dominus excelsus ; yet 
wpavi^ mild, seems to lie near [Slav, pmu rectus, aequus, praviii 
regere, would conn, the meanings of probus, 7rpafo<i, and frauja], 

p. 212.] Ff^ei/r oc Freyja, Saam. S9, He resembles Bacchus 
Liber, Ai6pv<to% q *E\€uff€pio<^, Pans. i. 29, 2, and Jovis lufreis, 
liber. From his marriage with Ger?5p (p. 309) sprang Fiulnir, 
Tngl, 12, 14. Saxo ed, M. 120 likewise mentions his temple nt 
TJpeal : Ft-o qnoqne, deorum switrapa, aedem hand procul Upttala 
cepifc. Frai gives food t^o men, Faye 10. The god travelling 
through the country in his car resembles Alber, who with larded 
feet visits the upland pastures (alpe) in spring, Wolf Ztschr. 2, 
62 ; conf. Carm. Burana 131* : ' redit nh 6.Ti7/o Ver coma mtilante/ 
and the converse : ^ Aestas in exilmm jam peregrinatur/ ibid, 
(like Summer, p. 759) ; ' serato Yer earcpre exit,' ib. 135. 

p. 213 n,] On the phallm carried about in honour of Dionysos 
or Liber by the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans, see Herod, 2,48, 
Härtung 2, 140, ff>aWoi iaratri^if rolo'i irpoTrvKaioKTi Ho tcapra 
fieytiXoi, Lucian De dea Syra 16, where more is told about phalli, 
conf. 28-9. An ' Idohim priapi ex anro fabrefactum ' in Fertz 
5,481. Phalli hung up in churches at Toulouse and Bordeaux, 
Westendp, 116. The O. Boh. for Priapus was PHpehil, iimgva, 
sub v., or rripeijala^ Mone 2, 270 out of Adelgar in Martene 1, 
626, Sloven, knrenetj kurent, Serv. kurai* 

p. 214.] OnUmhuriifij conf. ffnUi hi/n^fnm^ Sn. 101. There is 
a plant guUbnriif^ which in German too is eher würz, boar wort, 
p. 120S. The Herv. saga c. 14 (p. 4G3. 531) in one passage 
assigns the boar to Freyr, in the other (agreeing with Sgsm. 114") 
to Freyja, Perhaps the ennrmous boar in the OHG. song, Hat- 
tem. 3, 578, and the one thot met Olaf, Fornm, Bog. 5, 165, were 
the hour of Frcyr. In thrashing they make Bpig of straw, Schm. 
2, 502, to represent the boar that * walks in the corn' when the 
ears ripple in the breeze, conf. AS. gursecg, ON. lagastafrj Hhe 

FBO (fr eye). 


wfld 80W la the com/ Meier scliw, 149. Roclioltz 2, 187; *de 
mllcn mmue lupet drupe/ Sclmmbacli 118^ 

p, 215.] On eoforcianim! conf. Atidr. and EL 28-9. Tristan 
hAS a boar-shield, 4940, GG18. Frib. 1944; ' hevedes of ^Id- 
bare (boars) ich-on to presant brought/ Tliom. Tristrem 1, 75. 
Wr&sn, wraesen (Audr. 97) la FrecUivrtUnum ia vinculum, and 
Freyr ' leynir of hoptam (bonds) hvern/ Saem, 65* (conf. p. 1231). 
A helmet in Hrolf Kr, sag-a is named Hildtsrin and Hihltgöltr, 
Doea *^e\mT}6t E lent her ^ in Walthar. 1008-17 conceal a divine 
Fro and Liher ? 

p» 215.] On the boards head served np at Christmas, see 
Hone's Tab,-blc 1, 85 and Everyday-bk 1, 1619-20. guldsvin 
som Ijser, Asbjö, 386; the giant's jul-galt, Cavallius 2ß; jitUhös, 
sinciput verrinom, Caval. Yoc, Verland. 28\ 

p. 216.] Skiö'hlfi(Tnlr is from skrS, ski^'i^ aaser, tabula; Rask, 
Afh, 1, 365, sees in it a light Finl. vessel. Later stories about it 
in Miillenh. 453. The Yngl. saga gives the ship to O^inn, but in 
Seein. 45»^ and Sn. 48, 132 it is Frey's. 

p. 217.] Freyr is the son of NiÖrÖ'r and SkaM, who calls him. 
' eunfrSdl afi/ Sa?m. 81*. She is a giant's, piazi's, daughter, as 
Ger5r is Gymi* s ; so that father and son have wedded giantesses. 
The storj' is lost of Freyr and helt\ whom Freyr, for want of his 
6 word, slays with a buck^s horn, or his fist, Sn, 41 ; hence he is 

led bant Befja, Saem, 9*. Freyr, at his teething, receives 
^IWieim, Seem. 40^ 

Many places in Scand. preserve the memory of Freyr : Frösö, 
Norw, dipL ; conf. From, Sup. to 210. Frojrak (Freyrakerj^ 
Dipb norv. 1, 542. Frndnnd, Dipl. suec, 2160; Fi-oswi 1777; 
FffMUrtj 2066. Frösäker in Vestmanl, Dyb. i. 3, 15. Schlyter 
Sv. indeln. 34. Fröälöff in Zealand, Molb. dipl, 1, 144 (yr 1402). 
Froskog in Sweden, Runa 1844, S^. Frosunda^ Frosced, Fromonf 
Frötutiaj Frölunda, Frojeslunda, all in Sweden. Frolunnm, DipL 
ftiiec. 228. FtyfJed, in Jönköpiogs-län is styled in a doe, of 1313 
(Diph soec. no. 1902) Frole or FröaU; a Froel in the I. of Goth- 
Und appears to be the same name, in which Wieselgr. 409 finds 
brfssleitS, way; may it not be eled^ eld^ fire? NiarSarhof ok 
Frey»hoj\ Munch om Sk. 147. Vroinlo^ now Vronen in West 
FriesL, Böhmer reg. 28, Miillenh. Nurdalb. stnd. lo8. A man's 
natoe Frej/steinn is formed like Thursteinn. 



p. 217,] NiorSr is called vieim vani, inoocuus, Saem, 42" J 
Sa>m. 130*^ speaks of ' NiarSar dcBtur niii ; ' nitie muses or waves f] 
t'unf. Heimdairs 9 mothers. NiörSr lives at Noatim on tbe 
sea, and Weinhold in Hpt Ztschr, 6^ 40, derives the name frotnj 
Sansk. utra aqua, uiradht ocean as ; add Nerens and Mod. Gr. [ 
y€p6i\ Schaflarik 1, 167 on the contrary connects NiorSr and 
Niorunn with Slav, nur terra. Or we might think of Finn, nnori 
juvenis, mtoriis Juventus, nuoriua juvenescOi Esth* noor young,! 
fresbj 7ioordus yonth j Lap. nttor young. Or of Celtic neart^ 
atrengthj Wei. tierih^ Hpt Ztschr, 3^ 226; Sabine A^t^rö = fortis 
et streu U08, Lcpsius Inscr. Umbr. 205. Coptic neter god and 
goddess. Buns. Egy, 1, 577. Basque naiiea norths and Swed. Lap. 
nnori borealis, not Norw. nor Finn. That he was thougbt of in 
conn, with the North, appears from 'inn norÖ^ri KiörSr/ Forum. 

6Ög. 6j 253. 12, 151, where Fagrsk 123 has nerÖ^rt. Places 

named after him : Nia7*Ö'ey, Landa. 2, 19. Nta^rävik 4, 2. 4. 
Laxd. 364. Niar&arUgr, 01. Tr. c. 102. Pornm. s. 2, 252 (see 
12, 324). Munch "s Biörgyn 121 ; ah Mar^a-lög, Jarditr-lög. Is 
the Swed. Ndriuna for Närd-tnna? and dare we bring in our 
Nörtenhy Göttingen? Thorlacius vii. 91 thinks nlaT&4a»m Ssöm. 
109^ means sera adstricta, as fiiard'-tjiorff is arctum cingukira 
[uiarS*=: tight, fast, or simply intensive]. What means the 
proverb 'galli er k giof NiarcTar^ ^ NiörSüngT ? Gl. Edd. Ilafa. 
1, 632\ 

p. 218.] Bask also (Saml. afb. 2, 282-3) takes the Vanir for"" 
Slavs, and conn. Heimdall with Bielbogh, I would mther sup- 
pose a Vanic cult among the Goths and other (subseq. High 
German) tribes, and an Asic in Lower Germany and Scandi- 
navia, Kl. acbr. 5,423 seq. 436 seq. * Over hondert milen heneu, 
Daer wefcic (wot I) enen wilden Weneiij* Walew. 5938 ; appar. an 
elf, a smith, conf. Jonckbloet 284. 

p. 219.] OJSin's connexion with Freyr and NiorSr, pointed 
out on p. 348, becomes yet closer through the following circum- 
stances. OtSinn, like Freyr, is a god of fertility. Both are said to 
own SkiSbla^nir (Sup, to 21 Gj, both GerSr, p. 309, Fiölnir, son 
of Freyr and GerSr, is another name of OSinu, Siem. 46^ (p, 348). 
SkaiSi, NiorS's wife and Frey'a mother^ is afterwards OiSin^s 





p. 220*] Ace, to Saxo, ed. M. 12i, Eolheruts ia son to Hoth- 
broduB rex Sueciae^ and brother to Atislus (thö ASila of Tngl. s.) ; 
Namia ia daagbter to Gevarus (OHG. Kepaheri)^ and no goddess^ 
indeed she rejects on that ground the suit of the divine Balder. 
Balder seems almost to live in Saxony or Lower Germany ; the 
Saxon Gelderus is hia ally and Hother'a enemy, and shares 
Balder'a overthrow. Balder has come to Zealand, apparently 
from Saxony ; he never was in Sweden, Saxo makes Nanna 
fall to the lot, not of Balder, but of Hother, who takes her with 
him to Sweden, Balder, mortally wounded by Hother, dies the 
third day. The tale of king Bolder's fight with king Hother is 
told in Schleswig too, but it makes Bolder the victor, MuUenh. 
373 ; C50nf. the tale of Balder and Ruue 606, 

p. 22L] Faltar also in MB. 9, 23 (year 837). ' Bahlor servus,' 
Polypt, de S. Remig, 55*, Baahlaich, Nengart no. 289. Lith, 
hat t&s = white, good (conf. Baldr inn ^ocTt, Sn, 61), baltorus a 
pale man ; and the notions white and quick often meet, as in Qr* 
dpjo^, Paasow sub v. 

p, 222.] A god Baldach is named in the legend of St. Bar- 
tholomew (Leg. aur* c. 118), also ia the Passional 290, 28 ^ but 
in the Mid- Ages they said Baldach for Bagdad, and Baldewios 
for Bedouins. Svipdagr, Menglö5*s lover, is the son of Sölbiiirt 
(san-bright) and Gr6a* To the proper names add Odertac, which 
.fBÄWers best of all to BtMceg^dies. ignis. Conf. also the Celtic 
'*BW, Belenus, p, 613. 

p. 222*] Baldr's beaming beauty is expr. in the saying ; fS-tt 
\ a Baldri; bat what means the Icel. saw : lofjiiT he fir Baldr 
iri, Fomm. sog, 0, 257 f From his white eyebrow- — a 
feature ascr. also to Bödvildr, ' meyna hra-hmio* Ssera, 139"*^ and 
to Artemis yuevfco^pvvTi — the anthemis cotnla is called Ballerhro, 
Fries, udfl. 1, 86 ; conf. Dyb. 1845, p. 71. Ho gives name to 
Baldereif htge, Kemble, 5, 117 (863), and BaUeres eih, oak. 

On Breiaahlik, conf, p. 795 ; add ' in manigen breiten blichen/ 
Tr, kr- 42175. Midsummer was sacred to Balder, and the Chris- 
tiaiu aeetn to have put St. John in his place. The mistletoe. 


PALT AR (balder). 

with wliich he was slain, haa to be cut at that time, Djb, Rana 
1844, 21-2* Do the firea of John commeraorate the baroing 
of Balder^s body f In Tegiier*s Fritbiofss. xiii,, Baldersbal ia 
lighted at Midsummer* — ' Hvafc maelti (spake) OBion, a5r a bal 
Btigi, sialfr i eyra »yni (in bis son's ear) ? ' Sssm. 38° ; otherw. 
* i eyra Baldrif aSr hann var 4 bal borion?^ Fomald, sag. 1, 
487. Conf, Plaut. Triuum/j. 2, 170: ' sciunt id quod m aurem 
rex reginae dixerifc, sciupt quod Juno fabulata eat cum Jove,' t.a. 
the greatest secreta. 

p. 224.] Uod^r is called Bahltirs bani, B. andskoti, Ssem, 95*' ^; 
he is brought and laid on the funeral pile (ä bäl) by his slayer 
the newborn Vali, ibid. The Edda does not make him out a god 
of war^ nor does the ON» ho5r mean pugoa ; but the AS. UeaSa 
does (Kemb. Beow, vol. 1, and in hea&laf, Beow. 914), so does 
the Ir. caikn In Saxo, Hothenis is a Swed. hero, and not blind, 
but skilled in the bow and harp {ed, M, 111 : citliaroedus 123) ; 
he is favoured by wood*nymphs, and gifted with wound-proof 
raiment and an irresistible Bword, Is the Swed. tale of Blind 
Hatf, Cavall, 363, to be conn, with him ? Consider Hadoläva, 
Had el a, Hatheleria, Hadersleben ; and Hothers-nes (now Hor- 
sens ?) in Jutland is supposed to be named after him, SaiLo 122« 
An AS. HeaSobeard, like Loagbeard. 

Henno^r is in Sögubrot (Fornald. s. 1, 373) called ' bazfc huga'Sr,* 
and 'likeHelgi/ i.e. comparable to Helgi. In Beow. 1795 he 
is named im med. after Sigemund ; he falls into the power of the 
Eotens, and briogs trouble on his people; again in 3417 lie is 
blamed. Does HermoSr mean militandi fessus ? OHG, Heri- 
muot, Herimaofc (never Herimuodi), is against it. Hentt odes porn 
in Kemb. Chart. 3, 387 ; ' terra qiiae Anglice llermodesoih* nan- 
cnpatur,' Chartol. mon. S. Trinitatis (Guernrd S, Bertin 455). 

p. 224.] The spell is given p. 1231-2. On Phol, see Kl. 
sehr. 2, 12—17. F. Wächter in the HalL Encycl 1845, art. Pferd, 
pronounces phol the plur. of a strong neat, noun phol, a foal. 
Thus : * foals and Wodan fared in the wood.* But the poem 
itself uses for foal the weak (the only correct) form voh ; and 
what poet would think of naming the god's horse or horses 
beside, and even before^ the god himself ? Again, was ever a 
running horse said to Jahren ? 

p. 220,] Pfalsau is called Pßah*owa, MB. 4, 519 (circ. 1126); 



Phoh'hon 4, 229; and PIwU-u 4, 219. 222-3. Phtih-oima, No- 
tizenbK 6, HI. Phoh-owe, Bair. quellen, 1, 279. To the 'eas' 
enumer. in Hpfc. Ztschr- 2, 254, add ' des Wunftches ottwe,' Gerh* 
2S08; 'der juncfrouwen wert,' Iw, 6326 (Guest 196^ lille at 
paceles) ; Ootis-werder in Prussia, Lindenbl. 31. 150. With 
P/iolei'piunt conf. other names of places also cornpounded with 
the geo, case: Ebures-piunfcj Tutilis-p.^ Heibiste3-bunta (Fin. 

p. 226.] Pfahlbronn by Lorch, Stiilin 1, 85. roJdbom on the 
Devirs Dike, Wetterau, p. 1022-3. Juhaunes de Paleborm, yr 
ISOO (Thar, mitth. iv, 2, 48) ; is this our Paderborn? and may 
that town, called in L. German Padelborn, Palboru^ Balborn, be 
on© of Balder's burns ? Balhoru in the Palatinate, Weisth. 1, 
778-9. Balde-himien, Mrne, Böhraer*s Beg. 231-2, yr 1302. 
Heinrich von Pfoh-pruudt^ surgeon, brother of the Teut. Order 
abont 1460. Pol horn j a family name at Berlin. In H. of Fritz- 
lar, Janaary or February is Volhorne, conf the man's name VolU 
hf/rn^ Fülleborn, also Faulborn, GDS. 798, [Plenty of Ful-bnrns, 
-becks, brooks, -meres, -hams, etc. in EngL] A Pal-gunse (and 
Kirch-gun<ae) in the Wetterau, Arosb. urk. no. 439; do phal- 
guose, p. 267; palgunse, p. 298. Phalnrade, Thiir, mitth. vi. 
3, 2, Pfulnrode, 4, 47. 66. Fale^hnth, Lappenb. urk. no. 805. 
812, yr 1283-4, now FulhabütteL Balder alee in Schleswig is 
supposed to contain Idie refugium, and appar. answers to the 
place named Balderi fnga in SaxOj cd. M. 119. 

p- 227.] That Phd[KL sehr. 2, 12) is a fondling form of 
Balder, Paltsr, seems after all extr- probable; the differ, of initial 

do€8 not matter, as Li iidolf becomes Dado. Beside the Celtic 

Bel, we might conn, Phol with Apollo, as an a is often prefixed 
in Grk. Or with pol in 'Pol; edepol ! ^ by Pollux. Or w^ith 
j^Ao/,/u/ = boar, p. 996, seeing that eburcspiurit answ, to pholes* 
plant. Sap. to 226. In Gramm. 3, ^S*l I have expl. volencel^ 
r^nnos. Gl. Bern., Diut. 2, 214\ by fol, fou, stultus. A hero 
PhfAm in Ov, Met, 12, 306. On the Ethiop king Phol, see Hpt 
Zlacbr. 5, 69. 

p. 228 n.] On I7Z/r = OHG. Wol, see Hpt Ztschr. 7,393 ; bet- 
ter lo oonn. it with Goth. Viil|ius 8, 201 ; yet see Sup. to 163 n. 

p. 229 f *] The whirlwind is called Pulhoulchen, PtiJhaud, 
Schamb. 161 ; conf. iufra, p. 285 n. 632-6, Beside Boylsperg, 



we find Boylborn^ Mittli* Tliiir. Ver. v, 4, 00. Fold^ see p* 
992 11, In ReiuwaUl's Ileiineb- Id. 1, 37 we fiud the pbrase ' ta 
have (or take) soinethiDg fur your foil' means ' to lie ou the bed 
you have made/ Ace. to the Ächen mandart 5G, the weavers of 
Ais call cloth made of yarn that tbey have cabbaged /o//c/ie, fiill- 
chon [filch? Goth, filhao, to hide]. In Kammerforst, the old I 
ban*forest near Trier, which none might tread with yastepplen 
leimeln (nailed shoes), dwells a spirit who chastises woud-spoilera 
and ecoffera : his name is Pnlch^ still a family-name in Trier. 
And the hill outside the city, down which the wheel used to h© 
rolled into the Moselle (Sup. to 191}, is Puhtbertf, Near Wald- 
w eil er is a Pohffeln, and in Prüm circuit a Poldbaeh, 

p, 229.] Forseta-luud (*grove} in Norway, Munches Beskriv. 

p* 231.] Villa ForMizl in pago Lisgau (Furste near Osterode ?) 
in a charter of Otto IlL^ yr 990, Harenherg's Crandorshoim 625. J 
Falke 483. Walterus de Forsaten (Forste by Alfeld), Falke 890,1 
yrll97. In Saxonia, in pago qui vocatur Firihsazij Eiiihard'aj 
Ann., yr 823 (Pertz, 1, 211) with the variants : firihsati, finhsazi, 
frihsazi, strihsasti, firichsare, rlrsedi ; in Ann. Fuld, (Pertz 1, 
358} Firihsazi. The deriv, conjectured at p. 232 n.^ from /or«, j 
cataract, seems the safest, CDS. 757, 

p. 232.] Later stories of fishermen and sailors at HehjolandJ 
and the carrying about of an image of St, Giet, are in Müllenh, 
no. 117. 181 . 535 ; conf. p. 597. Similar names^ often confounded I 
with it (see Fornm. sog. 12, 208) , are : Edlogaland, now Helgeland, 
in the north of Norway, and the Swedish (once Danish) province 
of Halhiud^ called in /Elfred^s Periplus Ualgoland, Ought we. 
to write H&lgoland ? conf. Heli^ p. 388, 



p. 23 i.] EeimÖ'aUr is exph by Leo, vorL 131, as heim-dolde|J 
world-tree. If ti instead of J were correct, it might contain the 
AS, deal, dealles (uote to Andr, 126). HeiraiJall vlSkunnari enn 
vorSr meS gobumj Sa^m, 85*j the sverd-aa in niminbiorg, reminds 



of the aDgel guarding Paradisö with a sword, EL 755, Ac. His 
blowing a horn when Surtr approaches recalls *^ the last trump" 

[|>at*haarD, ülph,)i 1 Cor. 15, 52. A EimlleS'herc in Mone'a 

Ana. 6, 228 ; a Heofen-feld in Northumb., Lye sub v.- — -Ileim- 

Wir is called Vindler, Sn. 105, Vindlere in Resen* OrFinniah 

gods, Ahti or Lemminkäinen has tho sharpest ears, Kalev- 17, 7 

(Anaheim 3, 64 speaks of hearing the grass grow). — H. is son 

of OSinn by 9 mothers, Sn, 21 1\ Laxd. saga p. 302; does it 
mean his father had 9 wives 7 The Romans called their Liber 
bi^materi conf, the name Quatremere, 

p, 234.] Rigr is gtigandl, gängaiidi, Ssem. lOO*, 105*. In 
Yngl. p. 20 he is the first Danish king ; his son Danpr has a 
daoghter DrAtt, the mother of Dt/ggri, and a son Iki^jr, Saeoi. 
106** names * Danr ok Danpr* together; conf. F, Magn. lex. 
p* 670. 

p. 235.] Bragi is hechskrauiud^tj scamnorum deous, Saem 61'' ; 
brother of Dagr and SigrÖn 164; pL hragnar dat. brögoum, 
simply viri 1 52** 

p- 236.] A Burnacker in Förstern, 2, 4 ; brunnacher in H, 
Meyer's Züreh, ortsn. 523. Weisth, 1, 119 j hence prob, the man's 
name Briinacker in Konr. v. Weinsb. 3, 4. 

p. 237.] The eager on the Trent, Carlyle's Hero-worship, 
AS. ecigor ; in Bailey's Diet. e/^^^r = flood-tide. The Finnish 
»ea-god, with beard of grass, sitting on a water-lily, is Ahto^ 
Ahti, gen. Akin, Kaler. 22, 301. 29, 13. 15; conf. my Kh sehr. 
3, 122. 

p, 238.] Like Oegi*8 helm is the Rtkelmei* stein on a hill in 
th© Kellergebirge, Hess. Ztschr. 1, 245. On Gnmr ceglr, see p. 
1017* In the helmet Mit ein hi(frgnn/ Dietr. dracheuk. 11; 
galefte minaci, Claudian in Prob, et Olybr. 92; terribitem galeam, 
Virg. Aen. 8, 620. 

p. 238.] Oegir is a iötUDOj H^ol 3 ; a herghid 2, The ON. 
f,^= terror and ooean; ognar liomi=go\äf Ssem. 152*; 
igtjrUg Oegisdottor 153' ; o/^w^^r = Oegir, Egills. 618. Wbat 
means Of ^i«-/iei?/ir, Saem. 124-5? Egiftlriba, AgijttfulwHj Hpt's 
Ztaehr. 8^ 588 ; Agasül on L. Zurich 2, 536, formed like Agadora 
(Eider, p. 239 f) oegisandr, sea-sand, Bari. 26, 20. 
p. 240.] HUg dsefctr a vi 5 blC^su* her er sjor kalki^r JlJer, 
n at hann hl^r allrn minoÄ, Sn. 332; hiyr = egelidus, tepidus. 

Diarmi«! 87. ] 12-4-Ö ; also /«?tir, Learthonüi T. 7* 

p. 242.] As Lofji\ the ^ villi-eldr/ Sd, 60, 13 son to gianfc 
Porniotr, so is Loki a son of giant Farbaati, Tho eating- match 
betw. Loki and Logi is like tliab of Herakles and Lepreas, Athenae, 
p. 412. Pans, 5, 5. Prnnietheus is chained to the rock by 

HephsBstuSj Loki by Logi. Loki^ 'sä er flestu illu raeSr/ is 

hateful to the gods : er oil m/m a^f/jVi, Thorh sp. 6^ 38; b4 iun 
hievui Loki, Sff3m. 67^; in folksongs 'hokeleve/ Wieselgr. 384-5, 
in Danish * Loke Itjemand/ conf. the name Liuuiso, Liuisoi Trad. 
fuld* 2, 32-43 J in Norweg, ' hiu onde,^ Hal lager, as Oden ia in 
L 828 ; for Lokkens havre we have ' den ojide^ haf re, Dybeck mna 

1847, 30-1, There is a saying: ' leingi geingr Loki. ok Tliorr 

( — lightning and thunder), Ißttir ei hriSuin,^ the atorm lasts. 

Rask tlniiks the name akin to Finn, hikld, wolf; some may think 
it an abbrev. of Ltictfer / Uhland takes Loki to be the locker ^ up ^ 
condnder of all things, as Helmdall is originator. To Logi conf. 
Udlogi for Hölgi, Sii. 128. 154. F. Magn, lex. p. 98L 

p. Ii43.] ^ Ik bede di grindvl an deser hdle* Upstaodinge 558, 
seems almost to mean a personal de^iL 

p. 243 n.] It is true, another race of rulers beside the Ases ia 
imaginedj one of whom, Gijlfi king of Sweden, sets out d,sga7igleri 
(pilgrim) to spy out the Ases {Sn. I. 2. 2, &o.), bnt is cheated by 
tliem. Bnt this is an imitation of Eddie lays, which make QSiun 
as gangleri and gangril5r travel to the giants, and talk with them, 
Sa^m. 31-2; conf. Aeg ir' a jonrnej to Asgard, and his dialogue with 
Brag I , Sn, 79, &c. 

p. 2-^5*] In Sa3ra* 37* Fe^irir pursues Alf-niSuIl, which must 
mean the moou, the ' sun of the elves ' ; coüf, * festr mua slitna 
enn Frecki renna,* Saara, 7-8. ' man öbundinn Feuris-ulfr fara,* 
Hakouarm. 23. ^ Loki litSr or bondum,' Stem. 9G* {conL tot nun 
losnarS*; is this Loki or Surtr ? Loki is Itegiariiliki uj^eckr, 

monstro similia 7'). Loki is caught by piazi, Sn, 81, and 

expressively chained 70 (conf. Saem. 7*) ; so is Feurir 33-4-5; 
conf. the chained giant {SuppU to 544), chained devil (p. 1011), 

chained Kronos (p, 832 n,). Loki's daughter Htl esp. makes 

it likely that he too was common to all Teat, nations. 

p. 247.] AS. sätor-IäSe, panicum crusgalli, is a grass like the 
äypwcTTty sown by Kronos (SuppL to 1192). One is reminded of 




Saturn! doliatn by 'Lucifer sedena in dolio* Upstaodmge p, 41, 
and 'des Huvels vaz/ Hpt's Zt&chr, 7, 327. What means the 
ON. scdiumir, Sn. 222^ ? 

p. 248-9.] Delias pp, 41. 50 cites Jcrodenduvel, hroden-heokery 
iroden-kmd ; is the first out of Botho f In a Hildesheim MS. 
of the 1 6th cent, Froach-ineus, we read : * pravi spiritas, id est, 
de kroden duveW in contrast with the good holdes. In Hh. 

VIII* : * misshapen as they paint the kroden ieuffd,* Jor- 

nandea de regn. succ, p. m. 2 has the pedigree * Saturnns, Picus, 
Faonns, Latinus'; conf. p. 673 and GDS. 120. 


p. 250 n.] The MHG. gotinne is in Sasin, 115* gySja, yet in 
114** ey trüiSi Ottarr k (Uynjor, and 61* heilir aesir, heikr dsynjor! 
conf* TraJ'Tt? re 6töl traaaL rt ßiatpatf II, 8, 5. 19, 101. Od, 8, 34L 
This word goddess acq aired a lower sense, being nsed by the 
people for fair dames and pretty lasses^ Liudpn an tap, 4, 13. 
'Ermegart Wixnel-gotin/ Riickert's Lndwig 97, What is the 
goiin in Nithart MSH. 3, 288", who goes 'unter dem fanen üz 
dem Torst, wol geammet* and is led out on the green under blue 
fhy (baldachin), apparently by peasants at an old harvesfc-festi- 
▼al? conf. fee, Suppl. to 410. 

p, 251.] OHG. m'o, earth, answers to Sak. ini, Ir. tVe, GDS. 
55< TelltiB might be for terulns, as puella for pnerula, but the 
gen- is telluris, conf. Ssk. iala, fundus. Humutt is Ssk. xam^, 
laia, called Trpttfro^avris in ^sch. Eum. 2, corresponds to Ssk. 
gan$, go, cow (p. 665), the cow being mother of the world (p. 559) : 
& yri Kai 0€o{, a frequent Attic iDVOcation. ON. fold is uoper- 
•Otml, yet is greeted in Sffim. 194*: heil su hin fioln^ta fold! 

GDS. 60 (p. 254). ^lor^, earth, is called lonakr's tree-green^ 

oak-green daughter: dottur Onara viSi-groen, Sn. 123; eiki- 
groenl Onara flioS, Pornm. sog. 1, 29. 12, 27. She is daughter 
of night in Saem. 194*: heil noH ok nipt! but who is eor^an 
hrSSt^, Cod. Exon. 490, 23 ? lor» is also mother of Mcili, Thor's 
brother, S»m. 76*; lör^^ Fiargyn 80^ (p. 172). Oi Eindr and 



her relation to OSin : ' seid Yggr til Rindr,^ Y» amores Rindae 
in can tarnen tis ßibi conoiliavit, So. 1848, 1, 236. Is AS, hritse 
(terra) contained in gtusehank, turf-benchj Schm. von Wern* 

p, 251 n.] At Attila's grave too the servants are killed : 'et 
ut tot et tan tis divitiis hum ana curiositas arceretür, operi depU' 
iatoB iruc{dani7it^ emersitque momentanea mors sepelientibus cum 
aepulto/ Jörn» cap, 49. The Dacian king Decebalus buries his 
treasure under tho bed of the Sargetia, Cass» Dio 68, 14. Giese- 
brecht supposes the Wends had the same custom. Bait, stud, 11, 

p. 252,] NerfhuJt is the only true reading, sajs Müllenhoff, 
Hpt's Ztschr, 9, 256 ; Erthus is admissible, tbink Zeuss and 
Bessel. Nerthufi answers to Ssk, Nritns, terra, Bopp 202^ ; conf. 
C. Hofmann in Ztschr, der morgenh ges. 1 847. A thesis by Pyl, 
Medea, Berol. 1850 p. 96 derives it fr. LG. nerder, nerdrig, conf< 
yipT€pofi, Her island can hardly be Rügen (p. 255-6) , bot perhaps 
Fernem or Alsen, says Miitlenh., Nordalb* stud. I, 128-9. Her 
car stood in the grove (templum) under a tree, Giefers. 'Nerthus, 
id estj Terra maier^ strongly reminds of Pliny's mater deum 18, 
4 : quo anno m, rf, advecta Rom am est, maj&rem ea a-cstate ^nessem 
quam antecedent ibns annis decern factam esse tradunt. 

p. 253»] Though the people now imagine fru Gode, Goden, 
Gttudeu as a frau, there appears now and then a de koen (king) 
instead, Hpt's Ztschr. 4, 385. Legends of fru Gauden in Lisch, 
Mackl. jrb. 8, 203, &c. Niederhöffer 2, 91 (conf. p, 925-6-7). 
Harvest-home still called verfjodensde! in Lüneburg, conf, Kuhn 
and Sohwartz p, 394-5» The Yerm landers call Thor's wife god^ 
tnor, good mother. Rask, Afh, 1, 94 derives ON. Goi fr. Finn, 
koi (aurora), GDS, 53. 93. 

p. 254] Priseus calls Attila's wife Kpixa 179, 9, Titcap 207, 
17, which easily becomes Herka. Fran IJnrke a giantess, Kuhn 
146. 37L Fru Harke, Ärke, Harfe, narre, Hpt's Ztschr, 4, 886, 
5, 377, Sommer IL 167-8. U7 {conf, frau Uoile, 12, 168. M7). 
A witch's daughter Harha^ WolPs Ztschr. 2, 255. Hakache^ like 
Godschß for Gode, Hpt's Ztschr, 5, 377- Harke flies through the 
air in the shape of a dove, makes the üeid^ fnntfnl^ carries a stool 
to sit on, so as not to touch the ground, Sommer p. 12; this ia 
like Herodias (p, 285) and the wanderiog woman (p. 632. 1058), 



p. 254q*] Mommsen 133 derives Ceres, Oscan Kerres, from 
creare; Hitzig Philist, 232 connecfcs it with ^ns = Sri; I with 
ocra and cresco» For Demeter the Slavs have zenw matej toother 
earth; a dear mother, like (trvpo^) <^/Xi?9 ^Tjf^TfTpos, iEsop (Corais 
212. de Fttria 367). Babr. 131 ; coof. Arj^^repo^ ukt?], IL 13, 
323, and 'das liebe korn, getreideleio/ Gram. 3, 665. GDS. 53. 
The Earth's lap is like a mother's ; foldan sce^t { = schooBz), Cod. 
Exon. 428, 22. eorSan sceata eardtan 406, 23. eor^n SQedt)as 
hweorfan 309, 22. grund-bedd 493, 3. 

p, 255.] On the goddess's progress see Suppl. to 252. With 
her bath conf. the porifjiug bath of Rhf;a (PrelJer 1, 401)), whose 
iiame Pott would explain bj eupeia = Ssk, urvi fr. uni = vanJ, 
I Kahn's Ztschr. 5, 285. The lavatlo Bereeffuthiae is described by 

■ ^ugostine. Civ. Dei 2, 4; conf. Vita Martini cap. 9 (W, Müller 
p. 48) • The image of Artemis was washed in seven rivers flow- 

I ing ont of one spring, Pref. to Theocritus ; the alrann and ali- 

■ rnmna were bathed. 

■ p. 256 n.] The LG. farmer's maxim, * Mai-raand kold on nat 
I Füllt schünen on fat, is in Swedish ' Mai kail Fjller bondena 
I lador all,' Runa 1814, 6, A similar saw in Bretagne about St. 

■ Anne» Lausitzer mag. 8, 51 ; how is it worded io French ? 

I p, 257.] On Tan/ana see my KL Sehr. 5, 415, etc. GDS. 

■lSKl-2. 336. 622. 

r p. 263.] From Rodulf's account was probably taken the 16th 

P cent, notice in Reiffenberg's Phil. Mouske^, tome 1. Brux. 1838 
app* p. 721 : ' Sub Alexandre, qui fuit sex annis episcopua 
(Leodiensis) et depositua in Cone. Pisae an, 1135, fuit quaedam 
prodigio^a sen ihruoniaca navia, quao lonixa rotis et mag ice agitata 
nuUignis spiritibus attractu funium fuit Tuogris iuducta Los- 
csastrom. Ad quam omnis sexus appropinqnans tripudiare et 
ialtare cogebatur eiiam nuclo corpore. Ad earn feminae de mane 
siratiii exilientes accurrebant, dura dicta navis citharae ct aliorum 

inatrumentorum sooitu resonaret.* Weavers, whom Rodulf 

makea promiuent in hauling and guard! og the ship, have some- 
ibin^ to do with navigation : in their trade they ply the schiff 
(iliiitlle)j and that is why they were called maroer, Jager's Ulm 
Jh 68^7* About carrying ships on shoulders Pliny has another 
paaoage 5,9: 'ibi Aethiopicae conveniunt naves; namque eas 
pUcedil€$ humerui iranffferunt quoties ad catarractas vontum est,' 


AUo JuHtin n2, 8 ; ' lütrl navea auas humeris per jaga montiam 
UM(|U(3 ail littuH Adriatioi marii tranttulerunt.^ 

Additional traoea of German ■hip-prooessions and festivals. In 
Antwerp and Urabanti near the acene of that old procession^ there 
wa« about 1400 ' eine gilde in der blaawer sou ten/ Hpt's Ztschr. 
li &Ü0*7. At 8hrovetide sailors drag a ship aboat^Knhn's Nordd. 
SH^u p. 800, At the Sohönbart-rnnning in Nürnbergs men in 
motley umul at Shrovetide to carry Hell roand, inolading a ship 
and the Yonnü Mount ; see Hiat, of Sohdnb.-ran. at N., by the 
Owxvk. SiH)« o( Attdorf 170L Another ship-procession in Hone's 
Kv^ryiUy^biH^k S» 851« la the 'Manritias and Beamont/ w. 
^7 — 8i^4, a aliip on wheels» with knights and masio on board, is 
di'awu by ciu\cealed horses through the same Khine and Mease 
eouutry to a touruamenl at Cologne; it is afterwards divided 
among the garauus (pages)» v« 1010« Is the idea of the Ship of 
/U4« traveltiug Ar« land to land akin to this? eepectally as Dame 
Wuu« ^ ttiit dt>m n^tvw^m are * (conf« Hulda's strohamss, p. 269n.) 
ridea iu it> ed« ^trobel p« 107 ; ^ frma Fenas mit dem stroem 
Wh>^ Fu»ln.«:»p« p« jt^ Consider too tlie cload-ship of Magonta 
(p. 1)99)^ tujtd the euchanled ship with the great buid of rnnsic, 
MillWuh. p« 22V\ The ^wild» gjaid^ coatee akmg in & sledge 
^ped like a t»hip> drawn hj naugbty oMudservaats» who get 
whipped» WoU^» Zt$chr. S, 32^3. Xursenr-talee tril of & riiip 
thai cr^^tf^ee land and water» Meier 31. Sdfeambach IS. Ptohle's 
M&rvh^w no*. tf>-T. ^WolTa Beitr. 1^ 1S2» Ac-. Finn, march. 2, 
l\ Bercha^ ie oftea lurried over» and of OStan the SdlarfioS 77 
(^i^aHU« 130*^ $ay!)L : 09in;> <)von nwr d uitnfutr Mfji. 

p« :^>t tt.j A(i ^rovefiide & ploogti wa» drawn diroogk the 
»Ir^ti^ bjr uiaj^er»» Bü;$chiu|f''3^ WC>ch» nochn 1, 124^ fir. Tena^ 
B. ^4bi say^ \^n Jb^h^Wedn^^e^y the maids who hod not caken 
men w^re yoked tu a plough; $o Faetn.-^. 147. (>-7; spoiling- 
li)i» lü>o«^^ plough * 333« 10. Kuhn conn, pjktoc^ pfo'J^f Lidu 
pliitf%mi with che r^>ofi plu» ttu» ao thoii ploogh oritt'^ meaos boas, 
^>ak. plavo» V»r. irXiMO». 

pw :!i>5u.]^ l>riukia)|^bow{» in ship shape: ji gen tea noris^ 
V^fte lOy ;>??. .V net* d*or on the kind's coble» Garin 2, Itf^: 
bfter «Huaaiptee^ in Schweinichea I» totf. l$7. An oracie 9oke of 
a ^silver u4ough:sJiace> Thocjrd. or» !•$« 

pw :ib^ u. :^.; Xnoiuä^ Viterb.» ed. wammna mil. &L 171** : 



'ergo venu (Isis) in Italiam et dociiit frumeiitariam, molendi- 
nariain et panificam, com ante glande vescerentni* , . . . Viterbi 
priroi panes ab Islde con fee ti sunt, item Vetuloniae celebravib 
Jftsius nuptias, et panes obtnlit priü^os IkU, nt in V* antiqnitatam 
Ber08U8 asserit. porro, ot probant superiores qtiaestioues, Vetu- 
loaia est Viterbnm.' The Lith, Krtimine wanders all over the 
world to find her daughter, and teaches men agriculture, Harnisch 
245. The year will be fruitful if there is a rustling in the air 
dtiriDg the twelves, Sommer p* 12 (Suppl. to 254) . 

p, 207*] Goth, liulpn propitius is fr, bil|jan, halj?, hül|7un, to 
bow (s. Lobe), Holle, Holda is a cow's name in Carintliia, In 
Dietr. drachenk,, str. 517-8, &c, there is a giant cftlled HnUe^ but 
in str. Ö93 : 'spmncton für frou^en Hulltni der edelen juncfrowen 
flo/ In Thnringia Iran Wolle, Entile, Sommer 10-1. Holda in 
Cod. Fiild. no. 523. Fniu nolla in Rhenish Franconia, Frora- 
mazin 3, 270. 'Die noil kommt ^ they say at Giessen, 'die 
Bulla' also beyond the Main about Würzburg, Kestler^s Beschr. 
F* Ochsenfart, Wrzb. 18i5, p. 29. Fran EoUe also in Silesia, In 
Up* Sax. she was called fraa IIellt\ B. vom abergl. 2, 66-7; frau 

BqU in Wolfs Ztschr, 1, 273. The very earliest mention of 

Hulda is in Walafrid Strabo'a eulogy of Judith, wife of Louis 
tbe Picas : 

Organa dtdcisono perciissit pecbine Judith; 

O si Sappho loqnax vel nos inviseret iJoUa, etc. 

■ p. 267 n.] With Kinderm. 24 conf. the variant in KM. 3, 40 
H leq,, Svenska afv. 1, 123 aud Pentam. 4, 7. Much the same said 
» of the dialas, Schreibers TascUenb. 4, 310 (Suppl. to 410). 

p. 270.] When fog rests on the mountain : * Dame M. has lit 
lier fire ia the hill/ In Alsace when it snows; ' d' engele ban 's 
bad gemacht, d' fedre fliege runder;* in Gegenbach 427: 
' lieaTeii'a feathers fly * ; in Nassau : ' Dame H. shakes up her 
bed/ Kehrein's Nassau p. 280. Nurses fetch babies out of 
fmn Hollen teicli. In Transylvania are fields named Fran-holdo' 
graben, Progr. on Carrying out Death 1861, p. 3. She washes 
b^ ▼€!]> Pröhle 198. Like Berthe, she is queen or leader of 
elves and holdes (p. 456), conf. Titania and Dame Venus. 
'Prmoo Bercht, fraue Holt* occur in the Landskranna (?) 
EimelsirasZi printed 1484, Getlcen's Boil. 112. lu the neigh* 



boorhood of tlie Meisner, Dame H. carried off a rock on her 
thumb, Hess. Ztsclir. 4, 108; a cave is there called Kitz-Kammer, 
perhaps because cats were sacretl to her as to Freya (p. 305). 
On the Maiu, between Hassloch and GrürieDwörth, may be seen 
* fra Halle ' on the Fm HuUensiem, combing her locks. Who- 
ever sees her loses his eyesight or his reason. Dame Holle rides 
in her coach, makes a whirl wind, pursues the hunter, Pröhle 156. 
278, 173, like Pharaildis, Verüd (357 n.). Legends of HnUe in 
Herrlein*s Spessart-sag, 179 — 184. A f ran Jlolf en- spiel {-game) 
in Thuringia, Hess. Ztschr. 4, 109* The Haule-mutier (mother 
H.) in the Harz, an old crone, makes herself great or little, 
Harrys 2, no. 6. Pröhle 278; cotif. iJa?r?e-miionerchen (dwarfs) 
in KM, no. 13. She is a humpbacked little woman, Sommer 

p. 9; walks with a crutch about Haxthaosen, Westph.^ Again, 

queen Holle appears as hointekceper and Iwuehwommi to Frederick 
Barbarossa in Kifbäuser, exactly as Dame Veous travels in 
Wuotan's retinue, Sommer p. 6. In Up. Hesse ' meätt der Holle 
farn * means, to have tumbled hair or tangled distaff, prob, 
also night-walking: the Holle at Wartburg looks like a witch, I 
Woeste's Mitth. p. 289 do. 34 ; conf, ' verheuletes haar,' Corrodij 
professer 59, and a man with shaggy hair is called kolle-hopf. 
With her sfroharnm conf. strowen-ars, SuppL to 203. Careless. 
spiuners are threatened with the verwunnchcne fraUg Panzer's] 
Beitr. 1, 84: she who does not get her spinning over by Sun^ 
day will have Holle in her distaff to tangle it; conf. the Kuga 
(p. 1188-9). 

p. 272.] The HuMarsmja, tale of the sorceress Huldlr, is told] 
by Sturle ; conf* the extract fr. Sturlunga in Oldn. läseb. p. 40,1 
Iluhlrv'i^h in Norway means a soft vegetable material like' 
flannel; and in Faye 42 Huldra is clothed in green. The hulder 
in Asb. I, 48. 78, 199 has a cow*» tail ; here it is not so much 
one hnlder, as 7)iani/ huldren that appear gin^hj. So in thej 
M.Nethl. Rose 5679 ; ' huldeii, die daer eingben * ; are th*^8 
mermaids ? In Sweden they have a hyUe-fru and a Hildi-moder^ 
Geyer 1, 27; conf, Dybeck I8ib, 56, 

p* 273.] The name of FeraJda, the bright, answers to Selene, 
Lncina, Luna, therefore Artemis, Diana, Henoe she takes part 
in the Wild Hunt, accompanied by hounds, like Hecate ; hence 
alsoj in the LG« Valentin und Namelos^ Berta has become Clurina 



[conf. St. Lucy, frau Ltäz^ p. 274 n.] , The Lith. Lauma is very 

like Berbta and Uolda ; she is goddess of earth and of weaving, 
She appears in a house, helps the girls to weave, and gets through 
a piece of linen in no time ; but then the girl has to guess her 
name. If she guesses right, s^he keeps the linen ; if not^ the 
laiime takes it away. One girl said to the laume : ' Laume Sore 
peczia auda dona peloydama/ L S. weaves with her arm, earn- 
iog bread. Her name was Sore, so the girl kept the lioen, 
N- Preuss. prov, bl, 2,380. Schleicher in Wien, ber, 11, 101. 
seq. says, the laume is a malignant alp (nightmare) who steals 
chitdreo, is voracious, yet bathes on the beach, helps, and brings 
Hoen : a distioct being (11, 96-7) fr. the laima spoken of on 
p. 416 n. Neaselm. 353^. 

p* 273 n.] Werve is akin to Wandel-muoi^ Ls, 3, 88. 1, 
205-8 : fro Wandel maot sendet ir Hcheld-mmeti (seeds of divi- 
sion) 2, 157. in dirre witen werlde kreizen hat irre-mmen {seeds 
of error) uns gesät ein frouwe ist Wendehnuot geheizen, MS, 2, 
198** ; conf* the seed sown by death (p. 848) and the devil (p. 
1012). frou Wendelinuoi hie liebe maet mit der vürwitz segens 
abe (dame Ficklemiud here movva down love with curiosity^a 
keen sithe), Turl, Wh. 128\ 

p, 274,] The meal set ready for Bertha resembles the food 
offered to Hecate on the 30th of the month, Athen. 3, 194; cer- 
tain ßsh are ^EicdrT}^ ßpoirara S, 146-7* 323. Filling the belly 
with ' ' 1 straw : conf» the hnsmafji, Laxd. saga 226, As 

tlie IT' J prescribes a diet for the couotry-folk (Morgenbl. 

Ift47| nos. 50 — 52), they tell of a dame Borggahe (loan), who 
gmve or lent money and corn to needy men, if they went to 
her cave and cried * Gracious dame B/ ; conf. OHG, e/tom-gepd 
CereS| «amr^-kepa suticena, Gibicho ; win-gehe, MB, 13^ 42. oti- 
gebii (890 n.), Nycolaus von dem cnimeji-ghehej an, 1334, 
HeUDeb. urk* ii* 13, 30. 

p. 277.] Berta, like Holds, is called mother in the Swed. 
fnarcheü p. 3G6, gavila B., troUkäring, In one Swed, tale a 
fair lady walks attended by mamj dwarfs ; the room she enters 

ti filled with them, Wieselgr. 454, Like the Thtiringian 

PerchtÄ, the devil blows out eyeti, Miillenh* p. 202 ; care breathes 
Faaat, and blinds him; conf. the curse, 'Your eyes are 
N* Preuss. prov, bh 1, 395, and ' spiiltle zwatreichen, 



«I >f /streichen (stroke tberii almt, stroke them open)/ Ifeier^s i 

Schwab, sag* 13<J. After the hipm of a year the womaE gets 

her child back, Miilleoh, no, 472 ; so does the man in the wild , 
hunt get rid of his hump (Supply to 930) ; conf. Steub's Vor- 
arlberg p. 83, Bader^s Sagen no. 424, and the Cbeese-mannikia 
in Panzer 2, 10. On Berhta'a share in the Furioas Hunt, see 
p. 932. 

p. 277.] In S* Germany, beside Bertha, Berche, we find *fraa 
Bert, Bertely Panzers Beitr, 1, 24-7-8. The wild Berta wipes her' 

with the unspun flax. At Hokberndorf in Up. Franconia, ^ 

a lad acts Eisen-heria^ clad in a cow*s hide, bell in hand ; to good 
children he gives nuts and apples, to bad ones the rod 2, 117. 

p. 278.] To the Bavar. name Sfempo we can add that of thej 
Straeburger Stampho, an. 1277, Böhmer's Reg. RudolE no» 
322 ; conf. sttmpfel, hangman, MS. 2, 2^ 3'. In Schm. 3, 638 
^/«wijpw/anz = bngbear, 2, 248 «^^m^)ert-/iar = flax; conf. Von d. 

Hagen's Q, Abent. 3, 13*4, Beside Trempe, there seems to 

be a Temper, Wolfs Ztschr, 2, 181, perhaps sprung out of 
Quatember in the same way as frau Fa^te (p. 782 u.), ibid, 1, 
292. UAle irompe (trampel?), Rocken-phil, 2, 16-7- In favoap] 
of S having been added before T is Schperchta for Perchta,! 
^(annh* Ztschr. 4. 388. As Stenipe treads like the alp, she seems | 
ident'. with the alp-crushing Muraue. 

p. 279.] In Salzburg country the Christmas-tree is called j 
Bcchhboschen^ Weim. jrb* 2, 183. 'in loco qui dicitor Berten* 
wi^tnn/ Salzb. urk» of 10th cent,, Arch, f. östr. gesch. 22, 29'J.l 
804, Outside Remshard near Günzburg, Bar., is a wood ' za der 
dime (girl).* The dirue-nmhl used to be there in a red frock 
with a basket of fine apples, which she gave away and changed ' 
into money. If people did not go with her, she returned weep- 
ing into the wood. ' Here comes the dirue-weihl* said children, J 
to frighten each other* Seb. Brant p. m. 195 knows about j 
BiUhienfamf B.'a fern. 

Berchtolt is a common name in Swabia, Bit, 10, SOG. 770 j] 
conf. Berchtols-gaden (now Berchtes-g,) , Prechtles-boden-alpe, 
Seidl's Aimer 2, 73. The white uiannikin is also described by 
Bader no. 417, 

p, 280.] ^Vhen Malesherbea was talking to Loais XVI. of the 
fate in store for him, the king said : ' On m'a souvent racontä 



ilans mon enfance, que toutes les foia qu'un roi de la raaison dea 
Boarbons devait mourir, on voyait ä miDuit se proiuener dans lea 
galeries du ch&teau uiie graiide fenime vetue dc hkinc/ Mt'm, de 
Besenval; conf, 'de wiile mi sivarU Dorte/ Miillenb. p. 343-4; 
and the Klag-mutier p. 1 135. The same is told of the Ir. haiisighej 
pL mnmufhej O'Briea sub, vr. aithbbrog, gruagach, 

p, 281.] The image o^ reine Pedauqut'f Prov. Pedauca ^Rajn. 
sab V. auca), ataiids under the church-doors at Dijon, Nealej 
NeverSj St, Pourcin and Toulouse, The last was known to 
Babelaia : * qu^elles 6tiiieat largement pattues, comme sont les 
otes et jadis h Toulouse la reine Pedauqiie/ This statue held a 
spindle^ and spun, and men swore * par la quenouille de la reioe 
P./ Paris p» 4. So queen Goose-foot was a spinner; yet her 
gpOBe-foot did not come of apinmiig, for the spinniog-wj/i^ei was 
not indented till the 15t.h cent-, Hpt's Ztschr. 6, 135. Berhta 
earn magno pede, Mtvssm, Eracl, 385, Heinricus Gense-fuz^ MB. 
8, 172. cagota with goose-foot or duck's-foot ears^ Fr. Michel's 
Baoesmaad, 2, 126-9. 136. 144-7, 152. M. C. Vullieinin's La 
reind Berte et son temps makes out that Berte In hleuse was 
wife to Rudolf of Little Burgundy^ daughter to the Älamann 
dake Burchardj and mother to Adelheid who married Otto L; 
Ulis Berta died at Payerae about 970. To the white damsel is 
giren a Utile white lamb^ Miillenh» p* 347. 

p* 285 n.] The whirlwind is called mii-arsch, fnuchen-arschf 
Scliinidt's Westerwäld. id. 116; in Up. Bavaria san*wede. When 
it wbirls up hay or corn, the people in Passau and Straubing cry 
to it : ' sau-dreck ! dn BchwB.rz Jarkel (pig)!' Sew-zagel^ a term 
of abojse, H. Sachs v., 347^; conf. pp. 632. 996, In an old Lan- 
gobard treaty the devil is porcorum poisesaor, 

p. 291.] Ostara is akin to Ssk, vasta daylight, vasas day, 
oahaa aurora, vastar at early morn ; conf* Zend, nshastara eastern, 
Beafey 1, 28* Lith. auszta it dawns, auszrmne aurora; Aiisca 
(r. Aosra), dea oocumbentiB vel ascendentia solis (Lasicz). Many 
places iu Germany were sacred to her, esp. hills : Austerkopp, 
Ofttork. in Waldeck, Firmen. 1, 324^ conf. Astenburg 325*; 
Osieritobe, a cave, Pauz. Beitr. 1, 115, 280; Osterbruone, a 
ebristiau name : ^ ich O., ein edelknecht von Ror,' an. 1352, 

Sdusid'a Tübingen 180. Her feast was a time of great re- 

joicmg, hence the metaphors : ' (thou art) miner freudL'n odtr-iac 



(«day)/ Iw. 8120, mines herzens Astertac, MS. 2, 223*. 1, 37^ 

der gernden öst^rtac, Atngb. 3*; conf. Meien-tag. It is a sur- 
name in the Zoller cotmtrj: dictaa der OstertÄg, Mon. Zoll, no» 
252-7, Frideriches saligen son des Ostertages^ no. 306. 

The antithesis of east and west seems to demand a Westara asl 
goddess of evening or sundown, as Mone soggests, Anz. 5^ 493 • 
consider westergibel, weatermAue, perh. westerhemde, wester- 
barn, the Slav, Vesni, even the Lat. Vespera, Vesperngo, 

p. 206.] On the goddess Ziaa, conf, the history of the origin 
of Augsbprg in Keller's Fastn* sp, p. 13GI, Aboat as fabuious 
as the account of the Augsburg Zisa, sounds the following fr. 
Ladisl Suntheim^s Chronica, Cod. Stuttg. hist., foL 250: 'Dio 
selb zeit sasz ain haidukeher hertzog von Swaben da auf dem 
sloB Hillomondt, ob Vertica (Kempten) der »tat gelegen, mit nameu 
EsnerluSj der wonet noch seinen (adhered to his) haidnischen Sit- 
ten auf Hillomondt; zu dem komen die vertriben waren aus 
Vertiea und in der gegent darurab, und patten in (begged him), 
das er sie durch (for the sake of) sein gütin, Zysa genannt, mit 
veld begilbet und aufnam (endow and befriend) .... Da sprach 
bex'tzog Esnerius : wann ir mir swerdt pei den gÖttem EdelpoU 
und Hercules und pei meiner göttin Zisa, so will ich euch veldt * 
geben, &c/ 

p. 298.] With Cisa may b© coun. Cise, a place in the Grisona, 
Bergm. Vorarlb, p. 43, and ' sweater Zeim/ Bümb, ver. 10, 143-4 ; 
Zainsen-ptriifj ZeUl-perg, Archiv, i. 5, 74, 48, Akin to Gisara 
geems Cizurin (Zitgera), a place in Ehsetia, Pertz 6, 748* ; ZeizU' 
rittperga, ZeUzarU-p,, Heizzerltf-p,, Zeizaris-pergani Zeizaves-perge, 
Notizenbh 6, llö, 143. 165, 138» 259, How stands it finally with 
Desenherg, which Lambert calls Tesenb,? Pertz 7, 178. Conf. 
other names in Mone's Anz, 6, 235, and Diaibodo, Disibodenberg, 
Disenb,, Weisth. 2, 168. 

p. 299 n>] i'Vouw^<? heizt von tagenden ein wip (called a /raw , 
fr. her virtues), Ulr, v, Lichenst. 3, 17 : 

als ein vrou ir werden Up (her precious body) 

tiuret (cherishes) s6 daz sie ein wip 

geheizen mac mit reinen si ten, 

der (for her) mac ein man vil gerne biten (sue) ; Kolocz. 129. 

p. 301 n.] A Swed. folksong, not old, in Arvidss. 3, 250 has ; 




' Froja, du berötude fm, Till hopa biod oss uogeta ! ' Fröja often 
= Venua in Bellm. 3, 129. 132.5. M. Netb, vraeij pulcher. vri 
= vru, Pass. 299, 74. 

p. 304.] Oa the etym. of Preya and Frigg, see ray Kl. sehr. 
3, 118* 127, In a Norweg, tale, stor Frigge goes with the cattle 
of the elves, Asb. Hoi Jr. 1, 201 ; conf. 206. Vreke is found in 
Belgium too, says Coremaus 114-5. 158| a VreJceherg 126. Fre- 

Heve, Pertz 8, 776. Frkconhnrst, an. 1090, Erh. p. 1:31, For 

like in Hpt's Ztschr» 5, 373 Kuhn writes Falk, which may 
mean whirlwind, O^.fiuhn. 

p. 306. Freya and Freyr are both present at Oegi's banquet, 
bat neither his GerSr nor her OSr, Saem. 59 ; yet she is called 
(Mk mey 5**, and Hnoss and Gersemi (p. 886) may be her children 
by 05r. When So. 354 calls her O^lnn friÖ'lti, he prob, con- 
frmndB her with Frigg (p. 302) ; or is OSiun Mars here, and 
Freya Venus ? On the distinctness, yet orig. unity, of the two 
goddeases, see my KL sehr, 5, 421-5; was O^r the Vanic name 

of OSinn ? 426-7. To her by-namo St/r the Norw. plants 

Siurgtäd (Syr-gull?), anthemis, and Sinldrot prob, owe their 
names^ F. Magn. lex. myth. p. 361 ; while Saxo's Sijntha is rather 

SigrtSr, coni Sygrutha, Saxo 329. GDS. 526. Freya's hall 

is Sessrymnir, Sessvaniirj Sn. 28; aa the cat was sacred to her, 
ire may perh, count the Kitzkammer on the Meisner (Soppl. to 
27Ö) among her or Holda's dwellings ; conf, cat-feeding (p, 1097). 

p. 807 n.] Mani, men is akin to Lat, nionile. Dor. /itivo?, 
fidrpa^j Pens. fiaviaKj)^, fiaviaKop, Ssk. mani, Pott 1, 8D. As meu- 
flvÖ^ expresses a woman's gladness over her jewel, a Swiss woman 
calUher girdle ' die freude,' Staid. 2, 515-6. 

p. 3*W.] On FuUa, Sunna^ Sindgundt see KL sehr. 2, 17 seq. 
ODS* 86, 102. FuUa wore a gold headband, for gold is called 

bofoSband Fullu, Sn. 128. Sol is daughter of MnndilRiri (p. 

703), wife of Gknr (aL Glornir), Sn. 12. 12G, or Dtujr, Fornald. 
•oy. 2, ?• Fru SoIe,/ru Sohiopp occurs in pup. games, Arvidss. 

%f 88Ö. 432. Ska<Ji, daughter of piazi, wife of NiorSr and 

laoibar of Freyr (gen. Ska«a, Sn. 82. KL sehr. 3, 407), aft. wife 
of (M^ino and mother of Samingr, Yngl. c. 9. 

p. S09.] In So, 119 Gerdr is OÖ'm^s wife or mistress, rival 
io Frigg. There is a ThorgcriTr hürgabrflSr. A Frogertha, come 
&f heroic race, Saxo Gram, b* 6. Similar, if not so effective aa 

tau IV. m 


GerS's radiant beauty, is the splcEdoor of other ladies 
Huldr. 1, 47 ': saa deilig at det skuinede af hende ; in Garg. 7i 
her 'rosen-bliisame' cheeks lit op the ambieat air more brighl 
than the rainbow ; in Wirnt die welt : 

ir schoene gap 80 liehton schtn 
und also wanneclichen glast, 
daz der selbe pal last 
von ir libe (body) orliuhtet wart* 

p. 310.] On Stjn and Vür, conf. F. Magn. \ex. S58-9. 
the compds. Her vor i Ounnvor ; OHG. Cundwara^ Haialwa4 
Graff 1, 907; AS. Fred-imrru, Beow, 4048, I ought to ha| 
mentioned the ON, goddess Ilmr^ fern,, though ilmr, suavis odd 
is masc, { 

p. 310.] Kanva in the Edda is ' Nepg dötlir/ Sn. 31, 66, d 
Nepr was OSin's son 211. Saxo makes her a daughter of Geifl 
(Kepaheri), see Suppl. to 220. Ssem. 11 6* speaks of anotld 
Nanna, ' Nokkva dottir/ Is ' iiömior Herjans/ the epithet of tj 
valkyrs, Saam. 4?\ conn, with Nanna ? | 

p. 311 n.] Fuoge and Unfuoge are supported by the folIowiiiJ 
er was aller tu gen de vol, die in diu V^toge lerte (virtues tU 
decency taught him), Pass, 1G5, 2. diu Fäegel^ FueghriUj La, 
200-8. wann kompt Hans Fug^ so sehe und lug (look), Gai 
236^. daz in Unfuoge niht ersliiege (slew him not), Walth. 82>^ 
Unfuoge den palas vloch, Parz. 809, 19. nu lät (leave ye) <3j 

Unfuoge iv strit 171, 16; conf. fügen {SuppL to 23). Qui 

unpersonal are | zuht unde fuoge, Greg. 1070. ungevuoge, ^ 
9517, 6527, swelch fiirsten so von laude varn^ daz zimt ouch 
flogen su, daz si »int ir^ heiles vro^ Ernst 1800. 

p. 311.] Gefjon appears in Lokasenna ; couf. p. 861 n. Dc 
hor-gefn mean Unidatrix? Sa^m, 192"; or is it akin fco Ge 
Gefjon ? 

p. 312.] Snoriz ramliga Ban or hendi gialfr d^r konün^ 
' "^3^. miök hefir Riln ryskfc um mik, Egilss* p. 616. H^ 
net, to catch Andvari with, Sa^m. 180. Fornd 
^he same way watersprites draw souls to th^ 
called hafs'fruu : ' h,, som rader ofver q] 
I (perish at sea)/ Sv, folks. 1, 126, ' Bj 
lafufruu' 132, 




ez ist ein geloub der alten iivlp^ 

swer in Jem wazzer verliust dea lip (loses his life), 

daz der si voii Got vertrlhen, Karajau oq Teichner 41. 

p. 313.] Slöa i hel, Vilk. s. 515. i hel drepa, Sßem, 78\ bita 
fjl til hälia (bite a foal dead)^ Östgota-lag 213. höfut )?itt leysto 
heljo or, Sajin. 181** Bel is a person in Seom. 188^ : 'er }?ik Hel 

h&fi ! * in Egilss. W3 : ' Niorva nipt (Hel) a nesi stcndr/ The 

fara iU Heljar was German too (conf. p* 801-2) : Adam luiar zuo 
der helle, und sine afterkumen alle^ Ksr-chr. 9225, ze helle varn^ 
Warn. 2447. 3220. 3310. ze helle vm-n die hellevart, Bar!. 323, 
28. /arrn zno der hell = die, Seb, Braüt'a Narr, 57, 9. zeheile 
TarOj Ring 55^, 27; na var du in die hell hinab, das ist diit^ hatis 
80; ir muost nu reuscken in die hell 20. ich wolte mich v&rsloffe7i 
hhi zao der helle (Helle), Troj. kr. 23352. von der hell wider 
kometh (come back fr. hades), Brant's Narr. p. m. 207. in der 
hell ist ein frau kn liebe (without love), Fastn. 558, 13 ; spoken 
of Hellia ? or of a dead woman f Helle spealcii, answers the devil^ 
Anegenge 39, 23. dd wprach din Helle, Grieshaber 2, 147-8* 
BÄTarian stories of Held in Panzer's Beitr. 1, 60. 275. 297. Ob- 
fteire in Heliand 103, 9 : 'an thene suarton hel '; conf. p. 804. 

p, 315.] Sic erimus cuncti postquam nos au/eret orcns^ Potron. 
c- 34. rapacU Orel aula divitem manet heram, Hon Od. ii. 18, 30, 
at vobiii male sit, malae ienebrae orci, quae omnia bella devoratis, 
Cat. 3, 13. versperr© ans (bar us out) vor der helle muni, Kara- 
j«ii 44, 1. der hellisch reichen steht offen, H. Sachs i. 3, 343^ 
dia Helle gar üf tet (opens wide) ir 7nunt, Alb. v. Halb. 171^. 
no kao duz verjlnochU /oc/i nienian er/idhn noch (tluit cursed liole 
äo Eoan can fill), der wirt ist s6 gitic (greedy), Martina 160, 17 ; 
ooaf. 'daz verworhte hol * 172, 41. Yet MsH. 3, 233"^ has i davon 
•& tftt diu h4lU voL O. V. 23, 265 : 

then tdd then habet funtan 
thiu hella, ich firsluntan* 

Hell has found Death, 
And swallowed hiin up. 

Kd Oifrid model this on 1 Cor. 15, 54-5 : ' Death is swallowed 
op m Tictory, Death, where is thy sting ? O Hades, where 
thj rictory ? * Observe the Gothic version : * ufsaggquij^s varp 
dmißms in sigis. hvar ist gazds |>einSj danpu? hvar ist sigis 
B, halja ? ' It is a Christian view^ that death is swallowed up ; 



but most of the Greek MSS. have ddpare both times, the Vulgate 
both times mors^ whilst ülphilas divides them into daujni and halja, 
and Otfrid makes hell find and swallow death. To the heathens 
halja waa receiver and receptacle of the dead, she swallowed the 
dead, but not death. One Greek MS, however has ffdvare and aSfi , 
[suggested by Hosea 13, 14? ' Ero mors tua, O Mors I morsus 
tuQS ero, Ju/enia / '], Massm. 63^''; and aStj?, infemus, in Matt. 
11,23. Luke 10, 15. 16, 23 is inAS.i'enderedhelle. SoiuIrish| 
the two words in the Epistle are haia (death), uaimh (pit) ; in Gael. 
bais and uaigh (grave)* The Serv. smrti and pakle, Lith. sraertie 
txnd pekla, smack of the Germ, death and hell; conf, Hofer'si 

Ztschr. 1, 122. Westerg, in Bouterwek, Castlm* 2, 160, sub J 

V, /ttr/, identifies it with Ssk. kAla, time, death, death-goddessj | 
and Kali, death^goddess, 

p»315n.] lleUevot is a n, prop, in Soester's Daniel p. 173. 
The following statement fits Hilüottsluis, the Rom. Heiiuni : 
Huglaci ossa in Eheni flaminis insula ubi in oceanum prorumpitj 
reservata sunt,' Hpt*s Ztschr. 5, 10. 



p* 318.] The heathen notion of the power of the gods is esp. 
seen in their being regarded as wondtr'Workcrjt, who did not sink j 
into sorcerers tiW Christian times; conf. p, 1031. GDS. 770, The 
giants on the other hand were looked upon, even by the heathen, 
as dupul, pp. 526-8-9,~The longevity of gods (long-aevi, lanc- 
libon, Notk. Cap, 144) depends on simple food and a eouI free 
from care (p» 320-4). So thinks Terence, Andr. 5, 5 : ego iniam 
deorum propterea sempiiernam essne arbitror, quod volnptate^^ 
corum pTopriae sunt; and the dwarfs ascribe their long andi 

healthy lives to their honesty and temperance (p. 458), 

Amriia (Somad, 1, 127) is derived by Bopp, Gl. 17% from a priv, 
and 7nnta mortuus, hence immortal and conferring immortality j 
aod a^fißpoala (279*) fr. a-fipoala, ßporoi; being for fiporo^. 
Various acoounts of its manufacture in Rhode's Relig. bildüng d. 
Hindus 1, 230. It arises from the churning of the ocean, says 
Holtzmann 3j 146—150, as ambrobia did from treading the wine- 




press, K. F* Hermann's Gottesd, alth* p. 304, Doves carry am- 
brosia to Zeus, Od. 12, 63 ; conf. Athen»4, 317. 321-5. Ambrosm 
and nectar are handed to goddess Calypso, while Odysseus par- 
takes of earthly food beside her. Od. 5, 199. Moirai eat the sweet 
heavenly food of honey (p. 415 n.). Even the horses of gods have 
in their manger ambrosia and necfcar, Plato's Phasdr. 247. Yet 
the gods eat white a\(pito%% meal (Athen. 1, 434), which He^me^s 
bays for them in Lesbos. Ambrosial too is the odoor abed around 

■ the steps of deity (Sappl. to 327 end)^ of which PlaUtns says in 

I Psend. iii. 2, 52 t 

ibi odog demissis pedibus in coeltim volat j 
earn odorem coenat Juppiter cotidie* 




Wh^i nedar is made of, we learn from Athen. 1, 147-8, conf. 
166, faipoTf/joi; vixTap, Lucian'a Sat. 7. purpureo bibit ore 
oectAr, Hor, Od. iii. 3, 12, TransK in OHG. by stanch^ steiKthe, 
Ormff 6, G96 ; in some glosses by geirn, and if seim be akin to 
tufi^a, onr honig-seim still shows the affinity of honey to blood 
(pp. 468. 902) ; consider the renovating virtue of honey as well as 

blood: der Äi€W<?n honic-seim, Engelh. 5138. The spittle of 

godfl is of virtue in malting blood and mead (p. 902) , in brewing 
Öl (ale): hann lagSi fyri dregg hräka sinn^ Fornald. sog. 2, 26. 
Kv&sir ia created out of spittle: so came Lakshmi out of the 
milk-sea, Holtzmi 1, 130, as Aphrodite from foam^ Sri from milk 
sad butter 3, 150. 

p. 320.] The belief of the Greeks in the Immortality of their 
gods was not without exceptioDS. In Crete stood a tomb with 
the inscription : ' Zeus has long been dead [r^Bpeox; Trakai), he 
llmiiders no more,' Locian's Jap. tragoed. 45; conf. p. 453 n, 
Frigg»'» death is told by Saxo, ed. M. 44; dead Baldr appears 
no niOT^ among the gods, Sa^m. 63^* ; then Freyr falls in fight 
with SurtTj T^r with Garmr, Th6rr with miSgarSsormr ; O^inn 
is swallowed by the wolf, Loki and HeimlSall slay each other. 
Dske Jalins 302-3. 870 (in Nachtbüchknn, 883), says he has 

beftrd ihat the Lord God was dead (the Pope f). ^OSinn and 

9mf^ drink f Ssem. 41*; Heim^all drinks mead 41^^ and always 
'gladly': dred» gWAW dreckr 9/rtcrr41»>(p. 324). ThÖrr eah 
and drinks enormously, Stem. 73^ Sn. 86, and a Norweg. tale of 

\ being invited to a wedding. 



p. 321.] Of a god it is said: prjlBi(ü<i ißiXoiP, Od. 16, 198. 
ptjtSiov 0€Oiat 211; of Circe : p€ta irap^^cXdovcaj Od. 10, 573., 
Zeus can do tho hardest tbiogs, ovBei/ äa-ßpLaivcov pLivu^ -^sch. 
Eum. 651. In Sn. formäli 12, Thörr attains his full strengtli at 
twelve years, and can lift ie7\ hearts hides at once. Wäinämöinen, 
the day after his birthj walks to the smithy, and makes himself a 

p. 322,] 

00^ ist noch liehter (brighter) denne der tac (day), 
der antlitzes sich bewac (assumed a ri sage) 
nach menschen aidliize, Parz. 119, 19. 

It is a mark of the Indian gods, that they cast no ghadow, never j 
lüinkf glide without touching the ground, are without dust of 
ftweat (their garments dustless), and their garlands never fade, 
Holtzm, 3, IS. 19; conf. Bopp'a Nalus p. 31. Even men, going 
into a temple of Zeus, cast no shadow, Meiners^s Gesch, d. rel. 1, 

427, -05inn appears as a ' miMi maSr, herSimiklU/ Fornm. 

sog. 2, 180-1, God has a beard : bien font a Dieu harhe defuerre, 
M6on 1, 310. faire bar be de palUe h Dieu, Diet, com i que 1, 
86-7, Finn, to see Ood's beard = to be near him, KaL 27, 200. 
Vishnu is chator-bhuja, four-handed, Bopp's Gl. 118*; Siva 
three^eyed, ibid, p. 160-1. Zeus too was sometimes repres, with 
three eyes, Paus. ii. 24, 4; Artemis with three heads, Athen. 2, 
152, The Teut. mythol. has none of these deformities in its 
gods ; at most we hear of a Conradus DrUheuptl, MB. 29^, 85 
(an, 1254). Tamaf the Indian death, is black, and is called kdla, 
niger, Bopp's Gl. 7 P. Vishnu in one incarnation is called 
Krishna, ater, niger, violaceus, Slav, chertiyi (Bopp 83*), so that 

Cherni-bugh would correspond to Krishna, Tho beauty of the 

gods has already been noticed p, 26 n. ; that of the goddesses is 
sufficiently attested by giants and dwarfs suing for them : prymr 
wants Freyja, piassi ISun, and the dwarfs demand the last favour 
of Freyja. 

p, 323,] Nume7ij or ig. a vevfia, nutus, means the nod of deity, 

and deity itself, as Festus says (ed. 0. Müller 173, 17) : numen 

quasi nutua dei ac potestas dicitm\ Athena also ' nods ' with her 

eyebrows: ctt* cKppvat vevae. Od. 16, 164, Diu (frau Minne) 

nnkei mir nü, daz ich mit ir g6, Walth, 47, 10; and Egilss. 

05*6 has a notable passage on letting the eyebrows fall, Les 



sorcils abessier, Aspr. 45^, sa (si a) les sorcils leyez, Paria expt. 
p. 104. Thfirr shakes his heard, S«3tn, 70*. 

The duger, hatred, vengeatice of tho gods was spoken of ou 
p, 18-9. They punish misdeedsj boasting, presumption. Their 
eiwy, ^doyQ<;^ is discussed by Lelirs in Konigsb. abh. iv. 1, 
135 »eq.; conf. ßiXy^iv (Suppl. to 331). Tmv rivo% ipffovepStv 
Baifiovmv fiTj^avTj yeyove, Procop. 2, 358. t/J? tu;^^;? 6 cftffovo^ 
2, 178. €Tn)p€ia Sa/)t*oi'o? = tantalising behaviour of a god, 
Lacian pro lapsu in salut, 1. Loki loves mischief when he brings 
about the death of Baldr, So the devil laughs to scorn : der 
tiuvel des lachet. Dint, 8, 52. srautz der tiuvel, welch ein rut 1 
Helbl. 5, 89. des mac der tiuvel lachen 15, 448; conf. the 
laughing of ghosts (p. 945), 

p. 324.] Radii capltift appear in pictures, Not. dign. orient. 
pp. 53- 116. Forcellini sub. v, radiatus. Zfcschr. des Hess. ver. 
•5, 366-7. aa-rpairrjv elSev iKXdfiyJraaav diro roO 7raiB6<;, saw 
lightning flash out of his son (Äsklepios), Pans. ii. 26, 4. do 
qoam unser vrove zu ioje, und goiUclte scMiie gingen iiz irme 
antlitze (fr. Mary-s face), D. myst. 1, 219. 

p* 325.] The Homeric gods are without care, avrol Sk r 
«lin/See^ ctVtV, II. 24, 526 ; they are blessed, serene, and rejoice in 
tboir splendour. Zeus sits on Olympus, fcvBei yaiü>v (glad of his 
glory), TipTrt'Kepavpofs (delighting in thunder), and looks down 
at the smoking sacrifices of those he has spared. Ares too, and 
Brmrens are fcvSet yaioure^. A god feels no pain : eiTrep ßeo^ yap 
i^TiU, ovtc aio-dqaerai, Aristoph. Frogs 03 4-. So Gripir is ' ylad'f 

konfingr/ 8sem. 172**. The gods laugh: yiXw^ 8' eir avrm 

TÖI9 0€oU i*civt]difjf Babr. bG, 5; risus /fnu*« — vernantis coeli 
letnperies. Marc. Cap. (conf. giant Sv^suSr, p. 758), subrlni 
cmdele pater (Gradivus), Claudian in Eutr. 2, 109. Callaecia 
rUUfloribus .... per herbam ^/FftJcert' rosae, Claud, laus Serenae 
71. 89t rixerunt ßorlhit a timnefi, Claud. Fl. Mali. 273] conf. hiugh- 
tng or sneezing out roses, rings, etc. Athena too is said to 
^iSan Od. 13,287. 

p, 327 J For gods hecoming vlsihle Homer has a special word 
iwäfTf^^ I X'^^^^^*' ^^ ^^^^ ^aiV€C0aL ipapyeU, II. 20, 13 L ffeol 
^alvovrat ivapyei^, Od, 7, 201. 16, 161. evapyrjq '^\0€ 3, 420. 

Imfrfh^ ffvyy€v6p>€V0Sf Luciau's Sat. 10. Gods can appear and 

rmauh ns they please, without any outward means : dwarfs and 



meDj to become invisible^ need tbe trirn-bat or a TJiiracuIons berb. 
No ODO can see them against their will : TiV av 0€oy ovfc iOeXovia 

6(f>0a\fJLol(rip tSoiT tj ii'ff f] €vda Kiovra; OtL 10, 573. ^As a 

god can hear far ofT; kXv€i Se xai irpoamdev mv öfo?, ^scb. Eam. 
287.375; as 'Got und sin mimter schntt diir die steine/ MS. 2, 
12*; so gods and spirits enter locked and guarded chambers 
uoperceived, unhindered, Holtzra. 3, 11. 48, Dame Venna comes 
' diir gauze muren/ p, 450-6; the Minne condacts 'durch der 
kemeDärten ganzß want/ through the chamber'a solid wall, Frib. 
Trist, 796. St. Thomas walks through a closed door, Pass. 248, 
26-7. Atliena's messenger eto-rjfKÖe iraph tc\7}lho<; //Xrai'Ta, Od, 4, 
802. Trapa xXrßBa \tau6fi 4, 838, Loki slips through the hora 
Sn, 356; and devils and witches get in at the keyhole* 

Examples of suddtn appearance, p. 400; disappearance^ p, 
951-2. OSinnj Huner, Loki in the Faroe poem, when invoked, 
immediately appear and lielp. Sudden appearing is expressed in 
ON. both by the verb hverfa : \fk /rmr/ Fiölnir, Völsungas. c. 17; 
and by the noun svipr, Fornald. sog* 1 , 402. Sfem. 157\ der engel 
von himc^le sleiff Servat. 399. do sih der rouh di bouchj der 
engel al damit fleuch, Maria 158, 2. erfuor in die lüfte hin, die 
wulken in bedacten, Crstende 116, 75; conf. 'riJSa lopt ok log/ 
axid p. 1070-1. der meiischltch schtn niht bleib lang, er fuor 
dahin, Ls. 3, 263. Homer uses avat<T<T€iv of Ares and Aphrodite; 
avai^avT€, Od. 8. 361 ; and the adv. alyjra as well as Kap7ra\tfim^ 
and fcpaiTTvd^ IL 7, 272. When Ovid. Met. 2, 785 says of Min» 
erva : * hand plura locnta fügit, et impressä tellurem reppulit 
hastä,' her dinting the ground with her spear expr* the ease of 
her ascent. Their speed is that of wind : 17 S* ave/xov ö>? ttvoitj 
iirtuavTo (of Athena), Od» 6, 20, sic effata rapii coeli per inania 
cuTäum diva pot ens, vnoqiw Pedum translapsa volaiu, caatra 8ul 
rectoris adit, Claud, in Eutr. 1, 375. Eroa is winged, Athen. 5, 
29. Winged angels, pennati pueri (p, 505). Vishnu i-ides on 
Garuda, Bopp's GL 102*, ludraand Dharmaas vulture and dove, 
Somadeva 1, 70, IluUzm. Ind, sagen 1, 81. Though Athena 
appears as a youth in Od. 13, 222, as a girl lo, 288, her favourite 
shape ia that of a bird : Spvi^ 8' &? avoTrala BiiTrraro 1, 320. 
Afl vultures, she and Apollo settle on a beech*tree, and look 
merrily on at men, II. 7, 58. As a swaUoiv, she aits on the roof* 
tree amid the fighters, and thence [v-fidev cf opotpf]^) nplifta 



the aegis, OtL 22, 297; so Louhi sita a lark on the window of 
the smithy (Suppl. to 338), and the eagle in the dream e^er hrl 
wpou)(oyTt fi,e\dßp<^t Od* 19, 544; con f. the vulture, who the 
moment he is named looks in at the door, Meiaert'a KuhL 165. 
\6b, Bellona flies away a hirJ, Claud, in Eiitr. 2, 230 ; Gestr, 
i.e- OSin^ as a valr (falcon), and gets a cut in his tail, Foroald, 
sog. 1, 487-8, Athena trrtj Se xar ävTißupov fc\tcriiif;^ Od. 16, 
159; fii mache sich schoen, nod ge horfiir a!s ein gölaine zno thr 
iur, Kenner 12227* When the unknown goddess steps inside 
the door, her stature reaches to the roofbeara, ^eXdBpov fcvpe 
xdpTf, then in a moment s!ie is recognised, Hymn to Aphrod. 
174, to Ceres 189. A woman's spirit appears to a man in a 
dream: si^an hvarf hun ä brott; Olafr vaknafii, ok j^öttist ^iä 
§vlp konunnar, Laxd. 122. si San vakna^i He Sinn, ok sfi srlpijui 
&f Giindal, Fornald, sog. 1, 402. svipr einn var |'ar, Satjm, 157*. 

Fragrance and hriyhtneFs emanate frora a deity, Schimmelpfeng 
100-1. Hymn to Ceres 276—281 (Suppl. to 318) ; a mwet gmell 
fills the house of Zeus, Athen. 3, 503. So with the Hebrews a 
dciuJf a mist, or the glory of the Lord fills the house of the Lord, 
1 Kioga 8« 10-1; 2 Chron. 5, 13. comarum (of Venus) gratuR 
adoTf Claud, de nupt. Heaven breathes an odor suaviiatis, that 
nooriahes like food, Greg. Tur. 7, 1. The bodies of saints, e.g. 
Servatms, exhale a delicious odour (p. 823) ; conf, the ßoivers that 
spring up under the tread of feet divine {p. 330). The hands 
snd feet of gods leave their mark in the hard stone, so do the 
koo/g of their horses (Suppl. to 664), Gods appear in kmnan 
form and dtsguige^ OSinn often as a one-eyed old man, a beggar, 
s peasant, to Hrolf as Utani bundi (Hrani is a hero's name in 
Henrararsaga, Rani in Saxo). 

p, 329.] The Indian gods vide in chariots^ like the Grk : Indra, 
Agni, Varuna, etc., Nalus 15-6; 7 steeds draw the car of Sftryas 
ibe god of day. Kühnes Bee. d. Rigveda 99. 100 ; Rdtri, night, 
Usa, aurora, are drawn by kine. Plato in Pheodr. 246-7 speaks 
of the gods' horiieSj chartois, ckarioieers, of Zeos driving a winged 
c<tr» Selene ia appealed to : ttot Ä^eavoi' Tpetre TrtüXoi/?, Theocr. 

2,163. ioTipe^, cv^ijXoto fcar ani/^a Nukto^ oTraSoi 2, 166. 

The German gods occasionally drive in star-chariots, or the stars 
themeelvefl have a chariot, pp. 151. 723 n.; conf. the car-pro- 
oeaaiana p. 336; the ann too drives a chariot: S61 rarp hendi 



iDui hoegii am timiniod^r, Saem, 1^ (who is Tagnaronni in Egilss. 
610, O^inn or Tliorr?), But ridui^ is the role, though Loki says 
to Frigg : ec pvt reS, er ]>ü riJtisßrat siSan Baltlr at söliim^ Sfem. 
63^ ; even beasts ride in the Beast-apologue^ Renart 10277-280- 

p. 330.] When Athena sits with Diomed in his war-chariot, 
the axle groans with the weight : Setviip ^ap äy€v ßeov avSpa 
T äpKTTOVf n. o, 888. When Ceres nods, the cornfields shake : 
annuit his, capitisque sui pnlcherrima motu coucussit gravidia 
oneratos messibus agros, Ovid Met. 8, 780. 

p. 33 L] The gods appear in mist or doud : Jehovah to Moses 
in a pillar of fire^ Dent. 31, 15. diva dimovit nehitlamf juvenique 
apparuit iugens, Claud, in Eutr. 1, 390, (Tritonia) earn circnm- 
data nuhe, Ov. Met. 5, 251. The merminne comes "mit eime 
dunste, als ein wint," Lanz. 1 81 * in the legend of Fosete the god 
vanishes in a caligo tenehrosa, Pertz 2, 410. A cloud descends, 

and the angel steps out of it, Girard de Viane p. 153. Gods 

and dsemons are said to ÖeX7etr, hoodwink, delude (conf. p. 
4^)3-4 of elves, and SuppL to 322) : aWd fi€ SaifLcav ßiXyei, Od, 
16, 195; of Hermes r ai^Spoji/ SfCfiara Oekyei, II. 24, 343; of 
Poseidon ; ÖeXja? occre <^aeim, IL 13, 435 ; of Athena : roii^ Se 
UaXka^ HßjipatT} ffiX^ei koI ^r^rUra Zev^, Od, 16, 298; ßeä 
OiXyei 1, 57; but also of Circe and the Sirens, Passow sub v. 
ffiXyat. Hera holds her hand over her protege, vTr€p')(€tpla, Paus. 

iii, 13, 6.- They take oue by the hair : <rn] S' oTrtöei', ^avOfj^ 

Se KOfiTf^ eXe HrfX^Lwva, IL 1, 197; by the ear: KpovQ^ irpoa* 
eXdiiv oTTLaffev Kal tov wto? pLOV Xa^d^fvov, Lucian*s Sat. 11. 

p. 331,] The Grecian gods sleep^ Athen. 3, 470; yet Ssk, 
den9 = /t7>*?r a somrio,Bop\y*s GL 26*, A sick god is healed by 
incense, Walach, miirchen p, 228. They are fond of phy : 
<l>tXo7raiyp>ov€^ yap xal ol ffeof^ Plato Cret. ed. bip. 3, 276. The 
keUledrnnis of gods resound from heaven, ^ndßowerfi rain down, 
NaluB p. 181. 238 (conf. OHG. heaven is hung full of fiddles); 
'it would please God in heaven (to bear that mosic)/ Melander 
2, no. 449, Got mohte wol lachen (at the tatermeoliu), Renn, 
11526« Conf. the effects of music on mankind: when Salome is 
ill, there come 'zwtne spihnan iiz Kriechen^ die kouden generen 
(heal) die siechen mit irem senften spil, des kouden sie gar vil,' 
llorolf 1625; ' I have my fiddle by ine^ to make sick people well 

and raioy weather jolly/ Goethe 11, 11; the tinkle of bells a 
cor© for care, Trist. 398, 2i, 39. 411, 9 ; song-birds cheer the 
lot-riuwescere, I wein 610, Aucassin's lay drives death away, 
MeoD 1, 380. With the comforting of bereaved SkaSi and 
Demeter conf. WigaL 8475 : * sehs videlcere, die wolden im stae 
swaere (heaviness) mit ir videlen vertriben,' and Creuzer^s Symb. 
4, 466. Athen, b, 334* It was a Lith. custom to get the bride 
to langh, Nessel m. sab v* prajfikinu. N. Prenss. prov, bh 4, 
312. A king's daughter, who has a fishbone in her throat, is 
made to laugh, Moon 3, 1 seq. The gods love to deal out largess, 
are datores, largitores, esp* Gibika (p. 137) ; conf. borg-geba 
|Sappl* to 274), oti-geba (p. 890 n.) ; they are ar^gefnaVj oU 
tfnar^ crop-givers, ale-givers, Hostlotig ii. 2, 11 (ThorL sp, 6, 
34. 42, 50. m. 

p. 334.] GoJs* language and inen's, Athen. 1, 335. Lobeck's 
Aglaoph. 854. 858—867. Heyne on the first passage quoted, 
II. I, 403; quae antiqniorem sermonem et servatas indo appella- 
tiones argnere videntnr. Like ON*, the Indians have many words 
for cloud, Bopp's Gl. 16». 209\ 136^ 158^; but do not attribute 
a separate language to the gods. Yet Somaveda 1, 59, 64 names 
the four languages Sanskrit, Prakrit, Vernacular and DwmoniCm 
The Greek examples can be added to ; nXaytcra^ S' ^roi T<i? ye 
ßeoi p^äfcape^ fcaXiovmVj Od. 12, 61. 6p7}toI "Epa^ra, aOdvaroi he 
Jlreptara, Plato's Ph[edn 252. t^p S* ^Ä^pohiT7}p tciKX^aKOvai 
ßeöi re teal avepe^, Hes. Theog, 197* The diflferent expressions 
attrib. to men and gods in the Alvis-ra4l, could no doubi be taken 
as belonging to different Tent, dialects» bo that Menu should 
mean the Scandinavians, Go^ar the Goths, and sol for instance 
be actually the Norse word, sunna the Old Guthic, GDS. p. 768. 
KI. 8chr. 3, 221. 

p. 335,] Tlie Norse gods are almost all married; of Greek 
goddessea the only real wife is Hera. Gods fighting with heroes 
are sametimee heaien^ MiAptii toßighi, e.g. Ares in Homer; and 
and Aphrodite are wounded besides. Now Othin, Thor and 
Ider are also beaten in the fight with Huther (Saxo ed. M, 
118), nay, Balder is ridteulua fngd (119); but woiuuling is never 
mentioned, and of Balder it is expressly stated (113) : tsacram 
corporis ejus ßrmifatern no ferro qiiidem cedere. 

p. 835.] Apart from Brahma, Vishuu and Siva, the Indiana 



reckoned thirteen minor gods, Bopp^s Gl. 160*. The former were 
younger gods, who had displaced the more elemental powers, 
Kuliii'a Reed. Eigv. p. 101, Holtzm, Ind, sag. 3, 12G ; conf. 
' got ein janger tAr ^ (p. 7 n). Young Zees, old Kronos, Athen. 

I, 473. cot croni, deua recens, Graff 4, 299. The new year 
(p. 755). GDS. 765. 

p. 336.] Mountain-heights are haunts of the Malay gods also, 
Aosld. 1857, 604*. 7r€TpafSai^6vayvayaiTrpo(p^,JEsch. Etim-23. 
Olympus dmcT. in Od. 6, 42 — 40. To the rock-caverna [at Ithaca] 
gods and men hare sepamte entrances, those bj the south gate, 
these by the north 13, 110-1-2. The Norse gods live in Asgard, 
Hrei^marr cries to the Ases : haldit heim heiSan, be off home 

from here! Stem. 182^. They have separate dwellings, but 

near together i conf. the Donar's oak near Wuo tan's mount 
(p. 170), par (i Baldura-hage) voru nwrg god", Fonmld. sog. 2, 
63. Indian gods too have separate abodes : urbs KavSrl, mons 
iL. eedes, Bopp's GL 19^. 85^, Jto^ avXi), Lucianos Pseud. 19, 

Significant ia the ON. : hefir ser nm gerva sali. Seem. 40-1-2, 

Tlie gods sit on thrones or chairs (p. 136), from which tboy are 
entreated to look dowtt in pity and protection : Zev^ 8« yewr^reap 
tSoif ^'Esch. Suppl. 206. cVi'Sot 8* Ü4pT€/At? ajvd 1031. lila vinar 
augom. The gods' houses are marked by gates, Hpt^s Ztschr. 2, 

p. 337.] The gods often have a golden sfoff, with which they 
touch and transform : XP^^^^V P<^ß^^ iirt^dtraar* ^A6r}ptj^ Od. 
16, 172. 456. 13» 429; Circe strikes with her staff, Od. 10, 238; 
conf. Hermes' rod, the wishing- rod (p* 976) and other wishing- 
gear. Shiva has a miraculous bow, so has Indra ace. to the 
VedaSt Apollo's bow carries plague; conf. OSin's spear (p. 147). 
In Germ, marchen the fays, witches, sorcerers carry a trans- 
fignring staff (p. 1084). 

Gods are regarded by men as fathers^ goddesses as mothers 
(pp. 22, 145. 254). They delight in men, tipSpdai repiro^voi, 

II. 7, 61 ; their kindly presence is expr. by the Homeric aficfyi- 
ßaivm : o^ Xpvaijv dfiifeißißjjKa^;, II. 1,37. a^; ""la^apov dp><f)i' 
ßeßi^fcci, Od. 9, 198. They love to come down to meuj conf. 
Exod. 3, 8 : teareßr^v, descend!, hwearf (p. 325) ; they stop their 
chariots, and descend to earth, Holtzm. 3, 8. Nalus p. 15. 
praesenies caelicolae^ Cat. 64^ 383. Like the Ind. avatära is a 



Geov iwiSfißia (visitation)^ Lacian's Conviv. 7, Gods are not 
omnipreBent^ they are often ahiieHf, they depart, Athen. 2, 470, 
Jupiter says; aammo delabor Olympo, et deus humana histro sub 
imagine terras, Of. Met. 1, 212. In the Faroe lay, OSinn, Hoenir 
and Loki appear instanihj. ( Appearing to a man can be expr. 
by looking under his eyes, Etm. Orendel pp. 73. 45. 83. 102.) The 
passage : di liute wänden (weened) er loaere Got von Idmel, Griesh, 
2, 48, presnpposes a belief in God^s appearing (p. 26 n.). so 
riteatu heim als waer Got do^ Dancrotsh. namenb, 128, and : if 
God came down from Iieaveti and bade him do it, he would not, 
Tlmmeisser 2, 48. At Whit sun the street was hung with 
tapestry: als ochter Ood selve comcn sonde. Lane. 31321, God 
(or his image) loves a place where he is made much of: Got 
möhte lieber niht gesten üf der erden an deheiner etat, Helbl. 15, 
584 ; ' her© dwells der liebe Gott/ p. 20 n. His return to heaven 
is expr. by : * do viior Got ze hiniele in deme gesuneclicheme bild,' 
Diemer 7, 19 j conf. *ego in coelnm migro,' Plaut. Amph. v. 2, 

18. Gods send messengers, angels, those of Greece Hermes, 

Iris, etc., who escort men (p. 875), and inspect and report the 
goings-on of the world, says a pretty Servian song by Gavrai, 
It ia worth noting in the prol. to Plant. Rudens, that Arcturus 
shines in heaven at night, but walks the earth by day as mea- 
Benger of Jove. Gods assist at christenings (Godfather Death), 
weddings, betrothals, Holtzm. 3, 8 ; and Mary too lifts a child 
oat of the font. Wend, march, 16. They hallow and bless men 
by laying on of hands : vtgit ocr saman Varar hendi, Sa^m. 74^. 
ApoUon und Tervigant, ir beider got, hat sine ka7it den zwsin 
geteii üf daz houbet, daz si helfe unberoubet und gelückea 
(unrobbed of help and luck) solden sm, mit gütlicher helfe sehin 
geachscb daz ir, Turl. Wh. 112*; like a priest or father.^— Gods 
daal with mem iji their aleep : a rib is taken out of sleeping Adam, 
10 make Eve ; Athena sheds sweet sleep over Penelope, while 
•tomflkea her taller and fairer. Od, 18, 188; Luck comes near 
iho sleeper, gods raise up tlie fallen hero, II. 7, 272. Their 
x^illrtf^lifoJcing gifts turn out precious (Berbta's, Holda^s, Biibe- 
1 : the leaves turn into gold, the more fittingly as Glasir the 
gAMrtt of the gods bears golden leafage. 

rv 338.] Metamorphosis is expr. by den lip verheren, BarL 
- I 22. sich k^rte z'einem tiere 23. OSinn viSbrast i vals liki. 



when Hei^rekr and Tyrfmg attack liim, Fornald, sog. 1, 487. 
Loki changes into a mare, aod has a foal (Sleipoir) by SvaSilfari, 
Sn. 47, fakk Loki i hix llki. Seem, 68^» Sn. 69, HeimSallr ok 
Loki i «ela likjutD, So* 105. Loki sits in the window as a 
bird 113; conf, Athena as a swallow on the roof-beam (p, 326). 
Lüühi as a lark (leivonen) in the window (ikkana)j Kal, 27, 
182-5-8. 205. 215 (conf. Egilss. p. 420), or as a dove (kyyhky) 
on the ihreHhold (kynnys) 27, 225-8. 232. Berhta looks in, 
haüda things in, through the window (p. 274) ; the snake looks 
in at window, Firmen. 2, 156. Louhi, pursuing Sampo, takes the 
shape of an eagle, deniqne ut (Jupiter) ad Trojse tecta volarit 
aviü, Prop. iii. 30, 30, Jupiter cycmis et candidonim procreator 
ovorum^ Arnob. 1, 136 (pp, 66G* 491). In marchens a hear, eagle , 
dolphin, carries off the princess, 

p. 338.] Gods may become men as a putilshment Dyaus 
having stolen a cow, all the Vasu gods are doomed to be born 
men. Eight of them, as soon as born, return to the world of 
gods ; the ninth, the real culprit, must go through a whole 
human lifc, Holtzm. Ind. sug. 3, 102-6. 

p* 339,] Real names (not merely epithets) of gods often 
become abstract ideas in Sanskrit. Indra^ at the end of a com- 
pound, is priuceps, dominus, Bopp 40*^; Sri is prefixed to 
other names reverentiae causa, as Srigane^a, Srimahabharata 
357*. In ON. one ks can stand for another, as Bragi for OSinn 
in the saw, ' nioti bauga sem Bragi auga,^ Egilss. 455. So 
Freya, Nauna, T^r, Baldr become abstract terms (p. 220-1) : 
baldr bryD}nngs, b. fetilstinga. Forum, sog. 6, 257. 12, 151. enn 
nor^Sri niurcJr 6, 267, geir?iit>rdr/* = heros. Seem. 266^. Conf. 
Oote^f intonsive (p. 19). 



p. 341.] On demigods, great gods, deemones, conf. Boeokh's 
Manetbo, p. 488 ; semidei, heroes, Amob, 2, 75. The hero has 

superhuman strength, ON. hann er eigi einhamr, Fornm. sog. 3, 
205-7 ; einhamr, einhama signif. mere humaa strength. It is 
iking how the Usipetes and Tenchtheri glorify human heroes 



to Caesar, B. G. 4, 7 : ' we yield to none but tlie Suevi^ for whom 
the im mart ill gods are tio match,^ 

p. 343.] To vitj OHG. wer, are prob, akin tlie Scyth, otop, 
Fin.ttrö*, Kal. 13,64, 21,275. 290; couf. Serv. wW^ (p. 369ii.). 
GDS. 236. Aug. Civ. Dei 10, 21. K. F. Herrn • Gottesd. alt. 
p. 69. M. Netli. helt as well as belet. Stoke 3, 4, Notker'a 
heriingQj AS. heardiuyas, EL 25. 130, recall Boh. hrdina, Pol. 
Juirdziua (hero), conf. Boh. hnl^^ Pol. hardy. Rubs, gordyi 
(proud), Fr. hai-di, G. hart, herti (hard). Arngriin's eleventh 
and twelfth bods are called HaJdinyjar, Fornald, sog. 1, 415-6-7. 
GDS. 448. 477. himelischer degeti in the Kl. 1672, degenm, 
heroine, Renn. 12291. With ictgant conf. the name Weriant 
freq. in Karajan. Jesus der Gotes wigant, Mos. 68, 10. Kämpe 
may be used of a giant^ Müllenh. 267. 277 ; beside cempa, the 
AS. has oreitUf beros, pugil. Is not ON. hetja {bellator} strictly 
wrestler, fencer? conf. OHG. hezogiin, palaeatritae, Graff 4, 1073. 
GDS. 578. With OHG, wrecchiOf AS. lorecca [wbonce, wretch, 
wretched] , agrees best the description of the insigneai in Tac. 
Germ. 31 : Nulli domua ant ager ant aliqua cura ; prout ad 
qoeinque venere, aluntur prodigi alieni, contemptores sni. Dio- 
laed is dvTjp äpitTTo^^ II. 5, 839. Heroes are rog-hirttngar^ bright 
In battle, Haralda-mM 10. Serv. yundk, hero, yundshtvo, 
heroism I so MHG. die mine jungelinge, Fundgr. 2, 91, conf. 
Jfib- 1621, 2| and the heroic line of the Yuglingar (p. 346). Ir. 
ircan hero; also faohhu hero, strictly wild wolf, falcon, and 
Welsh gwalch, falcon, hero; conf, Serv. urosh (p. 369 d.). 

p. 344.] Heroes derive their lineage fr. the gods : SigariSr 
ormr t auga ia expressly O&lns aettar, Fornald. sog. 1, 258 j the 
Scythian Idanthyrsus counts Zens his ancestor, Herod. 4, 126 ; 
and Zeus docs honour to Menelana as his son-in-law, jaf^ßpot 
Aio^f Od, 4, 569, They B^re friends of the gods; Zeus loves both 
champions. Hector and Ajax, IL 7, 280 j there are * friends of 
Area' and a ' Frey's vinr.* They can multiply the kindred of 
the gods* Jupiter^s children are reckoned np in Bari. 251, 37 
seq.; Alexantler too is a son of Jupiter Ammon or Nectanebus by 
Oljrmpias. ' GalH se onmes ab Dlte pairs prognatos praedicant ; 
idqoo »b druidibas proditum dicunt,' Caes. 6, 18. Dietrich 
descends fr. a spirit, Otnit fr, Elberich, Hogni fr, an elf, and 
ICerlin fr. the devil. 



p. 845.] As Teutonic traditiou made Tiiisco a ' terra editus/ 
tlie American Indians liavG a belief that tlie human race once * 
lived inside the earth, Klemm 2^ 159* Though Norse mythology 
haa no Mannus son of Tuiaco, jet it balances GoJSheimr with a 
Mannheimr, GDS, 7G8, conf. Vestraanknd, Südermauland, Rask 
ÜU -^Ifred^fl Periplus 70-1 ; and Snorri-s Formäli 12 places a 
Munon or Mennon at the head of the tribes. He, with Priam's 
daughter Troan, begets a son Trör — Thöi% fr. whom, desceoda 
Loritha^Hlörri^a, conf. Fornald. sog, 2, 13. GDS, 195. The 
American Indians have a first mtxn and maker Manttu, Klemm 

2, 155-7. On the mythic pedigree of Mannus and his three 
sons, see GDS. 824 seq, 

p. 346,] Ingo was orig. called Anfjo, says Mannhdt's Ztschr. 

3, 143-4. He is the hero of the IngaevoneSj who included the 
Saxons and formerly the Cheruscans, conseqaently the Angles, 
Angern^ Eugern (GDS. 83L 629. 630), whose name is perhaps 
derived from his, 

p. 350.] Did Dlugoss in his Hist. Polon. draw fr. NenniusT 
Jrb. d. BerL spr. ges. 8, 20; couf. Perts 10, 314. 

p. 350 n J Asciffna-hurg, fr, the rivulet Ascafa = Ascaha, is 
likewise interpr, in Eckehardua' IJrang. as ' Asken-hurg ab 
Ascanio con di tore/ and is a casteltum autiquissimum^ Pertz 8, 
259. 578, On Asc and Ascanins conf, p, 572, 

p, 35 L] The old Lay of Patricius 19, ed. Leo. p. 32-3, has 
Eiriinoiti (Erimon), HtTemon in Diefenb. Celt. 2**, 387-9. 391. 

p, 355.] A communication fr. Jülich country says, Hertm is 
used as a not very harsh nickname for a strong but lubberly man. 
But they also say, ' he works like a Herme/ i.e. vigorously ; and 
legend has much to tell of thö giant strength of Herme; conf. 
Strong Herme/, KM, 3, 161. Herman, Hermanbock, Maaler 2 IS'*, 
Firmen, 1 , 363** : 'to make believe our Lord is called Herrn/ 
Lyra Osnabr. 104: 'du menst wual, use Hergott si 'n aulea 
Joofft Hierm/ It is remarkable that as early as 1558, Lindner's 
Katziporus 0, 3** says of a proud patrician, who comes homo 
fuller of wine than wit : ' he carries it high and mighty, who 
but he ? and thinks our Lord is called Hermon/ On the rhyme 
' Hermeci> sla dermen,' suggestive of the similar ' Haraer, sla 
bamer, sla busseman doet* (p. 181-2), conf. Woeste pp. 34. 43- 
Firmen. 1, 258. 313. 360. 



p. 357 D.] Other foreiga names for the Milky Way, American 
idian ; the tcay of ashes. Klemm 2, 16L In Wallach, fairy- 
les, pp* 285. 38 1> it comes of split straw that St. Venus 
(Vinire) has stolen from SL Peter. In Basqae : ceruco esnebidea, 
simply via lactea^ fr* eznea milk. Tä<: ek ovpavbi* ^v^mv vofMt^o- 
^va^ 0S01J9, Lucianos Encotn. Deraosth* 50. Lettic : putnu 
zel^ch, bird-pathj Bergm. 66 (so iropo^ olwvmVf aether, -^sch. 
Prom. 281) ; also Deeva yahsta^ God's girdle 115^ or is that the 
rainbow? (p. 733). Arianrod is also interpr. corona septen* 
trionalis, though liter, silver-circle. For the many Hangar. 
OÄmea sea Wolfs Ztschr. 2, 162-3. 

Other Teutonic names. East Fris. dat melkpafh, and when 
cmaaüally bright, hurmswith, Ehrentr. Fries, arch. 2, 73. With 
fatasda they seem to have coun. GaUcia; hence to Charltmiagnej 
at the beginning of theTarpin, appears Jam^^n Stt'eeij leadiuj^ from 
France to Galicia. In Switzld : der weg uf Rom, Stutz 1, 106. 
Wti»stph. : müleiiweg (SappL to 924), also itniirstrate^ wenther- 
n^reet, Woeste p. 41 ; so in Jutland veiriwien, Molb. Dial. lex. 
646, as well as arken 18. To ON. vetmrbraid, winter- way, 
corresp* the Swed. viniergatan; conf. Gothl. kaUyotn, Almqv. 
432, unless this be for Karl's -gate. Do sunnnnpadj sterrono 
giraza, wega wolhono in Otfrid i. 5, 5 mean the galaxy ? conf the 
^ath of clouds^ Somadeva 2, 153-7. 58, 61. Journ. to Himavan 
1, 106* Heer^strasze (-gasse), viz. that of the ' wütende heer/ 
in Meier's Schwab* sag. 137-9 ; JierstrasZf Mone 8, 495 ; Up. 
Palat. hyrsiratisz, heerweg, Bergm. 115-8. 124; helweg (p. 801-2). 
Most import, for mythoL are : frauen Hulden strasze, vron Ilüdtui 
Btraetj Phtraildis sidus (p. 281-5) ; also 'gakxa, in duutsch« die 
Bnmehtraet/ Naturk. von broeder Thomas (Clariss's Gheraerc, 
p. 278). 

p. 36L] As we have Inaaringes-weg and Eurings-strasz by 
the side of Iringesweg, so in oldish records Eiirasburg castle is 
odldd Ifingesburg f Schm. 1, 96. Trine is in Nib, 1968 a young 
nan, 1971-89 a markgraf and Hdwartes mau, and ia the Klage 
[|i. 210 ze Liitringe geborn. On the meaning of the word 
pp. 727. 1148. KL sehr. 3, 234. F. Magnussen in his Pref 
f tiO Btgsmal connects (as I had done iu my Ir men Strasse 1815, 
p. 49) the Enctiif of Ansgar and the Berlch of Jornandes with 
^V» M aUo the Erlksgata ; couf. the deviPö name gammel Erich 
^ok If. 1 



(p* 989). That Erich was a deified king is plain from a sentence 
in the Vita Anskarii cited above : ' nam et templum in hon ore 
supradicti regis dudum defuncti statncrnutj et ipsi tanqnam deo 
TOta et sacrificia offerre coeperunt/ 

p. 363n.] Suevi a monte Sw^uo, Chr. Salern., Per tz 5, 512. 
a Suevio monte, Hpt'a Ztschr. 4, 493, GDS. 323. 

p, 365,] On the ca»tra HercuUs by Noviomagiis, Ammian. 
Marc. 18, 2. With the giant bones of Hugleich at the Rhine- 
TDonth (Hpt'a Ztschn 5, 10) we may even conn, the Hercolia 
columna which stood there (p. 394), On Here. Saxanus, Mann- 
hdt's Germ, mjthen p. 230 ; on the inscriptions, MythoL ed. 1, 
p, 203. Herculi in Fttra, Gruter 49, 2, TreSlop \i6(o5€^ on the 
Rhone, Prellor 2, 147. Wolfram's Wb. 357, 25. 386, 6. 437, 20. 

p. 366.] Like Castor and Follua^, there appear in Tent, tales 
two yontbs, angels, saints, in a battle, or putting oat a fire (SuppL 
to Pref. xUii, end) : ' duo juvenes candidis circuinamicH stoUs^ 
animam a corpore segregantes, vacuum ferentes per aerem/ 
Jonas Bobb. in Vita Burgnndofarae (Mabillon 2, 421) ; conf. p. 
836-7. duojuvenes in alhie, putting out a fire, in Annal. Saxo p, 
858. Chronogr. Saxo in Leibn. 122 fr. Einb, Ann., Pertz 1, 348. 
Again, the angel wiping the sword in Roth*s Sermons p. 78, and 
the destroying angel. Lithuanian legends have a giant Aids, 
Knrl. Sendungen 1, 46-7, Jalg eSa Jalkr, Sn. 3; jalkr = sonex 
eviratus, says F, Magn, 

p. 367 n.] Note, in the Pass. 64^ 41 : ein wuofegoz unreiner^ 
Wuotilgöz: conf, ' wüetgusz oder groz wasser/ Weistb. 3, 702. 
and * in wueig^iM«en^ eisgussen und groszen stürmeuj 3, 704. 
Also p. 164, and Wutte«, WuHeiis, Scbm. 4, 203, GDS. 440. 

p. 868.] Sigils OSin's son, Sn. 211». So is Eildolfr, ibid., 
'Barbara's lord,' SiBm. 75^ OHG. Hiltwolf. So is Svjrlami, 
Fornald, sug. 1, 413, and has a son SvafrlamL So is Nefr or 
Nti}>rf Su. 21I% and has a daughter Nanna 3L 66. So is Sae- 
mingr, Sn. 2[U, Semhigr in Hervarars., Fornald. s. 1, 416; conf, 
Sdmr, Sdms^aj, Hask^s Afh, 1, 108. The name of Gau/r, OSin^a 
Bon or grandson^ is conn, with giezcn (pp. 23. 105n. 142. 164. 
367) ; on Gautr, Sn. 195. OSinn is called Her-gaulr, Egilss. p. 
624, alda t/txufr, Saem. 95**. 93^ ; conf. Caozes-pah, -prunno (-beck, 
-burn), Hpt's ZUchr. 7, 530. 



p, 370.] The accounts of Seed/ in AS, chronicles are given by 
Thorpe, Beow, p. 4, In the same way Beaflor sails alone in a ship, 
a bundle of straw under hts headj Mai 35-9, arrives 51*3, sails 
away again 152 ; the ship gets home 180, 39. Horn also comes 
in a ship, and sends it home with greetings. A Polish legend 
says of Pias t : qui primus a^ppiderit in navicula, dominus vester 
6rit, Procosius p. 47. As the swan-children can lay aside the 
swan-ring, so can the Welfs the ivolf -girdle or whelp-skm. Klemm 
2, 157 has a remarkable story of beautiful children slipping oil* 
their dog-skm, 'Skilpunt' in Karajan's Salzb. urk, must b® for 
Skilpunc^ OSinn is a Skifjmgr, Sssm. 47, Did the/ and b in 
ScUfing, Scilbunc arises out of v in akildva ? The Goth, skildus 
has its gen. pL skildivö, 

p» 87L] Kh sehr. 3, 197, To the Glhi*:}ien-9ie%ne enumer. in 
Hpt's Ztschr. 1, 573, and the Gebiches-horse in Weisth. 3, 344 
(borse, Graff 3, 215), add Oeveken-horst, Moser 8, 337. Dorow's 
Freckenh, 222, and AS. Olficancumh, Kemble no, 641 (yr. 984). 
The NibeL, which does not mention the Burguodian Gibcche, 
has a fiirste or künec Gibehe at Etzer» court 1283, 4. 1292, 2. 
The Lex Burg. 3 says : apud regiae memoriae auc tores noatroa, 
id est, Gibicam, Godomarem, Gislahariura, Gundaharium. Greg. 
Tar. 2, 28 : Gundeuchus rex Burgundiouum j huic fuere quatuor 
filii, Guudobaldus, Godegisilus, Chilpericus, Godomarus* 

p, 371.] The diffusion of the Fcii«u7i^a-8aga among the Anglo- 
Sax, ia evidenced by * Vahlng ' and * VäUcs eafera ^ in Beow, 1 747- 
87. The Volsungs have the snake^s eye (SuppL to 392^ mid.). 
The tale of SdufHtz is told in Bader no, 435, 
Ip. 371 o.] Mars gegumon, mnclm, Stäün 1, 112, Glück 150 
ig aegomo in nom. De Wal. no. 2i6 (1847). Can it be the 
nme aa ^€fiwv, dux ? 

p. 373*] 05inn himself is called helbllndi^ and Ilelblindi is 
Iha name of a wolf (p. 246). Beaflor is said to have give birth to 
m wolf, Mai 132, 9; conf. the story of the 12 babies named Wolf, 
MaUenh. p. 523, and that of the blind dogs, Pliny 8, 40. 

p. 374.] TilUing, MB. 9, 10 (yr. 769). Hermann BlUing, Hel- 
mold 1, 10, Billung in the Sassen- chron., conf. Forstemann 1, 
2ä8, i, 225. Oda, grandmother of Henry the Fowler, was the 
daughter of a Frankish noble Billung and Aeda, Peru 6, 30G. 
^mo BiliingiS'huge, Gl to the Ssp. 3, 29; conf. regulus Obo- 



tritorum nomine Billugf Helm. I, 13* What means ' pilhmgs 
ein wßnic verrenket^ in the Hätzlerin 180, 37 ? 

p. 376.] In Eigh'perge.MB, 28, 2, 173 (Passau urban). Juxta 
porfcam quae de Elgeha {at Cologne), Lacomblet 318, jr. 1134. 

p. 378.] The Heldensage p. 288 has two sons of Wieland, 
[full] brothers: Wiitich and WitUch von der aiie; conf. Lat, 
Silvaiius, a forest-god of secondary rank : Silvani lucus extra 
inurum est avius crebro salicto oppletus, Plaut. Aul. iv. 6, 8. 
Ought we to read Viltimts for Vilkinus ? Hpt'a Ztschr, 6, 446. 
Schott cono. Wale with Wuotan, In trod, to Gudr. Ivi» To things 
named after Wieland add the Wielandj^kin, Schwab's Alp. p. 136 
ßeq, ; after Galans Sk pratmn Gahuidij now Pre] elan inBourgogne, 
Gamier 'a Pagi Barg. p. 83. Dan, Vt'lants-urt, also vßlamsrot, 
vendehrotf Djb. 1845, 49. 50. On Wiehts-lsimdeT conf. Schm. sub 
V. ValfoSur rt'Z framtelja, patris artem (uiyaterium ? ) enarrare, ^J 
Ssem. 1*. Another point of likeness betw. Wlelaiid and HepfuBs» ^1 
tos is, that both are masters of forging dwarfs (p. 471-2). Their 
handiwork was famous: epjov 'HtpalaToio^ Od. 4, 617. 15,116. 
OV9 "H<pm<rro9 er€v^€ 7, 92. 

p. 380.] * Mi nie the oid^ in Bit. 138 seems to have a short % 
and can hardly belong here. Karajan in Verbrüd. von S, Peter 
has MimiiOf Mimigiem. To Mimigerneford (conf. Ledebor'a 
Bructeri p. 328), perhaps from an adj. mimi-gern, and Mimidun 
(Miraidomensis = Mindensi8i, Lappbg no. 25 ; Mimende on Weser, 
Sohrader's Dyn. 104), add a third Westph. locality Mimegei'sen, 
now Memsen in Hoya country, Lappbg no. 4-8. Again, Munmelage 
near OsDabriick. Mimlrberh, perhaps Mimisberhj Pertz 8, 776. 
The names Memeln-brun, -born, Memei-born, Memilsdorf, 
Henneb. urk. 2, nos, 153-6. 169. 1, 166. 125, and Memelen-born 
(Meibom by Eisenach), Thiir. Ztschr. 4, 210 suggest the Mimis 
bnmnr of the Edda. With ÄliminguSf sil varum satyrus, agrees 
the sword*8 name in En. 5694; conf. Mumminc, Upstdge 137, 
(Muma in Thidrekss. 65). There are yet to be considered Sock' 
mimirj SsBm. 46**; Iloddminiir who dwells i holti 37 ; Mivuvinrj 
Mimisvinr, Egilss. 641. Like Mimics head is Virgil's head which 
prophesies, MSH. 4, 246. A head of brass prophesies in Val, 
et Ourson c. 25 ; enn spinnen-koofd in the Dutch trans!, arose 
perhaps from taking töte d'airain for t, dVraigne. Heads often 

Edda-laere 2, 264, 





pL 3Sa] On Tell conf. Bohmer's Reg. p. 197 and Sinnör in 
the Solothorner WtK 1845, p. 198. Tk Platter 87 (abfc 1532) 
names him Wilhelm Tall, and Garg. 180^ Wilh. Dell, while Rabe- 
lais 1, 23 does not mention him. A picture of Tell iu Schwzbg'a 
Memorial 116*. Some stories make the son shoot the apple off 
the father's head. SchützelchA is at this day a family-name at 
Bonn, Simrock-s Edda p. 396. 

Many single heroes remain to be considered, such as Poppo 
the strong, Hpt's Ztschr. 3, 239, cont 8, 347; Hngldch 5, 10. 
Also lines of heroes : stirps Immidingorum (Saxon) et Erbonum 
(Bavar,), Pertz 8, 226, 

p. 383.] The god must stand at tbe head of the line, because 
he passes for the /afÄ^r and ^rami/a/Aer of the men. Still there 
remains an enormous difference between gods and men; hence in 
S&xo, ed. M. 117, the (earthly) Nanna rejects tbe suit of Balder: 
noptiis deum mortali sociari non posse, quod ingens naturae 
didcrimen copulae commercium tollat , . • * supernia terrestria 
non jiujari* 

p. 38ön*] Saxo calls 0th in, Thor, etc, merely opinaiwe, not 
naluraliter deos (ed. M. 118), and Balder a nemideiis (conf, p. 
tO) ; whereupon P, E. Müller om Saxo p. 54 remarks : Odin 
ired neither before nor after Christ* Old Conrad in his Troj, 
Kr* 858 — 911 is not quite o£ that opinion : ' si wären Hate als 
ir nu sit, wan daz (they were men like you, only) ir krefteclich 
gewtül was michel unde manicyalt von kriufeni und von Bteinen 
. . , • ouch lepten gunoge (lived plenty) bi der ait, die zouheraevu 
wftreUf und vninder in den jaren mit gougelwue worhten {with 
jugglery wrought)/ How the old gods were degraded into 

conjurors^ is shown p. 103L -Of the deification of men there 

are plenty of examples : ' da2 kint waere mil den goten ein got,' 
PkftB. 298, 27* The heathen adore Sigeloi as a god, Rol. 198, 21 . 
Ipomidcnt w\\[ be a god himself, Tit. 3057. 4147-60. er woldo 
got hien erde sin, Diemer 139, 24. als er iz waere got 131, 22* 
IS in wirde gellch den goteu steic, Turl, Wh. 66*, Of Caligula : 
' wart hi so sot, dat hi wilde wesen god, ende hi seide opeubare 
d»t hi Jupiters broeder ware,' Maerl. 2, 236, con£ 333. ' Gram* 
bmoij roi de Baviere, se nommoit dien en terre,' and called his 
OAftUe ParadU, Belle Helene p.m. 23. The Mongols practise the 
mm^kip üfaneestoTB, deißc, of rulers. Klemm 3, 191-5; aUo vene- 
mtion of saints and relics. 



p. 392.] The Greeks required heaul^ of form in heroes as well 
as gods, Lucian's Charid. 6. ?• Of Charlem. it is said : anges 
resemble da ciel ius devoid, Aspr- 21". Heroes share the lofty 
ßtaiure of gods* Of Hugldcim the legend says : qoem equus a 
duodecimo anno portare non potuit ; cujus ossa in Rheui fluminis 
insula, ubi in oceanum proruinpit, reseiDaia sontj et de longiuquo 

venientibus pro miraculo ostenduntur (Suppl. to 365). Many- 

handedneis is often mentioned. Ancient men with four Itands, 
fourjeetf and two faces ^ Plato symp. 189 ^ four ears 190. f f 7ap 
X^^P^^ e^acTT^ aTT^ mfjLmv ataaopTo, Orph. arg. 519. Men with 
8 toes, 6 hands, Megenb. 490^ 2. 30 ; coof. gods and giants 
(p. 527). From the three-handed and three or four-elbowed 
Heime {Germ, 4, 17) perh. the Heimenstein takes its name, about 
which there is a folk-tale, G, Schwab's Alb pp. 161 — 165. A 
story about 'so Heyne, so/ who helps to raise a treasure, in H. 
V. Herford, Potth. p. 93 ; conf. Bristnga-iDen (p. 306), A three- 
headed figure on the Gallehus horn discov. 1734 (Henneb., plate 

2). Most akin to the gods seem those heroes who are favoured 

with a second birth (p. 385), The fact of many heroes* names 
being repeated in their descendants may have to do with this 
belief, GDS. 441. But Helgi and Svava are genuine endrhoi^ir^ 
Ssem, 148. 169, 159^ As late as in MS. 1, 97** we read : * stürbe 
ich nilch ir minne, und wurde i^h danne lebende, so würbe ich 
aber um be daz wip (I would woo her again). ^ Contrariwise MS. 
1,69^: ' s& bin ich doch of anders niht geborn/ Solinus says 
Scipio was another of the Unborn j and was therefore called 
Caasar, MaerL 1, 401 ; conf, the Lay of Mimmering tand, Danske 

Vis, 1, 100. Kama, son of the Sun, was bom with earrings 

and a coat of mailj Holt^m. 2, 123-9. 136, wart ie man mit 
wdfen gebom, £rone 10534; conf. 'bora with a fiddle/ To 
phenomena occuFring at the birth of a hero^ add the storm that 
attended Alexander's, Pseudooallisth« p,m. 12. Alcmena tests 
Hercules with snakes, which he kills lying in his cradle, as 
Sigmund does SinfjötU by kneading the dough that had snakes 
in it. Vols, saga c. 7. Kulleriro, when 3 nights old, tears up 
his swathings, Castren 2, 45. In the Sv. folks, 1, 139. 140, the 
child walks and talks as soon as born. Of the grown-up heroes 
strength the examples are countless. Tied to an oak, he pulls it 
up, Sv* forna. 1, 44. Danske V, 1, 13; Beowulf has in his hand 



the etrengtli of thirty, Beow. 756, They eat and drlnh enor- 
mously, like Thörr (Suppl. to 320) ; so Hammer grä, Sv. forns, 1, 

6U2j conf* the giant bride 1, 71-2. Syv, 49. Heroes have 

beaming godlike eyes, BnaWs eye», ormr i auga ; so have kings, 
Sazo, ed, M, p. 70, Aslog's son (SigarS's and Brynhild's grand- 
son) is called SigurSr armr-i-anga, gen. SigurSar orms-!-auga, 
Fornald, s. 1, 267. 273, 2, 10-4. Fornm. 1, 115, His step- 
brothers say : eigi er osa i augam ormr ne frdnir Enakar, Fornald. 
1, 268 (conL orm frÄon, Heimskr. 7, 238. SEera. Hafn. 2, 13). 
SiguriSr OSins aettar, f^eim er crmr { auga, Fornald. 1, 258. 
Aslog prophesies of her nnborn son : ' enn a )?eim sveini man 
▼era }?at mark, at Bvk man )>ikkja; sem ormr llggi urn auga 
sreininnm * — a false interpretation, for not the eyebrows coiling 
roond, bnt the inner look {i auga) was meant, Fornald. 1, 257, 
In Ssem. 187* he is called ' inn fräti-etjgi sveinn/ brann Bryn- 
hildi eldr or augom (fire flashed from B.'s eyes) 215^ äamn 
(minaces) era augu m^mi peim enumfrdna (Volundr) 156\ hvöas 
eru angu t Hagals \ffju (Helgi in disguise) ISS**. We still say: 

something great shines out of his eyes, GDS. 126*7.- Other 

heroes show other marks : on Hagen's breast is a golden cross, 
Gtidr. 143-7. 153 ; betw. Wolfdietrich'a shoulders a red cross, 
Hagd. 139. 189. Valentin and Namelos have also a cross betw, 
Ihe shoulders, like the mark of the lime-leaf on Siegfried's back, 
where alone he is vulnerable (as Achilles was in one heel). Nib, 
B 15, S. 4. Swan-chJldren have a gold ehaia about the Twck, the 
reali di Franza a niello on the right shoulder, Reali 6, 17. p.m. 
344 ; conf. the wolfs-zagelchen betw. the shoulder-blades (Suppl, 
to 1097), Of the Frankish hero Sigurd, the Vilk* saga c. 319 
eayi : ' bans horund var sva hart sem sigg viUlgaUar ; sigg may 
mean a bristly skin, and seems conn, with the legend of the 
bristled Merowings,* In cap, 1 46 we are told that Sigurd*a skin 
grew hard as horn; and in Gudr, 101^ that wild Hagen's skin 
hardened through drinking the monster's blood. No doubt the 
original meaning was, merely that he gained strength by it. The 
great, though not superhuman age of 110 years is attained by 
Mermanariciis, Jörn. c. 24, We read in Plaut, mil. glor, iv. 2, 
8Ö : meri bellatores gignuntnr, quas hie praegnates fecit, et pueri 

*TliOfp« Jftd Cod. Exon. p. 511) sees the Merowmgs id the North-Elbe Maaran- 
i and Ao. MjrrgingaB. Might not theue M^rgingas be tkoae of Mercift ? 



annos odhujentos vivunt. The god» bestow bkssmgs^ the heroes 
evlh, Babr, 63, 

p. 392.] Strong Franz also holds converse with his knowing 
itte^d^ Miillenh. p. 422. llie hero talka with his sword as well &3 
his horse, Sv. forns. 1, 65, Klage 847 seq, Wigal, 6514. Drach* 
enk. 161*. Vilkinas, pp, 54. lCO-1. llie djing hero would 
ffiio annihlhtfe hts »wordj e,g, the Servian Marko and Roland, 
Conr, Rol, 237, 3. 

p. 394.] Where a god, devil or hero »itx, there is left a mark 
in the stone. Their hands and feet, nay, their horses* hoofs, leave 
marks behind (Suppl. to 664). ons heren spronc, Maeri 2, 116. 
Stone remains wet with a hero's tears : hint© (to this day) ist der 
stein nazj dk Karl uffe säz, Ksrchr. 14937, 



p, 396.] Helen, as daughter of Zeus and Leda, as half-sister 
of the Dioscuri, is already half divine j but she is also deified for 
her ht'Mtdy, as her brothel's are for bravery, Lucian 9, 274. Flore 
says of Biancheflur, whom he supposes dead, 2272 : 

inch het Got ze einer gotinne 

gemacht in himelriche 

harte wünneclicbe. 
Women have the further advantage over the harder sex, of being 
kind and merciful, even giantesses and she-devils (Suppl. to 

p, 397.] Soothsaying and magic are pre-eminently gifts of 
women (p. 95). Hence there are more witches than wizards : 
* where we bum one maUf we burn maybe ten ivomen/ Keisersb, 
omeis 46^, A woman at Geppingen had foretold the great fire, 
Joh, Nider (d. 1440) in Formic. 2, 1. 

p. 398,] Woman- worship is expr. in the following turns of 
speech [Examples like those in Text are omitted], ich waen, 
Got niht so gnotes hat als ein guot w!p, Frauend. 1, 6. firt altda 
VTOuwen ende joncfrouwen, Rose 205 L van vrowen comt ons 
alle ere, Walew, 3813 ; for one reason : wir wurden von frowen 
geborn, und manger bet gewert, Otn., cod, Dresd, 167. daz wir 



von den lieben froltn fta' alsamen [zer werlte] komen sin, M. 
Bheim 275, 19. Renn. 12268. 

p* 400.] The hero devotes himself to a lady's service^ sJie will 

have htm for her knight : ich vnl in z' eime ritter hän, Parz. 352, 

14. * den ritter dienstes biten/ ask for his service 368^ 1 7. dins 

liters 353, 29. 7mn ritfcer und der din 358, 2. Schionatulander 

to serve Signne ' unter schiltlichem dache/ under shield-roof, 

Pit* 71,4, he was ' in ir helfe erborn* 72, 4; and this relationship 

called her fellowship 73, 1. 

do versnocht ich *n, ob er kande stn 

ein fnunf, daz wart vil balde schln. 

er gap darch mich (for me) sin harnas enwee . . . 

mange äventinre suoht' er hloz (bare, unarmed)^ Parz. 27, 13. 

The knights wore scutcheon or jewel, esp. a sleeve, or monwe, 
'«touche (parts of a sleeve), ' durch (m honour of) die frauen.^ 
The lady js screen, shield and escort to the knight whose sword 
ia in her hand, Parz. 370-1. 'ich wil in shite hi in »in' says 
Obüote to Gawan 371, 14. Captives moat surrender to the con- 
qaeror^s lady-love 394, 16. 395, 30. 396, 3 ; she is thus a warrior 
like Freya, a shield-maiden (p. 423-4), The sle&ve he wears aa 
favour on his shield has touched the maiden*a naked arm, Parz. 
375, 16. 390, 20. Er. 2292 seq. En. 12035 seq.; a shirt that 
haa touched the fair one^s form is the knightly hauberk's roof, 
Parz. 101, 10; conf. 'es gibt dir gleich, naizwan, ain kraft, wen 
da im aa den rock rüerest (touchest his coat),' Keisersb.'s Spin- 
nerin f. 3**. Schionatulander nerves him for the fight, and wins 
it, by thinking how Sigune showed herself to him unrobed; which 
&he had done on purpose to safeguard him in danger. Tit. 1247 — 
50. 1487. 2502. 4104. 4717. 

Sed in cordibus mitites 

depinguni nostras facieSf 

cum serico in palUU 

colore et in cUpeis ; Carm. Bur. 148**. 

Sunt yedahi an daz küsnefi daz ver Krimhilt im hate getan, 
*TOii der degen kiiene (champion bold) ein niuwe kraffc gewan, 
iBooeng. 1866. Man sol vor ßrste an Got gedenken in der not, 
r-uhch gedenke an die sliezen miindel rötj Und an ir edeln 



minne^ dia verjagt den tot, Kolm. MS. 73, 37. 42, 46. For 

' thiDkiDg of/ see my Diet. sob. v. andockt (devotion).- ^Tho 

ladies too call oot to their champion, or they wish : ' The littlö 
Birengik that I have, I would it were with ymt ! ' As yoo like it, 

i. 2. Woman's beauty can split rocks : von ir schoene müesd , 

ein fels erkrachen, MsH. 3, 1 73». It heals the sick : der Bieche 
muose bl in genesen, Dietr. Drach. 350^. sol daz ein siecher ane 
sehn, vor fröide wurde er schier gesunt 310^ ir smieren nnd ir 
lachen^ und solde ein sieehe das ansehn, dem miieste sorge swachen 
70^. A flight to the ladies saves a man : hie sal die zuht vore 
gi\n, nu he under den vrowia ist komia, 4626 ; conf» 4589. A 
lady's tread does not hurt flowers : ich waen sweihe trat diu 
künegin, daz si niht verlos ir liehten schtn, Turl. Wh. 97^, lo2». 

p. 400.] Sin pflfigen (him tended) wise frouwen, Gadr» 23, 3 ; 
they are called blessed maids in Steub's Tirol p. 319. 

p. 401.] The OHG. itis (Kl. Sehr. 2, 4 seq.) is still found in 
MHG. In the Wigamur 1564 seq. a maiden is called tdis (mis- 
printed eydes, for it rhymes wts, pris 1654-90. 1972) ; she has a 
limetree with a fountain of youth. Again, Ituburg, Dronke 4, 22 ; ' 
Idislind, Tnid. Wizenb. (printed Dislith), Pertz 2, 389. DU in 
Förstern. 1, 335; is Gifaidis 1, 451 for Giafdts ? Curtius in 
Kuhn's Ztschr, connects itis with aOijvf)^ but where is the s? I 
prefer to see in it the shining one, fr. indb^lucere, edka, edkof] 
= lignum (Kl. sehr. 5, 435). AS. ide^=^freolicu meowle. Cod. 
Exon. 479, 2. Both meowle and mawi have likewise their place 
her© ; conf. Meuenheh, Panzer's Beitr. 1, no. 85. KI. sehr. 3, 108. 

p, 403.] ON. ^t^V appear as parcae : * vildu svä d!sir,* so 
willed the fates, Hostl. (Thorl. 6, 6) ; talar dUir standa }>er & 
ivctr hliSar, ok vilja ^ik saran sia, Ssem. 185*. Sacrif. off. to 
them: dUahloi, hletu& dtsir, Egilss* 205-7. var at dtta hlHi^x 
reiS besti nm disar salinn^ ^^g^* 33. Of the suicide: heingdt 
8ik t di$(Mr$ül, Hervarars* p. 454 ; for ser i dUar sal 527. toddts, 
Sn. 202. Grenders mother is an iJes, Beow. 251 8, 2701. On 
Yanadts and her identity with the Thracian moon^goddess Bendis^ 
see Kl. sehr. 5, 424, 430 seq. 

p. 403.] Brynhild's hall, whither men go to have their dream* 
üUerpreiedf stands on a hill, Yols. c. 25 ; conf. hy^aberg (p. 1149). 
voiu feidi, divinatricis tumulus, Laxd. 328. An old fa^ has not 
been ont of her tower for fifty y^ars^ PerraoU p. m. 3.^ Of 


ITIS (dis), alruka, nork. 

Teleda and tte Goth. Waladamarca in Jörn* c* 48 we are reminded 
by the wise horse Fakda in the fairy-tale (p. 659), and by Velen- 
tin : valanlinnef volantinne alternate in Hpt's Ztschr* 4, 437* The 
r t>7ur roam about: ek for i skög volvu liki, Fornaid, s, 1, 135; 
|?ft Far völcan 1, 139. Ssem. 154**, Other prophetesses in Nialss. 
p. 194-9: Saeann kerling, hon var/ro3*at morgu ok framsyn, en 
\fk var hon gömtil miök ; she wanted the weed removedj else it 
woold cause a fire, which came trne. In Fornm» s. 4^ 46 : vmnda- 
kona, 8& er sagSi fyrir örlög manna ok Itf ; conf, p, 408* 

p* 405.] Wackemagel in Hpt's Ztschr. 2^ 539 thinks dftoruoas 
= ÄaZioruDas=helliruna. A cave of the Alraun in Panz. Beitr. 
1, 78 — 80. mandragora alruna^ Hone's Anz. 8, 397. 

p. 406.] My resolution of ON. norn into Goth, navairns, death - 

goddess (Kl. sehr. 3, 113} is opposed by Miillenhof in Hpt's 

|Zt5chr. 9, 255. The ' Nahanarvali * may have been norn-wor- 

» shippers^ Navarna-halij Goth. Navarnfi-haleis, ON, Norna-balir, 

GDS. 715. 806. Perhaps we ought to look to the Swed. verb 

iyma^ warn, inform, Sv. folkv. 1, 182-3. In Faroe they say 

'nodn, nodnar, for norn, nornir, as they do kodn, hodn, badn, for 

korn, horn, barn, Lyngbye 132; so Nodna-gjest 474* That 

lümberg contains norn is the less likely, as we find it spelt 

Tuem-herc, USE. 3, 296^ Ntieren-heTC, Walth. 84, 17. Norahom 

»ms a corrup. of Nordenborn, like Norndorf, Nornberg, also in 

Up. Germany, Conf, the Fris, Non, Ehrentr. Fries, arch. 2, 82 ; 

fumhari, Karajan 83, 6. 

p. 408.] Two Germ, trnds. Muss and Kannj take their names, 
ike the three Norns, from simple verbs, Panz. Beitr, 1, 88. 
OHG. wuri, fortuna. Gl. hrab. 964* ; conf. giwurt, ungiwurt, Graff 
1^ 993-4, and perhaps Goth, gavairpi, n. AS, seo wyrd gewear<Ty 
Im. 168, 3. hie Wyrd forsweop, Beow, 949. With 'me |?8et 
Wyrd gewcef (wove) ' conf, ' wtgspeda gewlofu (webs),' Beow. 1347 
(p. 415). In Kormakss. p. 267 comes UrÖ^r ai brunni ; conf, 
UrSar lokar, Saem. 98". ür«r öMoga 214* is like M!s Skiol- 

luDga.'^ The Norns shape our destiny, skapai omlig noru 

'§k6p 088 S ftrdaga 181*; in Faroe : tea heava mear nodnar sJcapt, 
Lyngbye 132. In Graff 6, 6Ö2, ' steffara — parca ' is for sceffara; 
j^farun ssparcae, Gl. Schlettst. 6,457; they ' sceppen *b men- 
iififD leven,' Limb, 3, 1275. Vintler v. 146 (see App, Snperst, 
0) ppeaks of gach'Schep/en, Pfeififer's Germ. Ij 238 ; conf. Finn, 



bwtmotarj virgo creatrix, esp, ferri, fr. iuou to make: ^kolnid 

Beittä luonnotarta/ ires suut vinjines naturae creatrices. Noma 

are of varioos Imeage, SaBin, 1 88* : 

sundr-horrmr miok hugg ek at nornir afi, 

eigo^ |»aer aett samaD, 

60 mar ero a^-katigarj sumar «//-kuugar, 

sumar doetr Dvalins (some, daughters of D., a dwarf)* 

p. 409.] Oa mrmir, volvur^ Rpdkonur, blähäpur conf, Maurer 
284. tba thrui wilfer, Ehrentn Fries, arch. 2, 82. die drei heil- 
räthmnen^ Panz, Beitr. 1, 56-7-9. 283. Slav, tri j'ojenice or 
gtijenke, Valjavec 76^91, Boh. «wtfaVe, judges, fern. (p. 436). 
Nornir nä-gönglar, uau^-gonglarj Smm, 187**, conf. ed. Hafn. 173 ; 

note the iöfni-noni (p. 1033). The Noma travel: kouur Jjaer 

forii yfir laud, er valvur vorn kallaSr, ok sog-Sa inonnmn foriög sin, 
ÄrferS ok a^ra hluti, |?ä er menu vildu vlsir veriSa. {»essi sveit kom 
til Vinrils böoda, var völvumu )?ar vel fagnat. Forum . s. 3, 212. 
volvan arma 3, 214. Norns, parcae, fays come to the infaufs 
craSh^ and bestow gifts ; so does frau SaelJe in Erec 9900. A 
gammal gumiiia prophesies at the birth of the prince, Sv. folks. 
1, 19t5 ; three mor (maids) get bathed by the girl, aud then give 
gifts 1, 130 (in ouf Germ, tale it is 3 haulemänuchen). 

p. 410.] 8aeva Necessitas 

clavos trabales et en neos manu 
gestans ahenea. Hor. Od. i. 35, 18. 

Si figit adamantinos 

Bummis vorticibns dira NeeesBttas 

davo«, Hor* Od. iü. 24, 5. 

diu grtm^ne Not^ Er. 837. merkja a nagli Naud^^ SaBm, 194^,.^ 
Riiuar ristnar : ä Nomar nagli 196* {davo, not fingernail) ; conf. 
Simplic» 1, 475 (Keller) : when Needs-be rideth in at door and 

p. 411,] Of Greek mythical beings Cfihjpao comes nearest the 
fays, being goddess aud nymph ; and in MHG. the goddess Venit» 
18 'din feine diu ist entsläfen/ MS. 2, 198*, while a fay ia often 
called goddess. * gotinne = fee,' Hpt^s Ztschr. 2, 183. der götinne 

land, der g, hende, Frib. Trist. 4458. 4503. In Petroniua we 

already find a personal (though masc.) fains : malus f. (illnm 



perdidit) c. 42» hoc mihi dicib f. vaens, c, 77. On tho house of 
ithe tria fata in the Forunij conf. Gregorovius's City of Rome 1, 
871-2-3. In the Engadin they are called fedas, fif^s, also 
nifmphas and dialas : thej help in loading corn, bring food and 
drink in silver vessels ; three dialas come to the spinnera, 
Schreiber's Taschenb. 4, 306-7. 

p. 412.] On the iriafaia see Horkel'a Abh. p. 298 aeq., oonf. 
the three nuxidetis in F* v. Schwaben : twelve white maidens in 
riillenh. p. 348. Fays, like elfins, are of unsurpassed beauty : 
thoeuer danne ein veinef Trist. 17481, plus llniche que fee, 
age 5, 3059. pins bele que f^^e ne lerine 5, 4725. pus bela 
tnuefada, Ferabr, 2767. de hüiufe resanbloit fee, Marie 1, 100. 
ley hold feasts, like the witches (p. 1045-6). In an old poem (?) 
p. 104-5, threß fays prophesy at the birth of Auberon, son of 
fill. CaBsar and MorguOj when a fourth comes in, p. 10(3 {p, 32 of 
ie prose). The fates are gifting a newborn childj when the last 
le hurries np, but unfortunately sprains her foot (abotatose lo 
pede), and lets fall a curse, Fentam. 2, 8. 

p. 413 n.] Fata Morgana is * Fenmrgdn diu riche ' in Lane, 
7185, Fdmorgdfi in Er. 5155. 5229, Feimnrgäfi in Iwein 3422. 
The ' Marguelj ein feine' in Er. 1932 is the same, for she answers 
^lo the Fr- ' Morgain la fee/ She is called * Morguein de elwiane,' 
*nz. 13654. 19472. 23264; ' Femimja die klaoge/ Tit. 4376; 
while Wolfram treats the word as the name of a country (p. 820 n.). 
Go the other hand. Trist. 397, 14 : gotlnne Öz Aueliin der feinen 
laut (fay's land) ; Er. 1930 : der wort AimUn, Fr. Tile d'Avalon* 
Does this go back to an old Celtic belief? Michelet 2, 15 men- 
ttoas holy maids who dispensed fair weather or shipwreck to the 

p. 414 n.] AXaa seem akin to tcro^i €lao^ and crScrat ; Xa^a^ 
equally distributed, Kara t<ra ex aequo, tear alaay convenieater, 

p. 415.] Instead of KaraHXm8€<i in Od. 7, 197 Bekker reada i 

a<raa ol al<ra tcarä KXS>0i^ re ßapelai 

joining tcard to pi^aavro, Lueian's Dial« mort, 19 : 17 Motpa xal 
-tit €f ^PXn^ ovTtD^ i7nfC€K\ü)a0at, Conf, iirtfcXmBm used of gods 
ad daemons (SuppL to 858), Atrupos was supposed to be in 



tbe Sun, Clotbo in the moon, Lachesis on eartbj Plat. 4, 1157. 
For a beautiful description of the threa Farcae (parca^ she who 
Bpares ? Pott in Kuhn 5, 250) see Catullus 62, 302—321 with 
ever and anon the refrain : Currite, ducentes subteminaj ciirrite, 
fosi ! also vv, 381—385. 

Nuhila nascenti sea mihi parca f uit, Ov. Trist, v. 3, 14. 
Scilicet hanc legem nentes fatalia parcae 

stamina bis genito bis cecivere tibi v. 3, 25. 
duram Lachesm I quae tarn grave sidus Imbenti 

fila dedit vitae non breviora meae, v. 10, 45- 
Atque utinam prunh animam me pone re cttnis 

jussisset quaevis de trihi(^ tma soror I Propert. iii. 4, 28. 
Tres parcae aurea pensa torquentes. Petron. c. 29. 
Da2 bet in vrowe Chloto s6 erteilet ; 
ouch was vil gef uo<3 vro Lachesis daran. Turl. Krone 7. 

Servian songs tell of a golden thread (zlatna sliitza), that un- 
winds from heaven and twines about a man, Vuk 1, 54 (Wesely 
p, 68). 57-a 

p. 416.] German legend is full of spinning and weaviTig 
women : kleifc daz ein ivildm feine span^ Troj, kr. 2895. ein 
feine worhte den mantel, Altd. b!. 2,231 ; and fays weave mantles 
in Charlem, p. 105-6, pails que fist fere une/^«, Auberi 37. in 
the cave sits an old spinster^ Kuhn^a Westph. 1, 72. Asbiorn. 
1, 194; conf. the old weh gier , Rhesa dainos 198. öölücke span 
im kleider an, Frauenl. 115, 15. There are usually three together: 
tres jujmphae, Sv^xo p. 43 (ed. M. 123). drei ptippen, Pirm. 2, 
34. die drei docken, H. Sachs i. 4, 45 7*^» die drei Marien, 
Kindh. Jesu, Hahn GS, ühland's Volksh 756, Ib. 1582, 332. 
three Marys protect from fire, Panz. Beilr. 1, 67. three spimitng 
MartjSf Uhl. YksL 744. three old wives on a three-legged horse, 
Müllenh. p. 342. the ^ra^^^ye^, Alsatia 1853, p. 172-3. Many 
stories of three wohnen in white or biach, esp. in Panzer's Beitr. 
1, 2. 11-4-6-8. 25-8. 35-6-8. 46-8; they stretch a line to dry 
the wash on 1, 1. 9. 11-7. 25. 59. 129 n. 271-8; sing at the birth 
of 2k child 1, 11; become visible at Sim-wend-iag (solstice), 1, 
88-9. 75. 84. Near Lohndorf in Up. Franconia a lad saw ihne 
castle-maidens waiking , two had kreuz^rocken {-distaifs) with nine 
spindles s=pun full, the third a stiihles-rocken with nine empty 



ones J aod the oihera said to ber^ ' Had joa but oorered your 
npindles once, tho' not spun them foil, you would not be lost/ 
Panz. Bcitn 2, 136. A beautiful Moravian story tells of three 
maiJens who marched, scythe in hand, mowing the people down ; 
one, being lame, cannot keep up, and is laughed at by the other 
two. She in her anger lets man into the mystery of healing 
herbs. Knlda (d'Elv) 110. 

p. 418.] Jupiter sends out Victoria, as QSinn does valhjrif, 
Lug. Civ. D. 4, 17 (p. 435-6). Their name has not been found 
at in OHG., though Schannat, vind. 1, 72 (yr, 1U9) has Wah 

^f femina serva. With the sklald-nieyar conf, schild-knechtj 
I keeps his lord's shield and hands it to him^ as they to OSinn. 
Maiden» guarding shield and helmet occur in the M. Neth* Lane. 
16913. conf. 16678. 17038. Their other name, hialm-metjar is 
made clearer by hild und kiahnij Sasm. 228*, Arnim geta ok 
^i$knietj verSa 242\ The valkyr is named folkvitr 192''. So, 
megeflichiu wip help Charles to conquer, Ksrchr. 14950 seq. ; 
diu megede suln dir dine ßre widergew innen 14954 ; der megede 
sigennuft 15029. Aurelian led in triumph tea captive Oothic 
amazo7i$, Vopisc. in Aurel. 34, Lampr, Alex. 6320 calls the 
Amazons nrlouges unp. Ptinl Diaconus mentions a fight betw. 
Lamiseio and the Amazons for the passage of a river. Adam of 
Bremen 4, 19 speaks of 'amazons and cr/nos-cephali ; * conf. P. 
Diac. 1, 15. hunt-houhUo in Graff. The Krone 17469 tells o^ 
' der meide laut/ land of maids. 

p, 418n.] Hun var vitr kona ok vinsael ok sh'orungr mikillj 
Poniio« 3, 90 ; hon var nkorungr mikillj virago insignis^ Nialss, 
G. 98 ; and Glaum vor is ghörthtgr^ Vols. c. 33 (KL sehr. .% 407), 
Aorungr, Vilk. c. 212; but in c, 129 skaröugr = hero. Cont 
•kdr, f, = barba, scabelluin, coiumissnra ; skar, m. — fungus, inso- 
lentia. OHG* scara=acies, agmen; scaraman, scario. 

p. 419.] Where is the gannent mentioned^ in which OSinn 
hid the thorn for Brunhild ? Seem. 194* only says ' stack hana 
«vefn-jK)rni ;' Veils, c. 20 'stack mik svefn-l?orni * ; Saem. 228** 
Maak bann mtk skioldom ok hvitom/ On spindle-stones^ see 
Michelet 1,461. 

p. 420J Brynhildr or Sigrdrifa fills a goblet (fyldi eitb ker), 

.A&d brings it to Sigurd, Sasm, 194''. Vols, c* 20. A white lady 

ith silver goblet iu M. Koch's Heise d. Oestr. p. 262. A maiden 



hands the Jiarn^ and is cut down, Wieselgren 455» Subterraneans 
offer similar drinl', Miillenh, p, 576; aüdajätte hands a horn, 
whose drops falling on the horse strip him of hair and hide, 
Runa 1844,88. 

p, 42L] Nine, as the fav. number of the valkyrs^ is confirmed 
by Saem* 228% where one of thera speaks of afta syatra. To our 
surprise, a hero Gran mar turns valkiirja in Asgard, and bears 
nine w^olves to Siofiotli, Sosm. 154^. Fornald. 1, 139; conL AS. 
wylpen, wulpin = bellona. 

p. 423.] The valkyrs ride through the air (p. 641), like Veous 
(p. 892) ; a thing aft, imputed to witches (p. 1088, &c.). Twelve 
women in the wood, on red horseif^ Forum. 3j 135. By the ex- 
pression lllackr for, Hluck seems to have the task of conducting 
tliose fallen in battle to OSinii or Freyja, Egilss, p. 226. Is 
Gondnll akin to gaod ? GL Edd, toui. 1 : * go nd nil =^nodu\us' ; 
so that Odin's by-name Göndler, Ssem, 46\ would mean ' tricaa 
nectens.' The Bota in prose Sn. 39 is Rotha in Saxo M. 316. 
An OHG* name Hiiticomä, ad pugnam veniens, Cod. Fuld. no. 
153 (yr. 798), describes a valkyr; conf. Ilruodicoma, no. 172; 
ON, midr und hialmi, Saem. 228*; AS. kilde woman. Cod. Exon. 
250, 32. 282, 15. Thru^r is likewise a daughter of Thorr. 
Heilah-trüd, Trad. Fuld. 2, 46, irate, Pass. K. 395, 77. frau 
Truiic, Pra3t. weltb. 1, 23. the drut (p. 464). 

p. 423.] May we trace back to the walkürie what is said to 
Brunhild in Biter. 12617? ' ir wäret in iur alten site komen, des 
ir pßäget ß, daz ir sA gerne sehet strtt/ you love so to see strife. 
Brynhildr is 'mestr skörüngr* (p. 41 8 n,). In Vilk* p, 30 she 
is called 'hin rika, bin fagra, bin oiikilläta,* and her castle Segard, 
In the NibeL she dwells at castle Tuendem on the sea; is called 
des tiufels wtp (or brftt), and ungehiurez wtp, 417, 4. 426^ 4; , 
wears armour and shield, 407, 4, tbrows the stone running, and 
hurls the spear; is passing strong 425, 1. 509, 3, 517, 3, and 
ties up king Günther on their wedding-night. | 

p. 424.] Like the shield-inaideus are Fenja and Men ja, of 
whom the Grottasongr str. 13 says : i folk sligum, brutum 
skiöldn .... veitium goffum Goihormi US, Clarine dubs her 
Valentin knight, Staphorst 241. They strike up brotherhood 
with their protßgös; so does stolts Svjnild, Arvidss. 2, 128 — 130; 
conf, the blessed (dead ?) inaidaii who marries a peasant, Steub'a 



Tirol 319. The valkjrs too have Bwan-sbifts, Saöin. 228» : \&t 
hami vara hugfiiilr konuDgr ätta aystra luul elk bora (born under 
oak) ; coüf. Cod. Exon. 443, 10, 26 : wuQiaa under dc-treo; and 
Grottas* str. 11: varum leikiir, vetr niu alnar fyrir iorä neö^an. 
The wish-wife'a clothes are kept in the Ofthtreti, Lisch 5, 81-5. 

p. 425.] Bryuhildr first unites herself by oath to jonng Agmtr, 
aad helps Uim to conquer old Hialraguonar, Saem» 194; conf, 
174*'. 228* (Vols. c. 20), where it aays 'eiSa seldak' and ^gaf eo 
uugom sigr/ After that she chose Sigurd : sva er ek hatat mer 
til manns^ Vols, c. 25* Such a unioa commonly proved unlucky, 
the condition being often attached that the husband should never 
cwfc the celestial bride her naniCj else they must part *, so with 
the elfin, with Melusina, with the ssvau-knight. Also with the god- 
dess Gaoga, who had married Santaou, but immediately threw the 
children she had by him into the river^ Holtzm. Ind. sag. 3, 95-9. 
On the union oE a hero with the ghostly vila, see GDS. 130-L 

p, 429.] Valkyrs are to a certain extent gods stranded on the 
rorld in Indian fashion. They stay 7 years, then fly away to the 
attle : at viija infja, visere proelia, Srom. 13-3 ; so in the prose, 
but in the poem örlög drygja (p. 425). The wimu tvip in the Nibel, 
are also called merwipj din wlldf'n merwip 1514-20-28^ and Hagen 
how$ to them when they have proplieaied. 

p, 431.] The hut of the furest-women in Saxo p. 39 vanishes 
with them, and Hother suddenly finds himself itnif^r ths open sky, 
as in witch*tales (p. 1072). Gangleri Ueyr^Si dyni niikht hveru 
reg M ser, oc leit üt ü hli'5 ser : oc ]>A er bann sez meirr urn, |?ä 
ßiendr hann üti d sletiam vellt, shr ^k önga holt oc önga borg, Sn. 
77. Such vanish» ügs are called »ion-hver/ingar, Su. 2, 

p. 438.] Hoh'Wip, Otn. Cod. Dresd. 277; conf. dryad, hama- 
dryad (p. 653). To eiy like a wood-wife, Uhl Volksl 1, 149: 
0cbr6 ab ein wildez wJp owe ! Laiiz. 7892. The wild woman's 
h0m^ gestühl (spring, stool), Wetterau, sag. 282 ; wibie ftäulein, 
Woir« Ztschr. 2, 59 ; daz wilde vtouwelinj Ecke 172* In Schliich- 
terti wood stand the wild houses, wild tuhle, often visited by the 
wüd folk, Buchonia iv. 2, 94-5; a willemanncheH haus and tisch 
(lable) Dear Brückenau, Panz. Beitr, 1, 186; conf. daz wilde ge- 
Iwerc (p. 447). Wood-wives are also called dlm-weibel (SuppL to 
279), and carry apples in their basket, like the matronae and 
Nchalenniae. At dax-picking in Franconia a bunch plaited into 



a pigtail is left for the huh^frauk {as part of a sacrifice was laid 
aside for nymphs, Siippl, to 433 n.)^ aad a rhyme is spoken over 
it, Panz. Beitr. 2, 160-L witie wiwer in the forest-cave, Kuho's 
Westf. sag, 1, 123. The rauhe (shaggy) woman appears in the 
wood ütmidnight, Wolfdietr. S07-8 (Hpt's Ztschr. 4) ; the mother 
of Fasolt and Ecke was a rauhes weih (p. 483). Zander's Taoh. 
pp. 7. 17 speaks of wald-sckälkhin Cupido. Does Widuklud, a 
very uncoiiitnon name, mean wood-child ? conf, Widnkindes 
speckia, Lunzel 22. 25. 

p. 433 nJ] Weaving naiads in Od. 13, 107. Fountain- nymphs, 
daughters of Zeus, are worshipped by Odysseus and in Ithaca 13, 
356, 17, 240 ; a part of the sacrifice is laid by for them 14j 435. 
ßmßhf; vvfLifiaüiv 17 , 210. 

p. 434 n.] The reluctance of Proteus is also in Virg. Georg. 
4, 388—452 ; the same of rertumnus, Ov. Met. 14, 642 seq, 
Propert, iv. 2. 

p. 435.] Ez ne eint mermlnne niet. En. 240, 4. ein wise vier- 
viinne, Lanz. 193. 5767. 3585. 6195. als eoe 7nermin7ie singhen, 
Bose 789C. A captive merwoman prfq}h€sies ruin to the couutry 
as far inland as she is dragged, Firmen. 1, 23. MüUenh» p, 338. 
Queen Dagmar he^rs the prophecy of a hav-ftni, D.V. 2, 83 — 85 
(in which occurs the adage : vedst du det, saa vedst du mer). 
The mermaid of Padstow, exasperated by a shot, curses the har- 
bour, and it is choked up with sand. For Melusine the common, 
people say mere Lusine. Danish songs have 7naremiftd^nd ware- 
qvinde. * waltminne = lamia,' GL florian. Fmidgr, 1, 396. wait- 
mmna^ecbo (p. 452), lamia/ Graff 2, 774. widuminnaf Cassel 
ortsn. p. 22. 

p. 436 J The vita builds her castle in the clouds, her daughter 
Munya (lightniog) plays with her brothers the two Thunders, Vuk j 
nov. ed* 1, 151-2. She sits in ash-trees and on rocks, singing 
songs ; talks with the stag in the forest ; bestows gifts, and is a 
physician (p* 114S), Vuk 151. 149 n,, no. 114. 158. She resem- 
bles the devil too ; holds night-dance on the hill (Vuk sub v. 
\T2ino kolo), teaches pupils to lead clouds and make stomas, de- 
tains the last man. The vilaa are likest the white ladies (Suppl. 
to 968). With hlikiaii conf. Lith. ^ulbauya volung^,* the wood- 
pecker whines, and MS. 2, 94^ : 'ir klokent als umbe ein fö!« 
bourn ein speht,' a« woodpecker about a plumtree. 




p. 439.] Augustine CD. 8, 14 divides animate beings into 
three clusses : 'tripertita divisio animaüum in deoa, homines, 
daemoms. Dii excelaissimum locum teuenfc, homines infiraum, 
duemants medium ; nam deorum sedes in coelo, horainum in terra^ 
ia aere daemonum/ The vet tar have moro power over nature 
than we, but have no immortal soul, a thing they grieve at (p. 

517). Pries, hot, udfl. 1, 109, The Goth, aggilus, OHG. engl!, 

is not a convenient general term for these middle beuigs, for it 
conve/s a definite Christian sense. Iw. 1391 uses geint for dae- 
mon: ein unsih tiger geist. Genius means having generative power, 

Brh. Etr. gods pp, 15. 52. Another general term is imgethiimf 

chweinichen 1, 2t3l-2. Spirits are also nngelwtier (p. 914) : die 
ühelen ungehiuren, Ges. Abent. 3, 6L 70-6 ; elbische wi^e/uwre 3, 
75. The Swed. rä too seems to have a general sense : sjÖ-rä, tomf- 
rA, skog-rtl, räaial, Runa 1844, 70; conf. as (SuppL to 24 and 
498), Mod, Gr. oTix^iov, Fauriel*s Disc, preL 82, must be 
OTQi'^eiov element, conf, to (ttoix^iop jou Trorafiou 2, 77, 

p* 442.J The Victovali, Victohali are Goth. Vaiht6*haleis, ON. 
Yaetta-balir, fr. vict, wiht, wight, and the same people as the 
Nahanurvali (Supph to 406). GDS. 715. Can t'^nV/^Äbe fr. vaian 
to blow, and mean empty breath ? In Hpt's Ztschr. 8, 1 78 ' ihi 
(ie-vriht) übles' is half abstract, like Goth, vaihteis ubilös; whilst 
'einea boesen wichtes art' in Laoz. 3693 (conf. 1033) is altogether 
ooQcrete; so are, 'diz ungehiure wihi/ Ges. Abent, 2, 129; dat 
irul© wichi, Hein. 3660; dat dein proper suverlec wechfkeii (girl), 
Vonrijs p, 33 ; 0. Engl, wight = heingt wife, Nares's Gl. sub v, ; 
iBar vaettir, Forum, 4, 27; ill vaetlr ok örm, Fornald. 1, 487; 
log vaeiir, Seem. 67-8; o-vaeitr, malus daemon, our tr»-wesen. 
land'VaciHr are Saxo's 'dii loci praesides' 161. dil vetirarnet 
Dybeck 1845, p. 98. uppa vegnar vaettir, ex improviso, Bioni 
sub ir. veginn (slain). The Norweg. go-vejter, good wights, whence 
the gu*vitter of the neighbouring Lapps, answer to our gute wiekte, 
ffute holden (pp. 26G. 456. 487); de gttden holden, Gefken's Boil 99. 
124-9. A 15th cent, description of the Riesengebirge has ' umb 
de^ Wtckirchen oder lergmönlins willen,' Munes Au si 7,425; is 



this word akin to wJclifc, as well as ar-weggera (p, 45 in,) which 
might mean ' argö wichte/ malicious wights ? * Weckerle in is a 
dog's name, fr. wacker (brisk, wide-awake). Wihielin, p. 441 n., 
may mean simply a puppet, like tocke, docke : bleierne (leaden) 
holder- ztvergliUf Garg. 253**. A wichtel-«/wije in Sommer p. 24, 
a wichtelen-7ocA in Pfeina. Beitr. 1, 42. Like wiht, das ding stands 
for nightmare, Pröator. Weltb. 1, 27, as bones coses does for boni 
geoii, Alex, 289, 24, and M, Lat. creatura for something, wight, 
Ducange sub v. 

ON. hjnd, f., pi. ki/ndir, is genus, ens^ Sa3m. 1'. 6*. US'; hifiisl, 
kijfistr^ res insolita; Swed. kifner, creaturae, Runa 1844, 74.* 
Akin to this word seems MHG. kundisr, creature, being, thing, 
also quaint thing, prodigy : was chiindm*8 ? Wackera. lb. 506, 
30; conf. 675, 3l). ö7ö, 28. 907, 7. 909, 17. solhez hinder ich 
vernam, MSH. ;i, 195'*. tiuvela kimter, Rol. 223, 22. der tiuvel 
und allez sin kunder, Tit. 2668. du verteiltez k,, Ges. Abeufc, 3, 
35, bestia de funde so sprichet man dem k., Tit. 2737* vers win- 
den sam ein k., dass der boese geist fuort in dem rore 2408. ein 
vremdex L, MSH, 3, 171\ ein seltssene k., Walth, 29, 5. ein 
triigelicbez k, 38, 9. diu oedeo k., MSH» 3, 213'. das scheusslich 
kuoterl Oberlin SIO'^^ but also *herlichiu kunder,' Gudr. 112, 4. 
einer slahte k,, daz was eiu merwunder, Wigam* 119. maneger 
slahte k,, Wh. 400, 28* aller slahte kuntefltch, Servat. 1954. k. 
daz uf dem velde vrizzet gras {sheep), HeUnbr. 145* der krebez 
izzet geru diu kunterUn im wazzer, Renn. 19669. OHG, Chun- 
teres frnmere. Cod» Laureah, 211. M. Neth. conder^ Brandaen 33. 
16t>7. dem boesem nnhinder, Dictr. 9859, formed like ON, 
övaettr ; cout AS, tudor, progenies, untydras, monstra, Beow. 22 L 

p- 443,] OEa ' fauuos-a/i>,' Hpt's Ztschr, 10, 369. MHO,, 
beside alp (d6 kom si rehte als eiu alp äfmich geslichen, Mauri t. ^H 
1414), has an exceptional fi7/: so tum ein td/ . • . was nie sfi a// " 
(both rhym, half), Pass. 277, 69 and 376, 6. der unwise a// 302, 
90. ein helfeloser a// 387, 19. der tumme a// 482. 12, der t&- 

rehte a//684, 40; couf, the name Olfalj] Karajan 110, 40. Perh. 

a uom, *diu elbe' is not to be inferred fr, the dat, *der elbe' in 

r-weggers is ft n&me for earih-wighi& : ar-beren « ^ ri-boereb, p. 467, 1. 3 ; and 
in-tei7»f-lJn p. 449» last 1.— Tiujss. 

'•"4L monstnira, Vilk. a. 36, tkrimtU Forara, 4, 60-7* nwd luce kyofil. 
^'iut$l = JAtcbrii, Dau. skrämael tcmcalaniGotuin ; Neib. schräm terror, 
atero; Skrjrair (p. 641J. 



IS. 1, 50^, as Pfeiffer p. 75 says the Heidelb. MS. reads ' von dett 
[* The dwarf i a rend el is Alhani a name Elblin in Dint 2, 

!07 ; a mouQtain*sprite^/^er in Schm. 1, 47, With the above 

Ol/a ff cont ^ein rehter ol// Roseng. xiii., which coinea near MH6. 
olf, pL ülve, bat disagrees in its consonant with alp, elbe. On 
the other band, 'da dip, du dölp * in H, Sachs i. 5, 525** agrees 

irith the latter; so does Olb&n^bevg^ Hess. Ztschr. 1, 245. The 

quite reg. M. Neth. a// {p. 463, last 2 11.) has two plurals: (1) 
ah^en in Br. Gheraert v. 719. met alven ende elviDnen, Hor, Belg. 
6^44; and (2) elven in MaerL: den elveii bevelen, Clarisse's ober. 
p. 219. There is also a nent. alf with ph elver ; conf, the names of 
places Elver-sele, Elvinnen^herg, A large ship, e//-schuite, Ch. yr. 

1253 (Böhmer's Reg. p* 20, no. 190) is perh. fr. the river Elbe. 

AS. mlfinni means nympbae, dun-teZ/innioreades, wodu-ff-f/ifm^dry- 
ades, W8Bter-(£/^nrte hamadryades, nfic-mlfinne naiades, feXd-mlfinne 
maides, Hpt's Ztschr, 5, 199, The Dan. assimil. of ei/f?F*for elven 
occar» indep. of composition : ' eilen leger med bannom/ mente 
captus est^ Wormins Mon, Dan. p. 19. ellevUd — Hovw, buldrin, 
Asbiörns. 1, 46-8. 105. indtagen af hnldren 1, 99. To ölpeinUschj 
Ac. add elpendrötscht Grater's Id. und Herrn. 1814, p. 102; Up. 
Hess, 'die ilmedrednche* \ Fastn. 350 äJpetrüU ; conf. trötsch 

Mone'ü Aiiz. 6, 229. The adj. from alp is eibhck : in eUnscher 

anacbowe, Pass. 97, 15. ein elHfuche ungehinre^ Ges. Ab. 3, 75, 
ein elbUchez äs 3, 60. eibischer gebaere 3, 68. ich ßihe wol daz 
d& dhUfh bist 3, 75. 

p. 444 n.] For the Alps there occar in the Mid. Ages ^ elhoji 
= alpibas,' Dint. 2, 350^ über elm^ trans alpes. Rother 470. 
-ftber alhe k&ren, Servat, 1075. zer wilden alle klAsen, Parz* 190, 
*22. gen den wilden allen, Bari. 194, 40. 

p, 444 n.] Welsh gwion =» elf, fairy. On hansh i, benshi see Hone's 
Every Day b. 2, 1019, O'Brien sub v. sitbbhrog (Suppl to 
280). heat^vjhe, Leo^s Malb. gl. 37, sighe 35. Hence the name 
of an elvish being in the West of Engl., pixif, pexy, jnjehyj Scotch 
/»aiA;«i$^ Jamieson 2, 182, and pixie, SuppL 219. For the cole* 
piäPg, at fmit-gathering time, a few apples are left on the tree» 
called in Somerset the pixh^'hordlnij (fairies' hoard), Barnes sub 
T. eohpczy, Picfiij-ridden, i.e. by night-mare ; pixy -led, led astray. 

p. 4-t5.] The distinction betw. affar and dvertjar appears also 
in Sasm. 28* : for dl/om Dvalian, Dainn dvertjom. By Alf keimt 



Rask understancla the sontliemmost part of Norway, Afh. 1, 
86-8; by dvergar tto Lapps 1^ 87. Loki, who is also called älfr, 
13 sent by 05iun to A^idimri or Äntißvari in SrarfdlfahehUf Sn. 
136; so Plutarch 4, 11 50 derives daemons from the servants of 
KronoSj the Idtean Dactyls, Corybantes and Trophoniads. 
Curiously Olafr ia called digri Geirsta^a-a//r, because he sits in 

the grave- mound at GeirstoS, Fornm, 4, 27. 10, 212. Both 

albs, aip8 and the Lat albus come (says Kuhn in Hpt's Ztschr. 
5, 490} fr, Ssk. ribhus y conf. thie unzun man = angel», O* v. 
20, 9. die iveisseri inanndf W«jise's Com. probe 322, Vishnu on 
the contrary appears as a black dwarf, Meghadufca 58, and again 
as a brown shepherd-boy 15. Dwarfs are created out of black 
bones, ' or bldm leggjoin,^ Saam. 2**. Migrating dwarfs are either 
white OT black in Panz. Beitr. 1, 14. Still I think it speaks for 
my threefold division, that the elves made by witches* magic are 
also blacky white and reil^ where red may stand for brown, though 
hardly for dockr. In charms too, the * worms* equivalent to elves 
are always of those three colours; an Engl, spell names 'fairies 
white, red and black/ Hone's Yearb. 1534. And horses black, 
brown and white turn up in the fay-procession. Minstrelsy 1D9. 

p. 446.] The dwarf Andvari dwells in Svartdlfakeim, Sn. 136; 
Sn. 16 makes some dwarfs live in the ground (i moldu), others in 
stones (i steinam), 

447.] For dvergr, Saem. 49* has durgr, LS. twarg, Westph. 
twiark, L. Rhen. qnevge^ Firmen. 1, 511 ; Up. Lausitz querx 2, 
264, ^ fj allerg = nQ.uns vel pomilio/ Gl, Slettst. 29, 43. ein 
wildez get were f Er. 7395; getwergelin 1096. daz izwerk,^e\\er*B 
Erz. 632, 3. wüdiu getwerc, Goldem. 5, 1. Si gen. 21, 9. Eckö 
81, 5. A deed of 1137 is signed last of all by * Mirabilitf nanu$ 
de Arizberg, nepos imperatoris Heinrici,' MB, 4, 405 ; Was hia 
name Wunteriwei-e? (a Mirabilis near Minden, yrs* 1245-82, 
Wigand's Wetal. beitr. 1, 148. 152. Henr. Mirabibs, D. of 

Brunswick, d. 1322. -Earth-mannikins do spin, Sup. 993 ; but 

their favourite line is amith^work; they are ' hagir dvergar,' 
Ssem. 114*. Knockers are little black hill-folk, who help to 
knock, and are good at finding ore, Hone's Yearb. 1533. The 
thunderbolt was also elf-shoty conf. Alp-donar (p. 186-7). As 
smiths with cap and hammer, the dwarfs resemble Vulcan, who 
18 repres. with hat and hammei^ Arnob. 6, 12 ; conf* Lateranoa 



(iSappl. to 511), Dwarfs were worked on ladies' dresses^ dvergar 
a öxltim, Sfflm, 102**, 

p, 447 n.] The korr, dwarf, dim. konili, is black and ugljj 
with deep-set eyes and a voice muffled by age. Schreib. Abh. t. 
atreitkeil. p. 80. Welsh gwarcheU, a puny dwarf, gurion, elf, 
fairy, gwtjll, fairy, hag, Lith, karlä, karlMe, Serv. maUenitza^ 
fiuinyOf little-one, star-mall, old little-one, kepeiz. 

p* 448.] The worship of elvea is further attested by the d(/U- 
hl6t performed in one's own house, Fornra, 4, 187. 12, 84; a 
black lamb, a black cat is offered to the huldren, Asb. Huldr. 1, 
159. In Dartmoor they lay a bunch of grass or a few needles in 
le pixies' hole, AfchenoQuin no. 991. The alp-ranhe is in AS. celf- 
vne, OHG. alb'dono, hke a kerchief spread out by the elves ? (p. 
1216) ; alf-rank, amara dulcis. Moneys Anz. 6, 448. Other plants 
%med after them are elf-bläater, eff-näfver^ Dyb. Rnna 1847, 31, 

p» 451 n*] The adage in the Swiss dwarf-story, 'salben tho, 
mlben gha* (conf. issi teggi, p. 1027), is found elsewhere ; Norw. 
'fijol gjort, sjol ha,' Asb. Hufdr. 1, 11; Vorarlb. * selb to, selb 
ho/ Vonbun p*10; ' salthoo, saltglitten,' Wolfs Ztscbr. The 
goaCsfetsi suggest the cloven hoofs of satyrs, for dwarfs too ' dart 

thron gh the wood on pointed hoof/ Dietr. drach, 140*. The 

til effect of curlosiUj on men's dealings with dwarfs comes out in 
the followin^T ; — A shepherd near Wonsgehäu saw his dog being 
fed by two dwarfs in a cave. These gave him a tablecloth^ which 
bad only to spread, and he ooold have whatever food he 
Wished. But when his inquisitive wife had druwn the secret 
from him, the cloth lost its virtue, and the zxvergles-brunn by 
Wonsgehäu ran blood for nine days, while the dwarfs were 
killing each other, Panz, Beitr. 2, 101. 

p. 451.] Angels are small and beautiful, like elves and dwarfs; 
are called g^onge men, Ctedm. 146, 28; woman's beauty is comp. 
lo theirs, Walth. 57, 8. Frauend. 2, 22. Hartm, bk. 1, 1409, 
Percival 'bore angel's beauty without wings/ Parzif, 308, 2,^ 
And dwarfs are called the fair folk (p. 452) j sgon-aunheii ^ Kuhn's 
Westph, Bag, 1, 63. Alberich rides 'als ein Gotm emjel vor dem 
hc-r/ Ortnit 358, die kleinen briute (she-dwarfs), vron wen also 
ttit£ Hldö getan (done like pictures), Alex, and Antiloie (Upt's 

^ PfnfMti piteri already attend Vonus in Claadian'B EpiÜi. Patkdii ; angols fiit 
fmtDd the tower, Pertx ü« ijji^ 


Ztschr. 5, 425-6) ; conf. ' Divitior forma, quales audire solemus 

Na'ides et Dryades mediis incedere silvis/ Ov. Met. 6,452. On 

the other hand, Högni, whose father was an alb, is pale and dun 
as bast and ashes, Yilk. c. 150; changelings too are ngly (p. 
468). We read of detmea xoihti (p. 441) ; and the red-capped 
dwarf is hlacky Buna 3, 25. Dwarfs have hroad brows and Imig 
hands, Dybeck 1845, p. 94; groze arme, kurziu bein het er n&ch 
der getwerge site, Wigal. 6590 ; and the blatevueze in Bother 
seem to belong to dwarfs, by their bringing the giants costly 

raiment. Dwarfs come up to a man^s knee, as men do to a 

giant's: 'die kniewes h6hen .... die do sint eins kniewes 
hdch,' Dietr. drach. 299». 175■^ 343\ Dietr. n. ges. 568. 570. 
Often the size of a thumb only : poUex, Pol. paluch. Boh. palec, 
ON. Ijftralftngr (Swed. pyssling : ' alia min fru mors pysslingar,' 
Sv. folks. 1,217-8; ON. pysslingr, fasciculus), Lith. nyksztSlis, 
thumbkin, wren, Kl. sehr. 2, 432-3. In Indian stories the soul 
of the dying leaves the body in the shape of a man as big a» a 
thumb, Holtzm. Ind. sag. 1, 65. Buhig says the O.Pr. 6arz- 
dnckai is not fr. pirsztas, finger, but fr. barzda, beard, the sub- 
terraneans being often repres. with long beards. MH6. names 

for a dwarf : der kleine mann, Ernst 4067. der tvenige man, Er. 
7422. Eilh. Trist. 2874. der wenige gast. Er. 2102. weniges 
mennel, Frib. Trist. 5294. ein gar tceniger man mit einer güldin 
kröne. Ecke 202. ein wenic twirgelin, Alex. 2955. der kurze 
kleine, der kleine recke, Dietr. drach. 43**. 68*. der wunderUeine, 
Altsw. 91. Serv. star-mali, old little-one. An unusual epithet, 
applied also to slaves and foreigners, ia 'le puani nain,' Ben. 
4857. The Elf-king sits under a great toadstool, Ir. march. 2, 
4 ; and whoever carries a toadstool about him grows small and 
light as an elf 2, 75. The little man afloat on a leaf in Brandaen 
is on a par with the girl sailing over the waves on the leaves of 
a waterlily, Hüllenh. p. 340 ; conf. nokkeblomster (p. 4S9). 

p. 453.] Hills and woods give an echo : 0H6. galm. Dint. 2, 
327* ; MHG. gal and hal, DeaU myst 2, 286 ; widergalm. Tit. 
S9l ; die stimme gap hin widere mit geliehem gaJme der walt^ Iw. 
61 8. They answer : conscia ter sonuit rupes, Claud, in Pr. et 
Olybr. 125; respansat Athos, Haemusque remyigit, Claud, in 
Eatr. 2, 162 ; das in dUvon antworte der berc nnde ouch der tan. 
Nib. 883, 3; ein gelUndiu fluo, Lpans. 7127; si schrei, daz ir der 


wait eniapraeh, Bon, 49, 71 j daz im der berc entgegenhält Er. 
7423.— — ^ON. dvergmäll qvaS I bverjum hamri\ Fornald. 3, 629 ; 
dvergmalennt Alex, saga 35. 67* AS, wudtt-mrerj both echo and 
nympha silvestris. The woodman calls fr. the wood, Megenb. 16, 
20. Böcler*s Superst, of the Esths p. 146 gives their names for 
the echo: squint*eye, wood's rephj, elf-son^s cry ; Possart p, 163-4 
8a js, the mocking wood-elf meU halias makes the echo (SuppL 
to 480). Echo is the silvan voice of Faunus^ Picus (conf, wood- 
pecker and Vila), Klausen pp. 844. 1141; the Mongols take a 
similar view of it, Petersb, bull, 1858, coL 70. In the Ir. 
marcben 1, 292 echo is not * muc alia/ but macalla or alia hair, 
Gael, mnx^ialla, son of the rock, Ahlw. Oiaian 3, 336. 

As the ON. saga makes Huldra queeM of dwarfs ^ Swedish 
legends have a fair lady to rule the dwarfs ; even a king ia not 
Qüknown, as the hergkong (p. 466). The English have a qxteeri 
of Jairieff, see Minstr. 2, 193 and the famous descr. of qn^cn Mab 
(child, doll ?) in Rom. and Jul. i. 4 ; conf. Merry W. of W. v. 4. 

Add Morgiiehi deehinne, Lane. 19472. 23264-396-515. 32457. 

In German opinion kings preponderate. The Sörla]>dttr makes 
Alfrigg a brother or companion of Dvalinn, while Sn. 16 asso- 
ciates Alßiofr with him, Fornald. 1, 391 ; conf. ' in dem Elpenchis- 
loke/ Banr no. 633, yr. 1332, ' der getwerge kiinec Bilöi' has a 
brother Briantt, Er. 2086 ; Grigoras and Glecidolän, lords of der 
twerge lant 2109, Another is Antilois (rhym. gewis), Basel MSS, 
p. 29**- On the name of the dwarf-king Lnarin, Luannt, see 
Hpt's Ztschr. 7, 531 ; Laurin^ Banr no. 655; a Laurum in the 
Boinau des sept sages (Keller's Dyocletian, in trod, p. 23 — 29). 
With Gibich conf. Gehhart, Mülleoh. p. 307; king Pipers or 
Pippe)Loug 287.291-2. Again, the Scherfenberger dwarf, DS* 
oo- 29 ; WofUestriiksken king of earthmannikina, Firmen. 1, 
iOÖ— 410. Aibr. v. Halb, fragni. 25 speaks of a got dt^r twerge. 

p. 453 n.] The lament ' Urha7i is dead ! ' sounds like the 
Vorarlberg cry ' Urham (old Jack) ist todt' {conf. Urian, ur- 
teofel, p. 989, and 'the devil's dead,' p. 1011-2), Vonbun p. 4; 
ed- 2, pp. 2. 7. Fromm. Mundart. 2, 565. KU tan is dead, 
Winkler's Edelm. 377; Salome is dead, Pauz, Beitr- 2, 40* 
* Biach, Pingel, Pippe kong, Pilatje, Vatte, Kind ist dot,' Mullenh, 
not. 898 — 401. Hahel is dead, Preusker 1, 57. nu ar Phi^jg död, 
Rana 1844 p. 44. nt er Ulli dauJJr, Fornm. I, 211. 01, Tryggv, 



c, 53. Iq a Coraish legend a beautiful she-dwarf is buried hj 
the littlö folk in Leland church near St. Ives amid cries of Our 
queen x* dead ; conf. Zeus is dead, buried in Crete^ thunders no 
more, Luciau's Jup. trag* 45. 

p, 454.] The dwarfs names Dainn, Nu inn (mortuus) raise the 
question whether elves are not souh, the spirits of the tiead, ^^^^ 
in Ssk. Indras is pita Marutäm, father of the winds = of the dead^ ^H 
Kuhn in Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 488-9. Of the dwarf Alvis it is af^ked : 
hvi eriufölr um nasar, varfcu S nott metT nd ? Sasm. 48*. Dvalinn 
4lfrj Ddinn dvergr; DvaUnn sopiens^ Dunnn sotnnifer 28*, And» 
vari, son of Oinn 181* means perh. cauttis (SuppL to 461). 
Finnr reminds of Fin in the Norrland story (p. 1025), and of 
father Finn in Mullenh, p. 300* Binor may be conn, with dwarf 
Bihuiic in Dietr, drach. — — Germ, names of dwarfs : Meizelin, 
Dietr. dr. 196** Aeschenzelt, Ring 233-9. Hans Donnerdag^ 
Mullenh. p. 578. Rohrinda^ Muggastnti, Vonbun pp. 2.7; conf.' 
StutzamtUza, Orossrinda, Wolf's Ztschr. 2, 60. 183. 

p* 455.] On the arweggers see KM ^. 3^ 195. Dwarfs Mvi 
in holes of the rock : stynja (iugemiscunt) d vergär fyrir 9tein9 
durum, Saem. 8\ Dvalinn stoS i steins di^rum, Hervar. p. 414. 
Tbey like to stand in the doorway, so as to slip in when dangex 
threatens, A dwarf's hole is in OX. ganri, Vilkin. c. 16 (the 
pixi€4f* houfie or hole in Devon, Athen, nos. 988. 991). They were 
called veggbergs vteitf Saam. 9*, In Sweden, herg-rd, bergraet, 
Hnna 3, 50, iord-byggar 1845, 95, di sma Ufidar jardi 60, hoj- 
biergs-r^u/j^e, conf. tomte-gubbe (p. 500), god-gnbbe. In Norway, 
}iou^hoer, dweller on a height. In Germany too, wildiu get were 
live in the mountain beside giants, Hpt's Ztschr. 6,521; * derJ 
hort Nib lunges der was gar getragen üz ei me holn berge/ Nib. ^ 
90, 1 ; a wildez getwerc is surprised ' vor eime halen berge,* Er. 
7396 ; ' si kument vor den berc, und sehent spiin diu getwere^J 
see the dwarfs play, Dietr, dr. 252^ conf. 213*; twerge dwell int 
the Hoberg, Ring 211, ' Daemon snbterraneus truculentus, berg- 
ieufel; mitis, bergmenlein, kobel, guttel;' again, ^dsemon me* 
tal liens, bergmenlein,' for whom a * fündige zech ' was depositedji 
Georg Agricola de re metall. libri XIL Basil. 1657, p. 704\ 

Cr4n M manegen ruhen bere, 

dft weder katze noch getwerc 

mohte über sin geklummen. Troj* kr. 6185. 



The term böhler9'7nännchen im böhlers-loch, Bechst. 3, 129, 
must come fr. bühel, colHs ; conf. OHG. puhiles perc, Graff 3, 
42 and the name Bohler. Wend. Indkowa gom, little folk's hill, 
Volksl. 2, 268*. in montanis (Prasiornm) pt/ffmwi tmdtmtar, 
Pliny 6, 19. People show the twargenAocker, imillekes-löclcer, luuh 

werkers 'locker, vmnn^rkes-g after, Kuhn's Westph. sag. 1, Ö3. 

'lliey also live in graüe-moaiul», Lisch 1 1, o66, in mirns (stfo- 
ida), and under men's Iwttses and barm, Fries'a Udfl. 109, These 
are likewise the resort in summer of the coiirri quels of Bretagoe, 
who sleep on the hearth all the winter. But thej cannot endure 
men's huildlng stable» over their habitations, which the muck, 
linking through, would defile, Miillenh. p. 575, 297. Kuhn, nos. 
S29, 3Ö3 and p. 323. Asb. 1, loO-l. Dybeck 1845, p. 99. ^ — 
The name of Subterranean is widely spread : dat umier-ersch, 
ims ünner-eer sehe, in Sjlt-öe önner-enske, Müllenh,438. 393, 337. 
de unneT-arnchen near Usedom. In digging a well, men came 
upon their ckinmeij, and found quite a houseful, Kuhn in Jrb. 
der Berl. ges. 5, 247* erdmdnnel, ardweibel^ Panz. Beitr, 1, 71. 
Ltth. kaukaSf earth-man, kauhints, mountain-god ; conf. semmea 
deewint, earth-gods, Bergm. 145. In Fuhr and Amrum önnei*- 
iankUsen, in Dan* Schleswig unner-vtEs-töi, unner-bors-töi, tinners- 
lofmAöl (töi = zeag, staff, trash), Müllenh. 279, 28L 337. Elves 
inhabit a Rosegardon inside the earth, like Laurin, where flower- 
pieking i» punished, Minstr. 2, 188. 15^2. 

p* 456.] Venus is called a feine (Suppl. to 411)^ een broosche 
tluinne, Matth. de Castelein's Const van rhctoriken, Ghendt 
1555, p. 205; conf. the Venus^Minne hovering in the air, and 
travelltng vlewlegs as a sprite (p. 892). 

p. 458.] De giiden holden are contrasted with the krodea 
doTeU (Suppl. to 248-9)* Min tvfro AoWo, verus genius, Notk, 
&ip. 81. Is holderehen the original of üUeken, ulken, ßalt. stud. 
12^184, and vllerkens, Temme's Pom. sag. 256?^ fiftßuttjr = 

buldnmaSr, AeGnt^ri 105. The Norw. knldrefolk, Asb. 1, 77 

and Faroe huldefolkf Athen, no. 991, are of both sexes, though 

* Two mAideim came to a peasant when ploughing, and begged bim to leave off, 
^htj were going to buke, und Uie f^and kept faliing into their dough. He hftrgained 
lor A ftiioeal ibeir cake, aod aft. fouod it laid on his plough, Landau's Wikttj drier, 
pu lift» 8o fairiM in WoroeBterah. repay complitiut labourerB with food and drink, 

f* AnfepfieTt is perh. to be explained by arwegget = arbeit, Firmen. 1, 363, and 
I worken ; conf. weckerchen, wulwecker. 



the females are more spoken of : a female is called Jmlder, Asb. 
1, 70, a male hnldre^kall (^karl) 1, 151. Dybeck 1845, 56 de- 
rives hijll'frii, hjUmoer fr. hyldj elder-tree. The good nature 

of dwarfs is expr* by other names : Norw. grande, neighbour, 
and Asb. 1, 150-1 tells a pretty story of the underfjrannd iieifjh' 
lour. Might not the ' goede kinder* in Br* Geraert 718 come in 
here? A gnoter and a pilwiz are named together, Hagen's Ges, 
Abent» 3, 70; ' der fjuotaeri ' is the name of a MHG. poet. Lith, 
balfi zmones, the honest folk, Nesselm, 319^ - As dwarfs im- 
part to men of their bread or cake, help in weaving, washing ■ 
and baking, and serve in the mill {Panz. Beitr. 1, 155), they in 
return make use of men's dwellings, vessels, apparatus. So the 
pixies in Devon, Athen, no. 99 L In winter they move into men's 
ttummer-huts (sheelings), Asb. 1, 77, 88. They can thrash their 
corn in an oven, hence their name of backofen-trescherlein, Gar. 
41*; once the strazeln were seen thraskmg in an oven »ix together, 
another time fourteen. Schön wth 2, 300* 299. They fetch men 
of nnderstanding to divide a treasure, to settle a dispute, Pref, 
XKiii.-iv. Contes Ind. 2, 8* Somad. 1, 19. Berl. jrb. 2, 265. Erfurt 
kindm. 26. Asb, p. 52-3* Cavallios no. 8. WaL march, p. 202. 
KM. nos. 92. 133. 193-7; couf. pt. 3, ed. 3, pp. 167-8. 21G. 400 
(conf. dividituj tJw carcase among beasts, Schönwth 2, 220, 
Nicolov. 34. societas leooina, Reinh. 262). They let a kind^ 
servant-girl have a present and a peep at their wedding, Miillouh. 
326-7 (see, on dwarf's weddings, Altd* bl 1, 255*6, Naubert I, 
92-3. Goethe 1, 196). Hafbur goes into the mountain and has 
his dream interpr. by the eldest ' elvens datter,^ Danske v. 3, 4. 
They dread the cunning tricks of men ; thusj if you take a knifB2 
off their fable, it can no longer vanish. Lisch 9, 371. The man 
of the woods, or schrat, like the dwarf in Rudlieb, cannot endure 
a guest who blows hot and cold. Boner 91. Strieker 18 {Altd. w* 
3, 225).- — 'If on the one hand dwarfs appear weak, like the one 
that cannot carry Hildebrand's heavy shield , Dietr. u. Ges* 854. 
491. 593, or the wihtel who finds an ear of corn heavy, Panz> 
Beitr. 1, 181 ; on the other hand the hnldre breaks a horse-shoe, 
Asb. 1, 81, fells a pine and carries it home on her shoulder 1, 91. 
And in Fairyland there is no sickness, Minstr* 2, 193 ; whicli 
accords with the longevity boasted of by dwarf Rudleib xvii. 18, ' 
conf. Ammian. 27, 4 on the long-lived agrestes in Thrace. 



p. 459.] The dwarfs retiring before the advance of man pro* 
dace, like the Thurses, Jötuiis and Huiies, the impression of a 
ooaquered race. In Devon and Cornwall the pixies are regarded 
as the old inhabitants. In Germany they are like Wenda (the 
elres like Celts?), in Scandinavia like Lapps* Dwarfs are 
then : ' ob getouften noch get werben dor beder kiinec wart ich 

e/ of either dipt or dwarf, Biter. 4156, The undergroiiuders 
not Wode, if he have not washed ; conf, Miilleiih. no. 500 
(p, 468n.). They can^t abide heU-rinying, Firmen, 2, 264**, they 
move away. In moving they leave a cow as a present, Dybeck 
1845, 98. The sabterraneans /en*y ouer^ Miillenh. p. 575 ; wich- 
cross the Werra, Sommer p, 24 ; three wicbtels get ferried 

rer, Panz. Beitr. 1, 116; conf, the passage of souls {p. 832), 
As the peasant of the Aller country saw the meadow swarming 
writh the dwarfs he had ferried over, as soon as one of them pat 
hiü own hat on the man's head ; so in the Akd. hi. 1, 256 : when 
the hel-clothes were taken off, 'do gesach he der geiwerge me wen 
tiUuniJ When the peasant woman once in washing forgot to pat 
lard in, and a wichtel scalded his haad^ they stayed away. The 
^eken fetch water, and leave the jug standing, Bait, stud. 12^. 

p, 461.] Ostgötl. itkot, traU-skoi, elf-shot, a cattle-disease, also 
^If-hlatiier, Dyb. 1845, 51; conf. ab-gast, alv-eld, alv-skot, Aasen, 
lll^r mere touch is hurtful too : the half-witted elhen-irotsche 
(j>, 443) resemble the * cerriU/ larvati, male sani, aut Cereris ira 
ant larvarum incursatione animo vexati,' Nonius 1, 213. Lobeck's 
AgUoph. 241. Creuz. Symbol. 1, 169 {ed. 3). The sick in Ire- 
land tixe fairtj'Slruch. The name Andvari, like the neut. andvar, 

caa be interpr. ventus leais, aura tenuis, though Biorn translates 
a pervigil (Suppl. to 454), With Ve^tri, Vindal/r is to be conu. 
' Ve^tralpuit Alamannornm rex/ Atnm. MarcelL 16, 12. 18, 2; it 
ia surely westar-alp rather than westar-halp, in spite of AS* west- 
kealf, ON, vestnllfa, occidens. Erasm, Atberus' Diet, of 1540 
remarks : 'mephitis, stench and foul vapour iising out of swamps 
or aolphuroiis waters, in nemoribus gravior est ex densitate sU- 

rmrumJ In the Dreyeich they say * der alp feist also/ The 

Zpo&9 of elrea bewitch, as well as their breath : eft ik si entaen, 
Val. and Nam, 238\ byn yk nu untzen ? Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 390, 

p. 4d2.] Elves can get into any place. The tltr enters the 



house 'at btldum dijrum öllum/ Foruald, 1, 313. They steal apl 
softly, iinperceived : ' se geifc op eWen-tehneu/ ehe walks on elf- 
toes, they say about Magdeburg. 

p. 463.] They can make themselves invisible : daz analutte 
dea sih pertjenten (self-hiding) truge-tievels, N, Boeth. 42. eiii, 
vnsihtiger getd, Iw, 1391. The invisibility is usually effected bj 
their head- coveting, the neheUkappe, Ettn. Maulaffe 534. 542. 
Altswert 18, 30. in miner nebelkappen, FraueaL 447, 18 j or 
hele-häppel^ Wiiisb. 26, 5. Wiusbekin 1 7> 5 ; and the secrelj 
notches in it are called käppd-snite 17. 18. * nachgraben nndj 
n^hd'käptil / Kfttzmair p. 23-8 (yr, 1397). It seems they also wearl 
a fire-red Uchoph, Voiibun p. 1 j and a subterranean has the' 
name of li^dbeard, Wiillenh, p. 438, The huldre-hat makes in- 
visible, Asb. 1, 70, 158-9, like the thief *g helmet; the hat is alsOj 
called hvarfs*hnt(, and the boys who wear it varfvar, Hpt^s 
Ztschr. 4, 510-1 ; conf. ^ hverfr |>essi alfr sv4 sem sknggi/ Vilk. 
C. 150, The courriquets of Bretügne wear huge 7*ound hats. Men 
cry to the dwarfs^ 'zieht abe inwer ht'lin-kltit I ^ Altd, bl. 1, 256. 
Like our dwarfs, the little corybantes in antiques wear hats, Paus. 
3. 24, 4. Not only Orcus^s helmet^ but his coat was known, for 
the Romans called the anemone Orci tunica, Dioscor. 2, 207.— 
Conversely, dwarfs become visibh to those who anoint their eye#* 
with dwarf -salvo, as in the story of the nurse who put the oint- 
ment to one of her eyes, and could see the subterraneans, til 
they tore out the eye, Asb. 1, 24-5. Mullenh. p. 298. Dyb. 1845, 
94. Poems of the Round Table give dwarfs a scourge, where- 
with to lag about them, Lanz, 428. 436, Er. 53. 96. Iw. 4925. 
Parz. 401, 16. Even Albrich bore 

eine geisel swaere von goMe an si nor haut, 

siben knöpfe swaere hiengen vor daran, 

damit er umb die hende den schUt dem küenin man 

sluoc so bitterlichen. Kibel. 463-4. 

In Possari's Estl. p. 176 the giants carry whips with millstones 
tied to the tails. 

p, 465.] Old poetry is full of the trickery of dwarfs, who are 
Jciindic as foxes, endelkh^ Dietr. drach. 17, 'endeltch und kec,' 
'brisk and bold/ 846**, hedrogan habbiud sie demea wihti, HeL 
92, 2. du trügehaftez wiht, Bari. 378, 85. uns triege der alp. 



Hagen's Ges, Ab. 8, 60. eUs-ghedrvch, Beatrijs 736. eUs-gtie- 
drochte, Maerl. {Clarisse's Ghemert p. 219). Waleweiu 5012. 
enhdrde ghi noit segghen (heard ye ne'er tell) van aWa-gedroehie^ 
Hor. Belg. 6, 44-5. Deception by ghosts is also gsimcnvtse. Herb. 
1283»!. ungihiure drugi-dinc, Diemer 118, 25. 121, 3. May we 
CODQ. with ahegetroc the M. Neth, avomUronke ? Belg. mus. 2, 
116. In App., spell xlii.^ an alb has eyes like a ieig-irog (lit* 
doogh-trough). Oeiivd», faotasma, is better expl. by AS, dwaes^ 

stnltas (Suppl. to 916) than by SI. dusha, soul (p. 826).^ 

Oppression during sleep is caused by the alp or mar (p. 1246) : 
mich drucket heint (to-night) der alp^ Hpt's Ztschr. 8, 514, kom 
rebte als ein alp uf mich gcalicheOj Maurit. 1414. The trud 
presses^ Dietr. Unas, march, no. 16, conf. frau Trude (p. 423), 
Other names for incubus : stendelj Staid. 2, 397 ; rätzel or schrätzel^ 
Praetor. Weltb. 1, 14. 23 (p. 479) j Fris. wof^hider, Ehrentr. 1, 
386. 2,16; Lti. waalriiter, Krüger 71^ Kuhn's Nordd. sag. 
nos. 338. 358. p. 419 (conf. Walscbraad in the M. Neth. Bran- 
dmen) ; Engl, hag -rodej -ridden, W. Barnes j pic-^j/^ndden (SuppL 
to 444; the pixies also, like the conrriqueta of Breiagüe, tangle 
the manes of horses, and the knots are called piwy-^eatg, Athen, 
QO. 9Ö1] ; Poh cmciy Boh. trna, Yin. pamayainenj squeezer, Ganan- 

^de^ 65, Schröter 50. Other names for pUca: Upp. Hess. 
Hollekopp, at Giessen modocJce, mahrklatte^ Judenzopf, A child 
in Diat, 1,453: 

hatte ein sieehez houbet (sore head), 
des hatten sirh verlouhei 
di hdrlocke aUe garewe. 

And Sibilla (aniCahs) has hair tangled as a horse's mane^ Eti. 
2701. Scandinavian stories do not mention Holle's tuft or tail, 
bot they give the huldres a iaiL This matted hair is treated of 
by Cas. Cichocki de hist, et nat. plicae polonicae, BoroL 1845, who 
adds the term gwozdziec, liter, nail-pricking, cramping. 

p. 465.] Dwarfs ride : diu phert diu si riten wären geliche 
grt» den schdfen, Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 426; conf. Altd. bL 1,256. 
Owiu'fB mount a rop, King p. 211, 231. Fairies ride, Minstr, 2, 
199. Pixies ride the cattle at nighty Athenaeum nos. 991. 989. 
Potke m ä red cap rides a white gooae, Runa 1844, 60, as the 
pygnisei rode on partridges, Athen. 3, 440. The aocients kept 



dwarfs and dffgs, Athen. 4, 427^ as mea iu the Mid. Ages kepfc 
dwarfs and foola. Giants, kings Hud heroes have dwarfg in their] 
retinue^ as Siegfried has Elberich, and in Er, 10. 53. 95. 995. 
1030 a knight has a getwerc riding beside him and laying on 
with his scourge; he is called Maledicar, and is affc. chastised, 
with blows 10l36. Elegast goes a thieving with Charlemagoe. 
In Wigaluis a maiden comes riding, behind whom stands a dwarf J 
with ht^ hands on her shoulders^ siuging songs 1721 — 36; another] 
getwerc has charge of the parrot and horse 2574. 3191. 3258-87* 
4033. Oil the train of a richly bedizened daine ride Uitle blcickl 
fipirlt^, gigglings clapping haada and dancing, Cses. Heitsterb. 5,| 
7 (Suppl to 946). 

p. 467.] While the Devonah. pixies make away with tnrnips 
(AtheDEEum no. 991), our German dwarfs go in for peas, erhseti ;] 
hence the name of thievish Elbegast is twisted into Erhagast \ 
' I adjaro thee by thy master Erbagast, the prince of thieves,' 
Ztschr. f, Thüriüg, gesch, Ij 188. These thievish dwarfs may be 
comp, to Hermes, who steals oxen as soon as he is born. Hymn 

to Merc. Dwarf Elberich overpowers a queen, and begets the 

hero Otnii, An alb begets HogtU, Vilk. c, 150, The story of 
'den hergtatpm^ is also told l>y Dyb. 1845, p. 9i. Dwarfs are 
mach given to carrying off human brides and falling in love with 
goddesseij e.g. Freya. The marchen of FUchers-vogel is also in 
Prohl^'s M. f. d. jugeod no. 7, where ho is called ß^der-vogel ; 
conf. Schambach pp. 303. 3"}9.- — —Little Snowdrop's coming to 
the dwarfs* cottage, and finding it deserted, but the table spread 
and the beds made, and then the return of the dwarfs (KM. no. 
53) agrees remarkably with Duke Ernest's visit to the empty 
castle of the heak-mt>athed people. When these come home, the 
master sees by the food that guests have been, just as the dwarfs 
ask 'who's been eating with my fork?' Ernst 2091 — 3145. 
And these crane- tuen appear in other dwarf stories : are they out 
of Pliny and So) inns ? ' Oerania, ubi pygraaeorum gens faisse 
proditur, Cattuzos (aU Cattocos) barbari yocant, creduntque a 
yruibiu fuf/atog/ Pliny 4, 11, conf. 7^ 2. Hpt's Ztschr, 7, 294-5. 
Gven the Iliad 3, 6 speaks of cranes as avSpdat wvyfiaioia-i <f>6pov 
teal fc^pa ipepovaai. On dwarfs and cranes see Hecatoens fragm. 
hist, Gr. 1, 18. The Finns imagined that birds of passage spent 
the winter in Dwarfland ; hence lintukoMalncn, dweller among 



birds, means a dwarf, Ben vail sob v* Hutu : cotif. tlie dwarPs 
aame lindakodonmies, birdcage man. Duke Ernesfs flight to 
that coantrj reminds of Babr. 26, 10 : (pevym^ev eh ra Ilv^pLamv* 
As the dwarf in Norse legend vanishes at sunriae, so do the pixies 
in Devonsh., Athenm, no. 091. In Swedish tales this dread of 
dajrlight is given to giants, Runa 3, 24, Sv. folks. 1, 187, 19L 

p, 469,] The creature that dwarfs put in the place of a chiKl 
18 in ON» sJciptimfjr, Vilk. 167. 187 ; in Icel. uviskipttufjr, kominn 
af lÜfuiüp FiüD. Joh. hist. eccl. lölaudiae 2, 360 ; in Helsing. 
hftin^ (Ostgüt. moling), skepnad af mördade barn, Almqv, 304''; 
in Smäland illhme, barn bortbytt af trollen, lifcet, vanskapligt, 
elakt barn 351. In MHG* wehselhalcj Germ, 4, 20 ; wekaelkalp, 
Keller 468, 32 ; weh^elkind, Bergreien p. 64» In Devon and 
Comw. a fairy changeling , Athen ra. no. 089, Kiellcropf is in 
OHG. did 'chropf ia the sense of struma, Graff 4, 598. To this 
day^ io some parts, they saj kiclkropf for what is elsewhere called 
grabs, grubs, wen, either on the apple or at the throat, and like- 
wiae used of babies, Reinwald's Id. 1, 54. 7S. 2, 69 ; also iafzigel, 
Adamsbuiz I, 18 (p. 506-7), conf. kribs, gribs (p. 450 n.). 
Lather's Table- 1 1568, p. 216-7: * weil er im kröpf kielt/ 
Sehm. 2, 290 : klellcopf, The Scotch siikich steals children, and 
leaves a changeling behind, Armstr. sub v. (Leo's JIalb. gL 1, 37). 
In tithuania the Laume changes children, hence Launi^s apmai- 
ityf<M= changeling. 3oh, podwrz nee. Wend, pre me nk \ flog him 
with bough« of drooping-birch, and he'll be fetched away, Volksl. 
2, 267-8, Similar flogging with a hunting-whip, Sommer p. 43; 
conf. Prfetor, Weltb, 1, 365, It is a prettier story, that the 
dwarfs would fain see a human mother put their babe to her 
breast, and will richly reward her for it, Firmen, 1, 274^*, The 
joke of the ' miiilers sun ' (p. 468 a.) recurs in the MHG, poem 
of ' dea maniches not,^ Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 434, Other stories of 
changelings in Mulleüh. p. 312-3-5. DS.81.2. Ehrentr. Fries, 
»reh. 2, 7. 8- 

The aingnlar method of making the changeling blurt out his 
age and real character is vouched for by numberless accounts. 
A dwarf sees people brew in a huhner-dopp (hen's egg pot, 
•ea eier*dopp, p, 927), and drain off the beer into a goose-egg 
dopp, then ho cries : ' ik bun so oelt as de Behmer wocU, unn heff 
ia toyn laebn so *ii bro nich seen,' Miillenh. no, 425, 1 and 2 

▼OU IT. 1, 



(Belimer goU m Liscli's Jrb. 9, 371). A SweJ. version in Dybeok 
'45, p. 78, '47, p. 38. Tiroler sag. m Steob p, 318*9. Thaler in 
Wlf's Ztscbn 1, 200. Priible p. 48. A Lith. sborj in Scbleicber, 
Wiener ber. 11, 105, 'As many years as the fir has needles/ 
Vonbun 6. ' Tvo seen tbe oak in Brezal weM>d^ seems old^ for 
the Kouian de Ron itself says of Breceliande forest : ' vis la forest, 
d vis la terre/ Note to Iw, p, 263, That ekes attained a great 
age, conies oat in other ways ; thus Elberich is upwards of 500, 
OHn. 241. 

p. 470.] Elves avoid the ann (p. 444 n.), they sink into the 
ground, they look like ß(mt*ra, they turn into ahhr, mpen or 
willow-boughA, Plants that grow in clusters or circles, e.g. the 
Swed. hvU-aij^pan, are dedic. to them, Fries bob* udfl* 1, 109 ; 
so the fairy queen speaks out of a clump of thorns or of standing 
corn, Minstr- 2, 193. Their season of Joy is the nighty hence in 
Vorarlberg they are called the 'uvjhi'folk, Steub p* 82 ; esp. Mid- 
summer Night, Minstr. 2, 195, when they get up a merry dance, 
the elj-thintij Dybk '45, 51, taking care not to touch the herb 
Tarald 60. llie elfins dance and sing, Miillenh. p* 341, Who* 
ever sees thera dance, must not address thera : ' They are fairies ; 
he that ffp^'ftks to them shall die. I'll wink and couch ; no man 
their works must eye,' Merry W. of W. 5, 5. When the subter- 
raneans have danced on a hill, they leave circles in the grasSj 
Reusch's Add. to no. 72 ; so the hoie-raiiuulein, who take their 
name fr. hnien^ huien to holla, dance rings into fcho grass, Leopr. 
32-4. 107. 113-8. 129. Schonw. 2. 342, These circles are caller 
fairij rintjs, and regarded as dwellings of pixies, Athenm. no. 991 
The Seslcria coernlea is called elf-p^iis^ Fries bot. udä, 1, 109; 
the pearl^muscle, Dan. elve-skiäl, Nemn. 2, 682. Elves love to 
live beside «pringg, like Holda and the fays fp. 412) r der ehnnnen 
fonteine, Lane. 3I-5. 899. 1346-94; der elvlnnen horn 870. 1254. 

p. 472,] Dwarfs grant wishes : 

ein mann quam an einen berch {came to a hill), 

dar gref hie (caught he) einen cleiuen dwerch; 

uf dat hie leisso lofen baldo (might soon let go) 

den dwerch, hie gtkf em wünsche walde (power of wishing) 

drier kande (3 things). Cod. Guelferb. fab. 109. 

They are wise counsellors^ as Autilois to Alexander ; and very skil- 



fuL Dwarf Pacolet in Cleomades and Valentin makes a woodea 
Lorse,that one can ride fchrough the air {like Wieland and Da&daliis), 
I Nat akia to PakuUs, is Le ? * Maiiec spaehez were Ez worht ein 
I ivlkhi iivm*e, Der listig PratiÄOpil/ Wigaio. 2585, Dälmhifr is 
I tlio name of a $word made by a dwarf, So. 104; and Elbericli 
I forged the rings, Ortn. 17Ö. la Wigal. G077 it is said of a 

hariiasch : 

er wart von einem wtbe 
verstoln einem gefwerge 
alr^rst uz einem berge, 
dA ez ia mU llaien gar 
het ge worht wol di%zecjdr. 

It was by a woman 

Stoleo from a dwarf 

Out of a mountain erstj 

Where he it witli cunning quite 

Had wrought full 30 yean 

The Westph. schon-aunken forge ploughshares and gridirons of 
triret shape, Kubn's Westph. sag, 1, 06; conf. the story in Fir* 
men. 1, 274*. The hero of the Wieland myth (IIS. p, 323) acts 
as Hephißstua or a smith-dwarf (p. 444). 

p. 476.] Bilwiz : called jnlwiz^ Mone's Anz. 1, 423 ; hillwh, 
unholden, Schleiertach p. 244 ; Cnonrad de pilwisa, Chr. of 1112. 
MB. 29% 232; hUweUz, Gefkeo's Beil. 112; 'Etliche glaben 
(some believe) daz kleine kind zu pilweiiige7i verwandelt siod/ 
have been changed, Mich. Beham in Mone's Anz. 4, 451 ; conf. 
anchriätened babes (Suppl. to U18). In Lower Hesse : ' he sits 
behind the stove, minding the hiwifzercJien/ Hess. jrb. '54, p. 
252 (al. kiwitzerchen). herlewUz (p. 1004). an Walpurga abende, 
wan de pulewesen ausfahren, Gryphiua Dornr* p. 93; sprechen, 
leb wer gar eine hüleweesse 90 ; sie hau dich verbrant, als wenn 
da ein pülewees^er werst 52; conf. palause {p. 1074 n.). In 
Gelders they say : Billewits wiens goed is dat ? also Plllewitg^ 
trUUwlt^» The Lekenspiegel of Jan Deckers (of Antwerp, comp. 
1S30) says, speaking of 15 signs of the Judgment Day (iv. 0, U*. 
de Vries 2, 265 ; see GL p. 374) : 

opt en derdeti dach t waren 
seien hem die viscbe baren 
op dat water van der zee, 
of si hadden herd en wee, 
ende ram'ininncn ende beelwäen 
ende so briesschen ende criten. 



flat dl at RBxtelic gescal 
toten heinel elimmen aal. 

With beelwiteti conf. the wiUen hellen, Gefk. Beil. 157. 


witzes have their * hi\r verfilmet/ matted^ BarK 384-, 361 (such 
hair and a shaggy skin Wolfram imputes to Cnndrie and her 
brother Malcreatiure, Parz. 313, 17. 2r5). They conjure : * con- 
jurers, waydelers, pi! Witten , black-artists * are named together in 
a decree of grand master Conr, v. J angingen, Jacobson 'a Quellen 
des cath. kirchenr. urk. p> 28r5. The hilmerfiekniit, otherw. 
hiher^chnitt, performed on Easter or Whitsunday, Paoz. Beitn L 
240; called iJnrchschmtt in Leopr. p. 19, conf. Somraer's sag. 
p. 171. dementis recogn. 2, 9 (ed. Gersd. p* 44). 

p. 478,] liofjfjen-muhme ; called corn-ajigel, steals children, 
Somm. pp. 26. 170. Rithi'go frumenti is caHed anrngo in Pertz 
8. 368, wudhrant in Hpl's Ztschr. 5, 20L Did the Romans call 
the god of com Robigo or Rohujus ? the Greeks had an Apollo 
eputrißiof^f mildew-averting, fr. ipvalffr}^ robigo. A W.Fland. 
corn-spell denounces the corn-boar as a dulvels zwynfje, Hpt^s 
Ztschr. 7, 532, The Slavs have a similar field- sprite^ & corn-wife^ 
who walks at noon : pffpolnira^ jirepolniaiy fr. poin|^o, midday, 
or dziwica, as in Polish, Wend, volksl. 2,268; she carries a sickle 
(conf. p. 1162). Hanusch p. 360-2. 

p. 480.] 'OHG. scratln ^üiimos, Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 330. Gl. 
Slettst. 6; 222. Gmff 6, 577. ^eraien = iarvas, Dint. 2, 351». 
The tale of the schretel and the water-bear is also in Hpt 6, 174, 
and reappears in the Schleswig story of the water-man and bear, 
Miillenh. p. 257. In Up. Franconia the schretel is replaced by 
the hulzfninlehi^ who, st frying the night at the miller's in Bern- 
eck, asks : ' Have yon still got your great KafzauR ? ■ meaning 
the he(ii\ The man dissembles; the wood-maiden walks into the 
mill, jmd is torn in pieces by the bear. Beside schretel we have 
the form srctc, Mone's Anz. 7, 423; conf. srezze vel srate. der 
srhrättitg, Von bun p. 26-7. d' arhmifU hand a^g'soga, the 
s. have sucked it dry, when a baby^s nipples are inflamed or 
indurated, Tobler 259*. Schratcls weigh upon the sleeper like 
the alp, Gefken^s Cat. p. 55. fichrata, Sf^hrai^I, butterfly, Schm. 
Cimbr. wtb. 167. Fromm, 4, 63. Pereinschrat, Rauch 2, 72; 
Schratental and Schrazental side by side 2j 22; soj with the 




Scraiman already cited, we find a 'servus uoraine Srrazman/ 
Dronke's Trad* Fold. p. 19 ; conf. schmtelc-mamd^ Anobiurn 
pertinax, death watch in Carinthia, Frornm. 4, 53. schratzeu' 
Ivrfter, 'holeSj Panz, Beitr. 1, 111, in Sch razes wank, MB> 35', 

109* Graflf 6j 575 has imiU-8crechel=(&\im, silvestres homines; 

and Schm* 3, 509 distinguishes fr. schratt, schraUel an Up. Palat. 
»chrafulj nchnlchelj which he refers to ßchrach, schroch, scraggy, 
pony, A sch^rzmi, ^chrezeti to bleat, Schm. 3, 405, ia also worth 
considering. The schriichel is charged with tangling horse»* 
msneB. Schrawaz is appar* of different origin : Rudbertus 
nchrawaz, MB, 28*', 138 {yr 1210) ; Rubertus slwrawaz 29^ 273 
(yr 1218). The Swed. skrait is both fatuus and cachinnus ; Finn. 
kraiii geniu3 thesauri; ON. *^rafi — iotnnn^ Sn* 20Ü^\ skratta' 
vardi, Laxd> 152. The Dan. lay of Guucelin has: ^og hjelp nn 
moder Skmt ! * Nyemp's Udvalg 2, ItiO. Sv. forus. 1, 73. On 
altvilj which corresp. to the Engl, scrat, hermaphrodite, see 

Hpt'a Ztschr. 6, 400 and Suppl. to 498. The E.sths call the 

wood-sprite mets haliaH, forest-elf, who is fond of teasing and 
who shapes the echo, Possart*s s. 103-4 ; conf» the Finn. Him, 
KuUcrvo {p. 552). Ir. geilt, wild or wood-man» conf Weh gwyllt, 
wild. Bat the PoK Boh. wood- sprite honita ia orig. feminine, 
inhabiting the fir, like the Greek dryad, hamadryad. Homer 
ßpeaks of sprintj and mountain-nt/mphSf Od. 6, 123-4, and nt/mphs, 
daughters of Zeus,, who stir up the wild goats 9, 154. IlaMa- 
dryads are personified trees, Athen. 1, 307* So Catnll* 59, 21 : 
' Asian myrtle with emblossotned sprays, quos Ummidryadeä dtioe 
ludicrum sibi roscido nntriunt hum ore,' Pretty stories of the 
tree- nymph in Charon, Fragm. hist. Gr. 1, 35; others in Ov. 

let. 8, 771 ; the forest- women in lino 74Ö seq. are descr. more 

ally by Albr. v. Halberstadt 280-1, 

p. 480-] The schrats appear »inghj ; more finely conceived, 
these wood-sprites become heroes and demigods (pp. 376. 432). 
The Kaizenveit of the Fichtelgebirge suggests Katzam of the 
preced. note, Ruhezagel, Rübezahl, a man's name as early as 
[230, Zeuss's Herk, der Baiern p» 35, conf, Mone's Anz. 6, 231 ; 
Uermaiious Rube zag 11 in Dronke^s Trad* Fuld. p. 03 ; liieben» 
zahl in a 15th cent. MS., Moneys Arch, '38, 425 ; Rlebmizagel^ 
Praetor. AJectr, 178-9; Rubezal, Opitz 2,280-1; * 20 acres in 
the Rübenzagil,' Widder*« Pfalz 1,379; Qout&niJi-zagtl, IIasin*2ö/, 



Arnsbg arlc, 410. 126. Sirit-zagel, ii, pr., Lang reg, 5, 107 (vr 

p. 483,] Garg. 119** names together were-wolves^ pilosis goat* ! 
Ttieti^ diesen^ trutten^ garausz, bitebawen. Oti dusii conf. Hattemcr 
1, 230-1, Add the jikhl, for whom toys ore deposited, conf* 
Sommer'g Sag. 170. 25; 'be makes a slioWj as it he were the 
giiile,* H» Sachs 1, 411''; 2m tjuihl (götzBj idol?), Wolfdietn in 
Hftgen^a Heldb* p. 23Ö j hergmemJleh}, cohele^ giühinj Matbesiua 

1562,296'*. They are the Lat, /a^üw^, whose loud voice the 

Romans often heard : saepe faunorum voces exauditae, Cic, de 
S,l}, 2, 2 I faujti voceni nuiiquam audivi 3, 7; fannos qiionira 
noctivago strepitu lodoque jocanti * j . « chordammque sonos, 
dtilceisqae querelas tibia qaas food it, Locret. 4, 582 ; visi etiam 
audi re vocem in gen tern ex sum mi cacummiif JnvOj Livy 1, 31 ; 
Bllentio proximae noctis ex silva Arsia htgt^ntem editam vocevi^ 

I Silvani vocem earn creditam 2, 7. On Fauans and Silvanua see 
Klausen pp. 844 seq. 1141. Hroswitha (Pertz 6, 310) calls the 
forest nook where GanderBlieim nunnery gets built ' silveHfrem 

' locum faunlit monatnS'qne repletum/ Lye baa wutJeimhati 
('Wasan ?] = satyrij fauui, sicurii, Wright 60* wudewdsan — ücarii 
(correctly) vel luvii, 0,E, ' n wood wose — s^d^ty ens' {wfha elsewh, 
coenutn, hi turn, ooze, ON. veisa), con f. ' wwrföunVif — lamia ^ in a 
Lünebg glossary of 15th cent. lu M^Neth, faunus is rendered 
volaicel, Diut. 2, 214, fr. vole, foal; because a horse's foot or 
shape is attrib. to him? conf. nahtvole (Suppl. to 1054). Again^ 

faimi are night- butt er flies acc. to Du M^ril's art. on KM. p. 40. 
The faun is also called fanitisma : ^ to exorcize the fantasima/ 

Decam. 7j L fantoejtj Macrl. 2, 365.- Other names: walt^ 

maUf Iw. 598, 622; also in Bon. 91, where Striker has walt^ 
schrat ; vjaJt-fore 440 ; walf-geKeJlp, -genoz, -gnd^ Krone 9266-76» 
wilder man 9255 ; wilde lettfe, Bader no. 926L 346. With them 
are often assoc. wild women, wHdez wip, Krone 9340 ; wald- 
minchen, Colshorn p. 92 ; conf, wHdeweihs-hild, ^zehnU, a rocky 
height near Birstein, Landau's KurhesBen p. 615. Pfister p. 271 ; 
hohiceihel-deine in Silesia, Mo8ch p. 4. The wild raan^s wife is 
called /a^gfj^fi, Zingerle 2, 1 11 (conf. 2, 61. Wolfs Ztschr. 2, 
58) J fanggai-Iikher, -boles 2, 53; in Vorarlbg /e?ig, fenggl, 
fengga-vtanhrhi, Vonbuu 1 — 6. WolTs Z. 2, 50; conf. Fluz 
(Suppl. to 484). The ON. ivi^r mnj be malus, perversus, 




dolosus, coof. Gotli. invinds, OS. inwid, OHG. inwittßr dolosas, 
{vitigiarn, Saem. 138'. In Syrjan, vörsa = ^ilvs^e geDius^ fr. vor, 

p. 484 J Of 5vi<Sjür and iarnviSjur little is known, but the 
io^s-rä akin to them was supposed to iivo in trees, and any 

rong done to him brought on sickuess, Frieses Udfl, 1, 109 ; he 
dies with tbe tree, conf. walt-miDoe (p. 434), hamadryad. The 
skogrät has a long tail;, Dyb. Runa 4, 8H ; tskoijeroa and äjögeroa 

boast of their deeds and wealth 4, 29« 40, The wood-mves in 

Germany wail and cry (pp. 433. 1 135) : ' you cry like a wood- 
wife,' Uhl. VolksL 149. The holz-fran is shaggy and wild^ over- 
grown with moss, H, Sachs 1, 273. The Flnz-iüeihl on the Fiuz 
(Bay,) is spotted, and wears a broad- brimmed hat, Panz. Boitr. 
1, 22 (Penggi in preced, note). Fasolt'a and Ecke'a mother is a 
rauA^ tüeit, Ecke 23 L Tlie holz-weibl spin till Michel* comes 
out, Mosch. p. 4, They dread the Wild Hunter, as the sub- 
terraneans flee from Wode, Miillenh, p. 372*3. The wild man 
rides on a stag, Ring 32\ 34* The Huater chases the moos- 
weibla or loh-jnngfer (p. 929), and wild men the blessed maids, 
Sfcenb^s Tirol p. 319; in the Etzels hofh, the wonder-worker 
pursues Frau Seeldo (p. 943), as Fasolt ia Ecke 161 — 179 (ed. 

Hagen 213 — 238. 333) does the wild maiden. Men on the 

contrary are often on good terms with them : at haymaking or 
harvest they rake a little heap together, and leave it lying, for 
' tliat's the wooihmaidens due.' I a poariog oat of a dish, when 
drops hang on the edge, doo^t brush them oif, they belong to 
the mos^maiden. When a wood- maid en was canght, her little 
man came running op, and cried: ^A wood -maiden may tell 
anything, barring the use you can make of drip- water/ Panz. 
Beitr. 2, 161. A thankful little woodwife exclaims: * bauern- 
blat, da bist gut,' Borner p. 23L To the hitsh'tjratidtnotJur oa 
the Saale corresp. the Esthonian fomai-faiher, tree-hod, Booler 

p. 485,] Dwarfs and wood wives will not have ctimmin-hrmd, 
Firmen. 2, 204^. A wood- maiden near Wonsgehei said to a 
woman : ' Never a fruitful tree pull up, Tell no dream till you've 
tasted a cup (lit., no fasting dream). Bake no FrUlay's bread, And 

6od| etc.' Panz. Beitr* 2, 16 L That wood*manaikiu8 and 

dwarfs^ after being paid, esp. in gold or clothes, give up the 



service of man, comes out in many stories. Tbe wichtels by 
Ziirgeslieiiii in Bavarian Swabia used to wash tlie people's linen 
iiml bake tliem bread ; when money was left out for tliem because 
they went naked, they said weeping" : 'now we're paid off, we 
mast jog'; conf. N.Preusa. prov* bl. S, 229, Bader no. 99, 
Vonbun p. 9 (new ed. 11—15). Panz. B. 1, 40-2-8, 156, 2, 160, 
The same of hHUfnaiuiiklns, Stenb'a Tirol p. 82 ; fenggamäntschi^ 
Yonbun p» 3 j nork^ Stenb p. 318; ftdiermannehen, Born er p, 
243-6: Eoh, Hone's Tablebk. 2, 658 and Yearbk. 1533. A 
piisy, who helped a woman to wash, disappears when presented 
with a coat and cap. Pixies, who were helping to thrash, dance 
merrily in a barn when a peasant gives them new clothes, and 
only when shot at by other peasants do they vanish, singing 
' Now the pixies' work is done, We take onr clothes and off we 
run,^ Athenm. no, 991. 

p. 487.] The huorcü sits on a tree-stump, Pentam. 1, L Ari* 
osto's descr. of the orro and his wife in Orl. fur. xvii. 29 — 65 is 
pretty loog- winded : he is blind (does not get blinded), has a 
flock like Polyphemus, eats men, but not women, 0*jres keep 
their crowns on in bed, Petit poucet p.m. 162-3. Aulnoy p. m. 
358. 539. Akin to orco is the Tyrolcse wood-sprlt-e nork, nörkels, 
iork, Steub's Tirol pp. 818-9. 472 and Klj^et. 131 ; conf. norg=^ 
pumilio in B. Fromm. 3, 439, norggen, hrggen, norggin, nörklein. 
Wolf's Ztschr. 1, 289. 290. 2, 183-4. To Laurin people call : 
'her Norggel unterm tach !^ Eing 52^ 2, The Finn. Hiisiis 
both Orcus (hell), giant and wood-man, " The Swed, skogsnerte, 
fkogsnnfva in Fries's Udfl. 110 is a beautiful maiden in fronts but 
hollow (ihalig) behind; and the skogssnua is described in the 
same way, Runa, ^44, ^i4-5. Wieselgren 460. 

p. 488.] Ein mcrfninne. Tit. 5268. inaremlnne, Clarisse on 
Br. Gher, p. 222. Nennias says the potamogetou nat^ns is called 
.feehuJde; cont cast o8 f on tium (SuppL to 584) and the holten in 
Kuhn's Westph. s. 1, 200. to (ttoix^Iov toA 'jrora^ov, Fauriel 2, 
77* Other names: wilder w azzcrm an j Krone 92*^7 ; dtkz meri&ij}, 
who hurls a cutting spear at the hero, Boseng. xxii. ; sjö-rä, Dyb. 
4, 29. 4L On the hafsfmu see Suppl to 312. 

p. 489.] Nikhns, neut., Diut. 3, 25. Karajan 80, 4. nykus 
even in a Wend, folksong 2, 267", nichessa — Xym^Aiv^e , N. Cap. 
52. nicktirs, Br. Gher. 719, Van d. Bergh p. 180 thinks nikker 




for niger : ' zoo zwart als een nikker ' ; bat the idea of bkck- 
^S8 may have been borrowed from the later deriU necJcer», 
Jefken'a Beil. 151. 168. tuVfce/.maiiB, Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 378; 
conf. too the ON. Nöckvij Saem. 116\ The supposed connexion 
of the R. Neckar with ^licor^ nechar is supported by the story on 

p. 493-4, Esth. vcssi halliaHj Finn, weden haMia, aqiiae domi- 

noa, Possart p. 1G3; conf. Ahto (SuppL to 237). The siren, 
whom Conrad calls wasser-fiice, is also called cajoler, Boh. Uchoples 
(p. 436 n.), and ocheekule, Jungm* 2, 903^ wochcchule fr, lichotiti, 
ochechulati, to flatter. Spring-nixen (f.) are the Swed. häUrädetij 
Sv. folks. Ij 123. A pretty Silesian story of the wa^ser-lisse in 
Firmen, 2, 334 ; does this represent wazzer-dieze ? The Lusch in 
Gryphius's Dom rose is LiesCj Elisabeth. 

p. 490,] The nymphaea is in Gael haditis^ AS. ed-döcce, Engl. 
vr^tev-docl', Bav. docke, tvasser-dockelem {tocke, doll, g^^X)f conf. 
seeblatt (p. 654), Swed. nckJc-ros-biad, On nackrosoVy Dybeck '45^ 
64-6; necken har sin boning bland neckraserne, och uppstigande 
pa dess blad annu stnodom i man-skens-natten med sitt stranga* 
spel tjaser ähöraren, Fries bot. udfl, 1, 108. The water-maiden 
sits on leaves of the waterlily, Müllenh. p. 340 ; a mx-bilten 
(-bütten) meadow near Betziesdorf, Hess, Zbschr. 1, 245. The 

Sjryiin. kuli = genins aquae, kuli-ciuri = digitus ejtisdem. 

Merwomen prophesy^ sometimes deceitfully, like Iladburc in 
the NibeL When a hav-fru is saying sooth to queen Dagmar, 
the phrase is used : ' vedst du det, saa vedst du mer;' D. V. 2, 
83-4-0. In Mecklenbg. the waler-inom sends her prophetic Toice 
out of the water, Lisch 5, 78. A spectre foretelling death shows 
itself on the Danube whirlpool, Ann. AUahenses, yr 1045 {Giese- 
brecht p. 75) ; conf. the soothsaying merwomen {p. 434). 

p. 491.] Tlie Scotch kelpie takes the shape of a horse, whose 
presence is known by his nicker (neigh); he draws men in, and 
shatters ships. Or he rises as a bull, the tvaierbuU ; the same is 
told of the waier-8helltj, and the Danes have a water-sprite Dam' 
hesi, Athenm, no. 997. The nixe appears as a richly caparisoned 
faalf and tempts children to mount her, Possart's Estl. p. 163. 
This hirrse or huU, rising out of the sea aud running away with 
people^ is very like Zeus visiting Europa as a bull, and carrying 
her into the water; conf. Luciau, eA Bip. 2, 125. The water- 
mum tries to drag you in, she wraps rushes and sedge about yoar 



feet when bathing, Lisch 5, 78, The merrninne steals Lanzelet 
from his mother, Lauz. 181 ; coof Sonimer p. 173. 

p. 493.] The merman is long-heanied; so has 'daz merwunder 
©men bart lanCj gnienfar nod ungeschnffen/ Wigara. 177; its 
body IS 'in inics gewuiiden/ Giidr. 113, 3* The mermaid combs 
her hair, Miillenh. p. 338 ; this combing is also Finnish, Kalev. 
22| 307 seq. The nixe has but one nostril ^ Sommer^ p. 41* The 
water-nix (m.) wears a red capej Hpt's Ztschr. 4, 393, hlue breeches^ 
red sfockiiifjii, Hoffm. Schles. lied. p. 8* The beauty of the nixen 
(f .) is dwelt upon in the account of the wa^serliuts, Giyph. 743, 
and the wasserlissef Firemen. 2, 334, They have wet aprofis, 
Somm. p. 40-5. Wend, volksl 2, 267*, The nixe dances in a 
patched ffoivn, Somm. p, 44. The sea-maiden shows a tail in 
dancing, Runa 4, 73. Their coming in to dance ia often spoken 
of, Pauzer 2, nos. 192-6-8. 204-8. Like the sacrifiee to the fosse* 
grim clothed in grey and wearing a red cap, Runa ^44, 76, is the 
custom of throwing a black cocJc into the Bode once a year for the 
nicJichnann, Hpt^s Ztschr. 5, 378 ; and like his playing by the 
waterfall is Ahto's seizing WäinämÖinen's harp when it falls into 
the water, Kal, 23, 183. * 

p. 49 4, J On river sacrifices conf, p. 596. Nixes (m.) demand 
their victim on Midsum, day, Somm. p. 39 : * de Leine fret alle 
jar teine ;' 'de Rume un de Leine slucket alle jar teine/ Schamb. 
spr. p. 87. ' The Lahn most have some one every year * they say 
atGiesaen. 'La riviere de Drome a tons les ans cheval on homme/ 
Plnqiiet's Contes pop., p. 116. In the Palatinate fchoy say of the 
Neckar: when it is flooded, a hand rises out of it, and carries off 
its victim. On Midsnm. night the Neckar-gewt requires a living 
soul ; for three days the drowned man can nowhere be found, on 
the fourth night he floats up from the bottom with a blue ring 
round his neck, Nadler p. 126. At Cologne they say: Sanct 
Johann wel hann 14 dude viann^ siben de kl em mo, si ben de 
Bcliwmnme (the seven that climb are workmen on scaffoldings) j 
conf * putei qni rapere dicuntur per vim Spiritus nocentis,' Tertull. 
de Baptismo (Rudorff 15, 215). 

p, 496,] The injunction not to beat down the price {p. 495 n.) 
occors also in a story in ReuscVs Preuss. prov. bL 23, 124 In 
buying an animal for sacrifice you must not hagfjle, Athen. 3, 102; 
the fish aper must be bought at any price, 3, 117-8. ' emi Henem 




iriJuli, qaauti indicatua sit, jubent magi, nulla pretti cunctaiione/ 

Plioy 28j 13. Lasliiug the water reminds us of a uix who 

opens the way to hia house by smitiinj the water wifh firmly Sotnm. 
pp. 4L 92 ; blood appears on the water, 46. 174 j an apph aa a 
favourable i^ign, Hoffm. Schles. lied. p. 4. Grendel comes walk- 
iruj h\j niqJd, as the rakshasi is culled ' noctii iens/ Bopp's Gloss, 
188*. 198^ 

p. 498. j Ra is neuL, def. rtiei ; also räanä,, rädrot In in ff, Sv, 
^fblks. 1, 233. 74 (Supph to 439). Souls kept under iuverted pots 
by the water man occur again in KM, no. 100 and Miillenh, p, 577. 
Neptunius, Neptenius is also transU aHvUf Homeyer's Kecbtsb, 
14, Watersprites wail, or in other ways reveal their presence : 
the sjö-mor mmxuftj Dyb. ^45, 98; conf, 'gigautes gemnnt sttb 
aqui^/ Job 26, 5 J ^viV efieXXov rov norafxav hiaßaLvetv, to Sua- 
fLOmov re koI ro tloiBo^ (rrffiatov p,ot yiyveaÖat eyevero^ Plato's 
Phsedr. 242, A tradition similar to Gregory's anecdote is given 
by Schön werth 2, 187, 

p, 500.] Penates were gods of the household store, penus. 
Lares were in Etruscan lasej»^ Gerh. Etr. götter p. 15-6; Lasa^ 
Fortana. A legend of the lar familiaris in Pliny 36, 70. Was 
there a Goth. 16s = domn8, and did Luariti mean homegprite? 
Lares, penates, OHG. hns/jota or herdgota, Graff 4, 151. Home- 
sprites are called hus-hifichikenj Miillenh. p. 318, haus-puken ; 
Russ. domovoy ; tomtarj Dyb, 4, 26; Finn, tonttit, Castrea 167. 
On Span, due-nde, dumidecUlo conf. Diez's Wtb, 485 ; couroit 
comma nn lutin par toute sa derneure, Lafont. 5, 6. A genius loci 
is also Agafhodaemon, Gerh, in Acad. ber. ''47, p. 203-4; conl\ 
the bona socia, the good holden, the bona dea, bona fortuna and 
bonus ercntn« worshipped by the country folk» Ammian, Marc. 
582-3. The puk lives in cellars, Mone's Schausp. 2, 80*6 ; niss 
üfc, niss purfj Mullenh. pp, 318. 325; nxHebfikf tihkepnks 321-4* 
tLG, puk (rh. strük, bßk), üpstand. 1305. 1445. Lett puhki», 

agon, kobold, Bergra. 1 52 ; conf, pixy^ 

p. 502 n.] So, ' laughing Jiko pixies,* [Other expressions 

p. 503.] To the earliest examples of kohold, p. 500 n., add 
Lodovicns caholdns^ yr, 1221, Lisch, Meckl. urk, 3, 71 [later ones, 

including Cabolt, Kaboldisdhorpe, &c., omitted]. ^^To speak 'in 

koboldes spräche' means very softly, Hagen'a Ges. Abent. 3, 78, 



A concealed person in Eoenkel (Ranch 1, 316) says: ich rede in 
clioimlcz wi3e. LDSsing Ij 292 : tlie kohohl must have wliispered 
it in my ear* Luther has kobokl in Isa. 31, 14. cohd, der 
schwarze teufel, die teuEels-hure, Mathesiua 1562, 154'\ Gobe* 
Unas, a man^s narne^ Moneys Heldens. 13. 15. Huhj a homesprite, 

Hone's Tablebk 3, C57 (conf. p. 503, n. 1}* ^May we bring 

iu here the hlahauter'jiiQJX, kliiter-jnQ.nj Miillenli. p. 320, a ship- 
sprite, sometimes called kalfater, /I'/afca^tr-mao, Temme's Pom, 
sag. no. 253, Belg, kahoter-mim t Nethl, muhoato?i, Br. Gher. 
719. The tatermanj like the kobold, is painted: '"^ malet einen 
iate7'man," Jangeling, 545. 

p* 505,] At Cologne they call homesprites hehemannckerj 
Firmen. 1, 467, Knecht Heinz in Fischart'a Spiel, «i67, and 
knecht Heinrich, A tom*cat is not only called Hinze, but Hcinzj 
Hanz, and a s tiefe 1 -knecht {bootjack, lit. boot-servant) silefel* 
heiiz (boot-puss), coming very near the resonrcefiil Puss- in- boots. 
The tahby-cat brings yon mice, corn and money overnight; after 
the third service you canH get rid o£ her, Miilleoh. p, 207. A 
serviceable toin-cat is not to be shaken off, Temme*s Pom. sag* 
p. 318. House-goblins, like the moss- folk, have in them some- 
thing of the nature of apes, which also are trained to perform 
household tasks, conf. Felsenburg 1, 240. The Let tons too have 
a miraculous cat Ranzis or Rttnkts, who carries grain to his 
master, Bergm. p. 152; conf, the homesprites Hanh\ Pluquet^a 
Contes pop, 12, Hänschen, Somm. pp. 33-4, 171, and Good 
Johmm, Miillenh. p. 323. — — On the Wolterkens conf. Müllenh. 
p* 318. In Holstein they call knecht Ruprecht Ropperi 319, 
with whom and with Wuden Kuhn compares Robin Hood^ Hpt^s 
Ztschr. 5, 482-3. For the nislenj and the 7iis, aiitpHk, nea.'ikuk 
consult Alüllenh. 318-9. The home-sprite, like tlie devil, is 
occas. called Stepcheti) Somm, 33. 171; and lastly, BiUt/ blind, 
Minstr. 2, 399. 

p. 506.] The spirits thump and racket, Goethe 15, 131. 
Klopf trie (knockerhng) rackets before the death of one of the 
family with which he lives, G. Schwab*s Alb, p. 227. * Was fur 
ein poUcr-geist kandlieti (bustles) durch die lichten zimmer ? ' 
Giinth. 909 ; plagegeist, Musseus 4, 53 ; nunpel-geist, S» Frank's 
Chrun, 212''; * ez rtwipeli staeto /üV sick dar,' Wasserbar 112; 
lozert or rnumaniz in the millet-field, Reimdich 145; alpui-buiz, 



alp dcetnon^ Vonbun p. 46-7-8. * Quoth the mother : Nib gang 
himisz, der mummel (or, der man) ist dusz ; for the child feareth 
the mummel (man)/ Keiaersbg'a Bilgr. 160^ To vermummen 
and vei'htizen oneself, H. Sachs i, 5^ SS^**. Not only RumpehtiU, 
but Knirfiker, Gehhart, Tepentlren (Miillenh. p, 300-7.8), Tiffell 
Tare (Sv. foikv. 1, 171) must have their names guessed» Other 
names : Kwjerl, Zingerle 2, 278, Stutzlawufzla, Wolf's Zbschr. 
2, 183. 

p. 507.] The huizen-hansel is said to go in and out through 
the open gutter, as other spectres pass through the city moat, 
Miillenh* p. 19L Buzemannes, a place in Franconia, MB. 25, 
110-1; pHlzmans, ib. 218. 387. Lutbertus qui hudde dicitur, 
Gerhardus dictus budde, Sudeadf. pp. 69. 70. 89 (yr. 1268), 
hxiizen-antlitz, mask, Anshelm 1, 408. Garg. 122^; hutzen- 
kleuiet\ Aush. 3, 411 ; does htitzen, putzen strictty mean to mask 
oneself? The Swiss böog, bogJi^ 5rou7 = mask, bugbear. Staid. 1, 
202. 230 ; höggen-weis^^ a Shrovetide play, Schreib, Taschenb, 
'40, 230 J bi'ttjrjlman, Lazarillo Augsb. 1617, p. 5 (?), Broög 
seems akin to bruogOj AS, broga = terror, terriculameutum. 

p. 508.] On the Fr. fallet, conf. Diefenb. Celt, 1, 182. The 
/(/let allows the peasant who has caught him three wishes, if he 
will not show him to the people, Marie de Fr-, Fables, p. 140, 
T^e farfüiUt de Poissy comes out of the fireplace to the women 
who are inspecting each other's thighs, and shows his backside, 
B6veille-matin, p. m. 342. ' Malabron Is luiton/ Gaufrcy, p. 169. 
O.Fr. rofcaf — lutin. M.Neth. rchas, GL to Lekensp. p, 569. In 
Bretagne, PuuJpihan is a roguish sprite, repres. as husband of 

Ehhe fay, and found in Druidic monoraents. Lett, kehms, hhrnu, 
|oblin, spectre; also Itdkis, Bergm* 145. Is götzc, Uhb Volksl. 
754 a goblin ? 
p. 511.] * Hödeke howls '^it is stormy, Hildesh. stiffcsfehde 
pp. 48. 91, Falke thinks the whole story of Hodeko is trumped 
m. Trad. corb. 135. JliUcken iä a little red mannikin with 
sparkling eyes, wears a long green garment, Somm. pp. 26-9. 
30. 171. In Voigtland they tell of the goblin Pump-hut, who 
once haunted the neighbourhood of Pausa, always worked hard 
as a miller's man, and played many a roguish trick, Bechst. in 
Nieritz volks-kal. *46, pp. 78 — 80. The same Pwm/)-hut iu 
Westphalia, Kuhn'a Westf. sag. 2, 279; mentioned even iu Insel 



Felsenbgj Nordli. 1746, 2> 366 — 370. About Münster tliey dis- 
tinguisli between tlmp-hüie and lang-Iulte : the farmer are small, 
wrinkled, boary, old-fasbionedj witli three-cornered bats; the 
latter tall, haggard j ia a alooched hat. Timp-liat bestows posi- 
tive blessings, long-hat keeps off misfortnue» They live mostly in 
the barn or a deserted loft, and slowly turn a creaking windlass. 
In fires they have been seen to stride oat of the flames and strike 
into a by-way, Conf, the homesprite Dal-kopp, N. Pr. prov. bl. 
1, 394* Elsewhere they live in a corner behind flw oveUf under 
the toof-heam^ or in gable-hoh'tt, where a board is put out to 
attract them, Miillenh. pp. 321-2. 332-5-7. Hpt's Lausitzer sag. 

1, 56 seq. The goblin sits on Ihe hearth, flies out at the chimney, 

shares the peasaul^s room, Sonitn. p. 27-9. Spirits in tlie cellar, 
over the casks, Simplic. 2, 264-5 ; conf. Abundia (pp. 286. 1056), 
The goblin carries things to his master, but can only bring a 
certain quantity, and will change masters if more be demanded, 
Somm. p. 27 (see p* 512), He fetches milk from other men^a 
cows, like the dragouy the Swed« bare (p. 1090) and the devil; 
here be encroaches on the witch and devil province. He helps 
in milking, licks up the spilt drops, Miillenh. p, 325» Goblins 
curry down and feed the cattle, and have their favourite beasts, 
Soram. p. 36-7; hence the name futief-viännchen, ßörner'a 
Orlagaa p, 241-3. A homesprite bwr-esel in Kuhn's Nordd, sag. 
no. 225, couf. pp. 423. 521. They speak in a iiny voice^ 'in ko- 
boldes spräche/ Miillenh. p» 335, Hagen^s Ges. Abent. 3, 78 ; 
and yet : mit grozer stimme er do schrei 79. As nothing was 
B:»en of king Volimar but his shadow, so is Good Johann like a 
ithadow, Miillenh, p, 323. They are often seen in the shape of 
li toad, pp. 355. 330, also as tout or tabbtj cat (Suppl. to 505). 
The Albanians imagine their homesprite vittore as a little snitke, 
Hahn's Lieder 136. A good description of the kohold in Firmen. 

2, 237-8. The herb agermund, Garg, 88^, seems conn, with 
Agemund, the house- dasmon in Reinardus. 

p. 51 L] The homesprite being oiKoupo^, agathodaemon (p, 
485-6), there is milk, honey and sugar set on the beuch for him, 
as for the unke, Schweiaicheu 1,201. In the Schleswig- Holstein 
stories they must always have pap or groats, with a pi^ce of 
huittr in. The goblin has the table gpread for him, Somm« p. 32. 
Naj^ff'hafis ia like the Lat. Laieranus^ Arnob. 4, 6; Lateranus 




fh*uji est foeormn et geniits, adjectusque hoc nomine, quod ex 
Interculis ab hoininibüs crudis camiuorum istud exaedificetiir 
genus , . , per humaui generis coquinas currit, inspiciens et 
explorans quibusnarn lignoruoi generibua suis ardor iu foculis 
excitetur, hahilnd'mem fidilU contribuit vasculis, no flammaruin 
dissiliaut vi victa^ curat ut ad aeuaum palati suis catü jocun- 
ditatibus veniaut rerum iDCorruptarum sapores, et au rite pul- 
menta condita sint, praegustatoria fuDgituratque experitur officio. 
Härtung 2, 109 says it is Vulcanns caminorum deus ; certainly 
Varro in fragm. p. 265 ed. Bip. makes Vulcau the prtiserver of 
pota : Vulcanum necdum 7iovae lagenae oUarum frangantur ter 
precatur (conf. p, 44-7). 

p* 512.] Agobha appears as a monk, Soram, pp. 35. 172-3. 
With Shellycoai conf. Schelhn-moriz 153-4. Homesprites de* 
mand bot trifling wages, as in the pretty story of a serving 
dasmon who holds the stirrup for his master, guides him across 
the ford, fetches lion's milk for the sick wife^ and at last, when 
dismissed^ asks but five shillings wages, and gives them back to 
bay a bell for a poor church, using the remarkable words: magna 
est mihi consolatio esse cum filiis hominum, CöRsar Heister b« 
5, 36. On the Spanish goblin's cururucho tamario, observe that 
the lingua rustica already said tammana for tarn magna, Nieb. in 
Abh. d. BerL Acad. '22, 257. 

p* 513 n.] The allerürken is a puppet locked up in a box, 
which brings luck, Miilleuh. p. 209; coof. 'he's got an oaraiml 
inside him,' KM. 183 (iufra p. 1203). Wax figures ridiculously 
dressed up, 'which we call (jlueks^mamwhen/ 10 ehen, p. 357; 
ooqL the gh'tches-pfminifj t Frediger märchen 16, 17, also the well- 
known ducalen-laicker^ and the doll in Straparola (5, 21). KM'** 
8, 287. 291, The Mönötohe is a wax doll dressed up in the 
deriVs name, MiillenL p. 209; conf. the dra^gednkke, a box out of 

which you may take as much money as you will A humesprite 

can be bought, but the third buyer must keep him, Miillenh. 
p. 322. One buys a poor and a rich goblin, Summ. p. 33. Such 
sprite» they made in Esthonia of tow, rags aud fir- bark, and got 
the deir'^il to animate them, Possart'a Esthh p. 162 ; more exactly 
described in the Dorp, verhandl i. 2, 89. So the shamans make 
a fetish for the Samoyeds out of a sheep-akin, Suomi '46, 
p- 37*8-9, 



p. 516.] On the manducns, see 0. Miiller's Etr. 2, 101 (conf. 
p. 1082). ' Qaid si aliquo ad ludos me pro manduco locern? quia 
pol clare crepito dentibiis/ Plaut* Rud. ii, 6^ 52. This too is the 
place for Schemen : ' als dakteu sich die schamu (L scheynen) 6, do 
si diu klui schrakten mit,* to frighten children with, Jiingl. 698. 
Are Schemen masks ? conf. * schonbart ' for schem-bart, OHG. 
soema=hi.rva, persona, like hage-bartj Schra. 3, 362. Graff 6, 
495. On Ruirrecht see Kuhn in Hpt*s Ztschr, 5, 473, von den 
sogenandten EupperUm, die sich ' bunt und rauch untereinander 
anziehen/ or ' einen rauchen pelz/ 3 erzn. 369. Knecht Ruprecht 
(or Krampus, Klanbanf, meister Strohbart) is St. Nicolas's man,, 
Ziska- 8 Oestr. volksm. 49, 110. Uollepeier, WolPs Ztschr. 2, 194.;, 
' dich müez der Semper machen g'sunt/ the devil have the caring | 
of jon! Ring 14^, 5, To hira corresp. old Grambus with the 
rod, Firmen. 2, 45, and Fide Gig (fidele geige ?) of the Kuh* 
lEudchen, described in Schlegel's Mus. 4, 119. Walloon 'Ä art« - 
crottfe, valet de S. Nicolas/ our Hans Buckel (croufe = bosse), 
Gmndgagn. 1, 271. As Niclas has a man, Gargantua has a drole 
in his retinue, Mem, celt. 5, 393-4. Our knecht Ruprecht is Russ, 
huka, Gretsch p. 109, Lett, huhhidis. His Styrian name of Klauh^ 
auf reslfmbles the wiidcrhlauh, Wolkenst, p. 67, A sooty face 
belongs to the phallophorus also, Athen, 5, 254, St. Peter, who 
may be regarded as Ruprecht's representative, when journeying < 
with Christ, always behaves as a good-natured simpleton. 

As people sacrificed to forest- women (p. 432), so they did to 
subterraneans, Müllenh. p. 281. On feast-days the Ossetes place 
a portion of the viands in a separate room for the homesprite to 
eat J they are miserable if he does not, and are delighted to find 
a part of them gone, Kohl's Süd-russl. 1, 295. A Roman setting 
out on a journey took leave of the familiaris : 'etiam nunc saluto 
te, faviiliarlsy priusquaui eo,' Plaut, Mil. gl. iv. 8, 29. 


p. 518.] In some ways mcDj elves and giants stand related as 
men, angels and devils. Giants are the oldest of all creatures, 
and belong to the stone-age. Here we have to make out more 
folly, that giants and titans are the old nature^gods. 



p. 520,] Mere descriptive epithets of giants are: der gröze 

Lanz. 7705 ; der mich^lt 

man^ Ernst 469. 4288; der michel man, Lianz. y/uo ; der mtcn 
der groze, Altd, bl. 2, 149. So of their coantry : irnkmidtgez lant. 
Roth. 625, and der riemi lande 761 ( — iöton-heim, p. 530} ; of 
their nation : mikundigm dM 630. The ON. iöiunn, AS. eoien 
is supported by the dimin. Etenca (?)- Is Eilonait (for Oxionas) 
in Tac. Germ. 46 the same word ? Hpt^s Ztschr. 9, 256. Sarely 
Jirthenejiherg, hedenenhg, heiteHndsrnmü, etantwhg in Chart. Sithiense 
158« SO, 160-2 are not heathen's hill nor hatenbg? Gmff 1, 
370 has Entinefdmrc (cont p. 525). Efenesleha, Dronka 233'*. 

Leo in Vorles, über d, gesch. d. Dent, volks 1^ 112 agrees 

with me in tracing the word to ON. eta, AS, etan; conf. mann- 
aeta (p* 520 n. and Suppl to 555)^ the giant's name Wolfes nmge 
(SuppU to 557), and a giant being addressed ns ' dft nngaeher 
frdzr Dietr. drach. 238^. Ssk. kravydd, Bopp'a Gr. § 572. Finn. 
tcirilas, torsas, turras = e(i(^a;, gluto^ ^iga^; a,nd this is confirmed 
by the two words for giantess, syöjfiiär, lit, femina vorax, fr. sjön 
= edo, and jiiojotar, lit, feraina bibax, fr. juon = bibo, Schiefner's 

Finn, w, 606-8. Schafarik 1, 141 connects iotun, jatte with 

geta in Massageta, Thussagete (p. 577 n,). Thorlacius sp, 6, p. 24 
thinks iotar, löinatf ri^ar are all one. Rask on the contrary 
distingnishes Jötunheimar (jättemes land) from Jutland (JTdernes 
laud)^ likewise Jötnnn (gigas) from J6ti (a Jote), Afh. 1, 77-8. 
GDS. 736; he takes the iotnar to be Finns (more exactly Kvaener) , 
and Jötunheimar perhaps Halogaland, Afh. 1, 85-6; but in a 
note to Sa^m. 33 he identifies the iotnar with the Et^lh\ Swed. 
jdtle och jatteea, Cayallius 25. 467, Jettha, Jettenherg may be for 
Jeccba» Jechenberg, as Jechelbnrg became Jethelberg* Jetene- 
burg, Oeienburg occur in deeds of the 13th cent., Wipperm. nos. 
41, 60* Jettenbach on the Hundsriick, Heifer's Urk* p. 37, The 
giant's munohingi * mesan/ p. 519, should be vicmn, OHG, 

p. 522.J It seems that fitjrja |?io^ in Siera, 82"^ does not mean 
torridorura gens, but stands for j>ursii, |>yrsa. With Dan, fosse 
conf. dysse-lToll, Sv, foms. 1, 92-8. Grendel is called a /njrs, 
Beow. 846. As the ron^ purs in ON. corresp. to porn in AS., we 
have even in ON. a giant named BoUfoom, Sasm. 28*. on, 7 ; 
should it be BalJ^om, fire-thorn ? lb is strange that Alvis, though 
a dwarf, says : ßursa likt bjcci mer k her vera, Seem. 48\ OHG. 




durUU^Bitis, Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 329^'. GL Sletst 6, 169. 'maere 
vou eiiae tursen/ KM,^ 3^ 275* In Thuringia the IhurschernanHf 
Bechst, March, G3, We still say Mex' torsch/ To the Austrian 
families of Lichtenfels, Tiero stein, Rauheneck and Rauhens fcein 
the by-name tUrsef Lat. turso, was habitual in the 12 — 15th cents., ' 
Heiligenkr. 1, 32. 46. 127. 170* 2, 14. 2ö. Women were called ' 
tursln^ see Leber's book. Türsemül, peasant^s name, MsH. 3, ( 
293^ Mn thnrisloun; Falke's Trad. Corb. 100-L 354. Samcho 
p. 7, no. 81, ed- Wigand 281-4. 420; tarsen-oHuw, etc. Mone'a Anz. 
6, 231 } Thyrsmiriii, E. of Lechthal, Steub's Rhiit 143; Tirsdien* \ 
tritt, Direcheniritt, Giimbers Bair. Alpe pp. 217. 247; Dursgesesz, < 
Landau^s Wiiste orter in Hessen p. 377 ; Tnrscheiiwald in Salzach ' 
dale, M. Koch 221; TurMwinkel, Weisth. 4, 129. Renvall has, 
Finn, tursn.^, titrras^ taiTisas^ iwm = giant, ^un7a5 = homo edaz, \ 
vorax; meritiirsa«, Schröter p. 135. Petersen p. 42. GDS. 122-3. 

Dionye, Habe. 1, 21 thought the Tvppr}j/oi ^vere so called be- 
cause they i-eared high towers, 7vpa€i<;, That agrees with the ^ 
giants' buildings (p. 534-5). i 

p. 524,] On Hunen-beds and Hunen, see Janssen's Drentscho. 
oudheden pp. 1Ö7— 184, conf. GDS. 475. Does the Westph. ; 
Äißniie-kleid, grave-clothes, mean hünen-kleid ? or hence-going < 
'dotbes, as in some parts of Westphalia a dying man^s last com* < 

ro«nion was called henne-kost? 'Als ein hiune gelidet/ having 

giant's limbs, Troj. kr. 29562 ; hiune is often used in J, v. Soesl*a i 
Marg. von Limburg (Moneys Anz. '34, 218); Ortleip der hiutie, ( 
iLs. 3, 401; *der groten hunen {gigantnm),' B. d, kon. 112* | 
Strangely the huhimi in Firmen. 1, 325 are dwarfs, subterraneans^ 
who are short-lived, and kidnap children, though like hiinen they , 
live in a hill; conf, the hunnergkeit, Kuhn's Westf. sag. 1, 63-4. 
As the ON, hfinar is never quite synonymous with iotnar and < 
J^ursar, so the heunen are placed after the giants as a younger 
race, Baader's Sag. no. 387. GDS. 475. 

p. 525.] Other examples of AS. ent : gel^fdon (believed) on 
ckdde entag, AS. homiL 1, 366; on enia hlave (cave), Kemble 4, \ 

49 ; on entan blew 5, 265* Eutmes-hurc, Graflf 1, 370 ; Emvu' 

perig, MB. 2, 197; Anzin-v&rf Hess. Ztsciir. 1, 246, like RuozeU 1 
manues var, Mone's Anz, '36, 300 ; ad giganteam viara, entlgken 
wee, Wien. sitz, her, 4, 141 ; von enten swarz unde grä kan ich 
nit vil sagen, KM. ^ 3, 275. 



p. 525.] Mercary is called 'se g^gand* (p. 149) ; die ghiganie, 
yk/«/t/f% Rose 5135-82. Bioni writes gigr, Aasen 152^* has jygger, 
gyvr for gjgr (conL ' zo Givers/ SuppL to 961); giogra, Faye 
6. A giant is called hämpe^ Müllenlh pp. 267. 277. Otos and 
Ephialtes, gigantes thoogh not Cyclopes, are sons of Poseidon, 
and the cyclop Polyphemus is another. Ace. to Diut. 3, 59 and 
the Parz. and Tit, (p. 690 n.), mounters were born of women who 
had eaten forbidden herbs. 

p. 52G,] Does Hrisberg stand for Wrisberg ? Liintzel's Hil- 
desb. 23. riesGa-kint, Laurin 2053, 2509. 2604-, and eiazon-kint, 

like menschen -kindj son of man. A Luhbes-stein in Miillenh. 

no, 363, p. 272; Lüpperh-grah^ Tilmar in Hess. Ztschr. 4, 79 j 
Iriippenhart^ lÄippeiital^ Mone'a Anz* öj 229; die Luphöde^ 
Pröhle's ünterharz p. 212, con f. liippe, poison (p, 1151). ON. 
Imfi, gigos, olelßf humanns ; rwrnr, vir im mania, gigas. Whence 
comes fn^^ene — gigan tea? Graff 5, 512, 

p. 526!] Öt/r = oreas, Sssm. 143^ (SuppL to 525). Other 
terras for giantess : Jala, Sa?m. 143*» (conf. p. 992) ; hala 143^ 
144*; GriSr in Sn. 113 is the name of a g^gr, and her staflF is 

named Qri^arnolr 114. Ti^öll is both monsfcer and giant : ertu 

troll, Vatnsd. 292 ; )>tl i7ykki mer tröU, Isl. sog. 2, 365; haJfAruU, 
Nialss, c. 106. 120; trolla-gJcog^ Landn, 5, 5; tröUa-skeiS, curri- 
culuin gigantnm (SuppL to 85) ; in Färöej trölla-hotn is giants' 
land. TroUvijgr, TroUagmf, WerlaufiPs Grenzb. 16. 22. 35. Michel 
Behan) had heard ' troll * in Denmark and Norway, says Moneys 
Anz, 4, 450 ; but the word had been at home on German soil long 
before that : vor diesem trolle, Ortn. 338, 2 ; er schlug den troUen 
Liederb. (1582) 150; ein voller troll 215; winteTtroUe, Monoms 
Aüz. 6, 236 ; * exsarge sede, tu irolgast, cito recede ' saya a verse 
of the 14th cent., Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 463; einen dndgasi laden, 
Weistb* 1, 552; de Druhhaghene^ Erhard p. 144 (yr 1118); be- 
irulUt, Tit. 5215 (Kh sehn 4, 336). But whence comes the Fr. 
drole, form, drmdef It ia rather a goblin hke the M. Neth. 
drollen, Belg. mus. 2, 116. Kilian sub y*; conf. Gargantaa^s 
dr61e (SuppL to 516). 

p. 527,] Mgllinum kalnay, giants* hills, mylzgnum kapay, 
giants' graves, KurL send. 1, 46»7. Boh. obor appears as hobr in 
Wend, volksl. 2, 268» . On the giants' name Voloi, Velel, Wde- 
tabus, Wilz, conf, p. 1081 n. The yiyatnt^ of the Greeks lived in 



Tbrace, Paus» 1, 25 ; conf. the Arimaspi and Cyclopes, ancl tli© 
Ind. räksliasas (p. 555). To tbe Hebrews the Rephaim, Aoakim, 
Nephilira were giant nations, Berthean's Israel, p. 142-3-4. 

p. 528.] The size of giants is expressed in various ways* 
Tityos, son of Earth, covers nine roods. Od. 11, 577; Otos and 
Bphialtes in their ninth year were ei^i^ea-irij^ifet? in breadth and 
ivveopyviQt in length 11, 307 (conf* ^EmavToK TerpaTrrj-^^;, mean* 
ing tho 4 seasons, Athen. 2, 203). Dante, Inf, 31, 58 — Gß poeti- 
cally fixes the stature of Nitnrod at 90 palms, i.e. &4 feet, which 
comes to the same as Ephialtes'a 9 fathoms, ' Cyclopen hoch 
sam die tanhoume,* tall as firs, Ksrchr. 357; 'ir reicht in kume 
an die knie (ye reach scarce to their knees), sie tra^ent kfdfier' 
langen barf/ beards a fathom long, Dietr. u. ges. 62 L Ovid's 
picture of Polyphemus combing his hair with a harrow, and 
ahaving with a sithe, is familiar to ns. Met. 13, 7Ö4, 

Giants have mamj heads ; the sagas tell of three-headed, atx- 
headed, nitieJieaded trolds, Asbjornsen p. 1 02-3-4 ; a seven-headed 
giant in Finnen. 1, 333* j another is negenJcopp (9 head), Miillenh. 
p. 450 ; conf the ihrne-headed wild woman in Fr. Arnim^a March. 
1, no. 8, and Conradns DrLheuptsl, MB. 29», 85 (254). Pol. 
dziewi^'sil, Boh. dewe-sil, dewet-sil (nin e-po were d ) =^ giant. The 
legend of Heimo is in Mone's Unters, p. 268 seq,, conf. Steub's 
Rhat, p. 143. Ital. writers of the 16th cent, often call giants 
qimirmnani; giants with IS elbows in Fischart^s Garg.; BUfinger 
in Swabia are families with 12 fingers and 12 toes; ^ cum sex 
digiiis nati,' Hattemer 1, 305*; conf. * sextns homini digitus 

agnatus inutilis,' Pliny 1 1, 52. Even the one etje of the cy clops 

is not altogether foreign to our giants : in a Norweg. fairytale 
three trolds have one eye between them, which goes in tho middle of 
the forehead, and is passed round, Jäletrüet 74-5 ; conf. KM, no. 
130 (such lending of eyes ia also told of the nightingale and 
bliodworra, KM. ed. 1, no, 6). Polyphemus says : Unum est in 
medio lumen mihi fronte, sed instar ingentis clypei, Ov. Met, 13, 
850; these one-eyed beings the Greeks called Jci/yöpes, the 
Romans coclUes : cocHtes qui altero lumine orbi nascuntur, Pliny 
xi. 37^ 35 ; decern cocliiejf, ques raontibus summis Rhipaeis fodere. 
Eon. in Varro 7, 71 (0. Müller p. 148) ; conf. Goth, haihs, 

^ov6(i>daXßio<;, coecus, Hpt's Ztschn 6, 11. A tail is attrib. to 

the giantess Hrimger^r, S®m. 144\ Giants, like dwarfs, are 

EIS Mack: |>rdinn avarti pars, IsL sö^, 1, 207, 
conf* Svart-hÖflSi ; a black and an ash-grey giant in Dybeck 4,41. 
25. As Hrftngnir's head and shield were of stone, Hymi'a bans 
(skull) is hard as stone, Ssom. 56''. Thftr'a wife, a giantess, ia 
named Jarnsaxa, The age of giants is the stone-age. 

p. 528.] The adj. nadiUgoftji, Sbboi. 98**, geema also to express 
the unbridled arrogance of the giant : rUetimaezk, der werlte 
widersaezic, Bit. 7837. The Gr, AaTridai are braggarts, and akin 
to the Kentaurs. 

p. 529.] The lUh cent» spell ' ttimbo saz in herke , , . . tamb 
hiez der here,' etc., reminds one of Marcellus* bard. p. 29 (Kl. 
sehr, 2, 129. 147-8) : stupidus in monfe sedebat ; and conL Äffen- 
berg, Giegenberg, Gauchsberg (p. 680-1), Schalksberg. Note 
that the iutunn too is called dttrunnr apa, simiarum cogoatus, 
Saem, 55*, The Frozen Ocean is named Dumbs-haf. Biörn says 
the ON. 5<«mT* = gigns (dummy T); coof, g^gr, giugi (p. 525). In 
Fomm, sog. 1, 304 the heathen gods are called blindir^ daußr, 
dumbir, dnuö'ir, 

p. 530.] On Foruioir see GDS. 737. hio aldna (gfgr), Saem. 
Giants' names: Or-gemlir (our nr-alte), pmö^-geniUr, Berg- 
gemlir (var, -gelmir). The vala has been taught wisdom by the 
old giants, she says ; ec man iötna dr o/borna^ )?4 er forSom 
mik froedda höfSo, Sasm, 1*, The good faith of giants is re- 
nowned : eotena tteowe, Beow. 2137; so Wäinämöinen is called 
the old (wanha) and faithful (waka) and trne (totinen), Kalev. 3, 

107; so is God (p. 21).- Polyphemas tended sheep, and the 

Norse giants are herdsmen too : 

sat )>är &, haugi oc sl6 horpu 
g^gjar hirSir, glaffr Egdir, 

Saem. 6». 

Gjfinir owns flocks, and has a Ihepherd 82^. Thrymr strokes the 
uiADes of his horses, just as the Chron, Trudonis (Chapeaville 2, 
174) speaks of 'manucomam eqtii delinire/ Giants know nothing 
bread or ßre, Fr. Arnim's Mär. 1 , no, 8 ; the Finn, giants do 
'withuidfr^, Ueb. d. Finn, epos p. 30 {EL sehr. 2,98). Yet they 
have silver and gold, they even bum gold, Dybeck 4, 33-8. 42 ; 
their horses wear iron rings in their ears 4, 37. 43. They nob 
only bring misfortune on the families of man, but bestow luck 4, 
36, ^ndfruiifulneis 4, 45. Esp. is the giantess, the giani^a wife, 



sister, mother, merciful and helpfnJ to heroes (pp. 555. 1007-8). 
Altd, w. 3, 179. Walach, march, p. 167. 

p. 531.] A latish saga distingu. betw. Jotuaheinij governed 
by Geirrö^rj and Kisaland, by Go'Smundr, Fornm. b. 3, 183. The 
g'iants often have the character of older Nature-gods, 80 that 
iöt)}ar=gods, Ssem. 93*, The Serv, divovi, giants (Vuk's Pref. to 
pt. I. of new ed,) either means the divine (conf. p. 194) or the 
ntilJ ; conf. divhy = ferns [Slav, div = wonder]. When in out 
kinder-marchen nos. 5. 81-2 the tailor, the carter or the gamejtter 
intrude into heaven (WolPs Ztschr. 2, 2 — 7), it may well remind 
us of the titans storming Olympus ; conf. p* 575 on angels and 

giants. Giants form ties of love with gods and heroes : thus 

Polyphemus is a son of Poseidon^ Od. 1, 71 seq. HrimgerSr the 
giantess wishes to pass a night with the hero^ Srom. 144% like 
the witch in fairytales and Marpalie in Wolfdietrich. Freyr 
burns with love for GerSrj OSinn spends three days in the moun- 
tain with Gnnnlodj Gefion the Asynja has sons (bull-shaped) by a 
giant, Sn. 1. Yet hostility betw. gods and giants is the rule; 
that these would get the upper hand, but for Thör's enmity to 
them, the Edda states even more dietinctly than the Swedish 
proverb : 

mikill raundi set iötna ef allir lifSi, 

vaetr mnndi manna und MiSvgar^ii. Saem. 77*** 

Conf. Thm-s j^jitüka ett qvinno troll baktill ihaligt, som tros fly 
for blixten in i ett hus, der äskan da star iied, AUnqv. 404* 
(pjäska = a dirty woman). The giant again is cw-^nli, terror 

p» 532.] Managolt^ Piston 497. Managold, Neug. 77. 355. 
On the myth, conf. Kuhn in Hpt's Ztschr. 6, 134, With Fenja 
and Menja^ who grind until the cu«koo calls, conf. the mill-maids 
and cock-crow, Gr, epJgr. 2, 56. 

p. 532.] Fornald, sog. 1, 469 says: 'austan at Ymis dyrum*; 
and of Ullr : ' Ullr reiS Yme^ver^ enn GSiun Sleipni*; did the 
horso belong to Ymir? Frosfl^ Jökull^ horses^ names^ Mask's 
Afh. 1, 95* Esth, hiihna isa^ waua Pakkanaf Bocler 148, If 
Ymir comes fr. y^nja, stridere, it is akin to Goth, iuntjo, turba, 
noisy crowd. The noise, the roar of giants is known to MHG., 
see Dietr. n, Ges. 391^-4. 458. 470 ; is that why they are likened 



to bellowing bulls? Bask in Afh, 1, 88 derives tbo names of 
ITerhlr and Herkjfi fr* Finn, härkä, ox; but we have also a Germ, 
giant Ilartja, Wolfs Ztscbr. 2j 250, conf. Herka (p. 253) and next 
note, end,— — Giants are beings of Night; tliose of India grow 

.stronger than heroes at twilight, and twice as strong in the m^hi^ 
Holtztn. Ind. sag, 2, 152. A Schleswig giantess is ^ die schwarze 
Oreei/ black Meg, Miillenh. pp. 157. 269. 273-5; on the other 
hand a queen Margareta, pp. 342. 14. 18. 

p. 533.] The Greeks also make giants live on rocks and hilht 

|iOd. 0^ 113-4. They are animated stones, or consist partly of 
itone, or they tnrn into stone. The giant in Miillenh. p, 442 has 

'•» stone heart. HriragerSr, surprised by dayliglit, stands i t^teitut 
KH, Ssom. 145**; couf. the Swed. tales in Hpt^s Ztschr. 4, 503-4. 
ler no. 486. Hati iotunn sat ä hergi, Smm. 143* (Supph to 
530). The g^gr lives in caves of the rock (hellir) ; as Bryohildr 
fares to Hel, a g^gr cries to her : * skaltu i gognum gAnga eigi 
grioti »tudda gar&a m!na ! * through my stone-built garth ; and B,. 

^answers : ' bi-egSn eigi mer, hrudr or steiiti/ bride of stone, Saim. 
!27 (see p. 551). ' fiona |>eir i helli nockvorüin, hvar gyfjr aat^ 
hon nefndiz Thoek/ Sn. 68, A giant^s cave up in the wild monn- 
taio« Trist. 419, 10 — 20. Berg-hül^ giant is also in Landn. 4, 12, 
and Ssem. 52 ; conf, herges (jnoz. Er, 8043. Boftcrgs-gtihbß 
(p. 536-7). Finn, kallio, rupes,= Goth. hallus, ON. Imllr, hence 
kaleva, gigas ; another Finn, term for giant is vuoren tvife/, power 
of the mountain. To JmAsin af hiargi corresp. Timehm-g ß-klWtten, 
a place in Varraeland, Ilask'a Afh. 1, 91-2. Note the term berg- 
rimier, monntain-cattle, for Gef]on*s children by a giant are oxen, 
Sn. 1. One giant is called knh-todj cow-death, Mlillenh, no. 328; 
conf- Herkir, Herkja in preced. note. Giants appear as wolves, 
8n. 13. 

p. 534.] The giantess pelts with stones, the giant wears a 
stone crown, Braunschw. march, p. 64. Iron will not bite the 
giant : * troll, er }?ik btta eigi iarn* Isb sog. 2, 364. He can only 
be floored with gold^ hence Skiold wraps gold about his club, 
8axo 8, Grendel too is proof against iron sword : ' )H)ne synsca- 
ISao aBQig ofereorSan irenna cyst, gü&billa nan grStan nolde^ Beow. 
1596. Arnliotr in Hervarars. has lefigne^hooh, like the ogre in 
Petit poucet; they denote the swift pace of the giant, hence 
Diut. 1^ 403: 'hine fuor der herre, ilende alse ein ri^e duot 



(speed iDg as a giant dotli), der zixo loufe amen mnot ebene h&t 

p. 535.] Curious old afntciures are ascr. to giants or heathem : 
^ fuia burg, rison burg/ Elene 31, p* xxl'u Even Tristan's cave 
of love is called a giatit's bmlding, Tristr. 419, 18; conf. ' eieiies 
bi old dajii bad wrought it/ tbe house in tlie ground, where 
Tristan and Isolde lay, Tristrem 3, 17. Hunen-wälle are pointed 
out betw. Etteln and Alfen (Paderborn). The Orientals atfcrib, 
old buildiogs to a people called Ad, Eammer's Rosenöl 1, 36 ; the 
Celtic legends to Finn. All those large cainiSj and remarkable 
peaks like St. Michaels Mount and the Tors, are the work of 
giants. Pausanias ii, 25j 7 mentions a kv/cXiüttü^v epyot/, apj&v 
\idwv, the smallest of which a pair of mules could not move* 

Ti/nhenians build towers (SuppL to 522 end). In 0* Fr. 

poems the builders are giants or heathen Sarrasins or famous 
men of old : la roche an jaiani^ Guitecl. 1, 90. 158; un jaittnt le 
ferma qui Fortibiaus ot nom, Renaus 177, 7; Sarrasimf build, 
Garin in Moneys HS, 219. 251; el raur Sarraztnort Albigeois 
6B35 ; el pal ah m on tent que firent SaiTasin, Garin 1, 88; la 
tor est forte de luevro as Siura^his 2, 199; eroule quo firent 
Saraiins 1, 57-9; as grans fene^tres que f. S., Mort do Gaiin p. 
146. Cain builds a tower, Ogier 6Ö44-6G; roclw Catjn^ Garin 1, 
93-4; or the giant's buildiug is traced to Jul* Omsar, to Constan- 
thte, Garin (Paris 2, 53). Chron. fontan. (Peru 2,284); conf. 

the work bj JtiL Gmsar in Thietmar 6, 39. A legend of the 

great eaiddron which the giants were 20 years digging in silence, 
is told ill Halbertsma's Tongvallen p. 5i-5. Stons- heaps in the 
woods the Finn calls hitden pestit, giants' nests or beds, KiirL 
send. 1, 47; a giant's bed already in II. 2, 783. The brazen 
dor per is like the huge metal figure that stands on a bridge with 
a rod of Iff eel J barring the passage, Dietr, drach. 57'. 61*^; old 
Hildebrand says, * ich klag ez dem der üf der brücken atdt ' 62*; 
they all misdoubt the monster Ö8**» 74-5 : ' der aller groeste viez 
(rhy. liez), daz in der tinfel würge 1 er was groz unt däbi lanc, 
sin muob was ungetriuwe ; er ei lebende oder tut, er ist ein rehter 
boesewiht,^ be he alive or dead^ he is a bad one 83'^ (on viez^ see 
Gramm. 1. 187). 

p. 538.] The Gothland livghergif^-guhhe must have got his 
name fr. Eoherg in the I. of Gothland, Molb. Tidskr* 4, 189. In 

Esthouiati legend blocks of granite are Kahv^s maidens* aproti- 
lionets (Kallewi neitsi polle kiwwid, Posaarfc p, 177). What was 
told of giants, is told of the devil : Once upon a time, say the 
men of Appenzel and the Black Forest^ the devil was flying over 
the conntr/ with a sackful of huts ; the sack happened to tear, 
and oat fell a cottage here und a cottage there, aod thei^e they 
be to this blessed hour, Schreiber's Taachenb. Ml, p. 158, 

p» 540.] Eaters of flesh give place to sowers of com, hnnters to 
husbandmen^ Klemm 2, 25, Giants consider themselves the old 
masters of the land, live up in the casth, and look down upon the 
peasant^ Haltrich 198, In the I. of Usedom they say (Kahn in 
Jahrb» d. BerL ges. f, d, apr. 5, 246) : * en risen-maken hiibt auk mat 
enen kuecht met iwei ossen unnen häken^ (ploogh) in are schörte 
(her apron) packt, wil ar dat lütte worm dnrt hatfc (because she 
pitied)/ etc. Similar stories of the earth-worms who crowd out 
the giants are told in many parts of Sweden, Dyb. 1842. 2, S. 
4, 40- '44. p. 105. '45. ppl 15. 97. '47. p. 84. maPs Osterg. 
3S; in Södermanland, Hpt's Ztachr. 4, 506; in Schleswig, 
Müllenh. p, 279 j in the Mark, Hpt 4, 392; in Westphalia, Fir- 
men. 1, 322; in S. Germany, Bader nos. 375. 387. Panzer 2, 
65; conf, Walach. march, p. 283, 

p. 541.] Stories of the giant cleaiing out his shoe or shaking 
the sand out of his holsktm (wooden shoes) are in the Ztschr. d. 
Osiiabr. ver. 3, 230-5. Firmen. 1, 274*. The giant feels three 
grains m his shoe, Hone's Daybk, 2, 1025. Dutch tales to the 
same purpose in Halbertsma'a Tongvallon p. 55-6. 

p. 543.] Near Duclair (on the SeinOj towards Normandy) 
Miiuidä ' la chaire de Gargantua : VHve mysterieux qui Foccupaifc 
U^hidant la nuii devaib etre un geant^ que les pouples ont personi« 
£6 Bona le nom de Gargantua,' Eovue archeol. xiv. an., p. 214. 
Oq G., conf. Bosqnet pp. 177. 182, 193-4; with his seat conf. 
demVs pulpits and their legends. 

p. 544,] Giants fling hammers at each other, Müllenh. no. 
586. Panzer pp. 104. 114. Firmen, 1, 302. Riiiif p. 38. 
Hünen play at howls, Bait, stud, xii. 1, 115, like the heroes in the 
mount (p. 953), like Thorr (p, 545) and the angels (p. 953 n.). 
Another Westph. story of giants baking bread, Firmen. 1, 302. 
372 ; they throw tobacco-pipes to each other, and knock the ashes 
out If 273. A giant is pelted with stones or cJieeses, KM. no. 20, 



Dyb. 4, 46. CaYalL 1, 3. 9; conf. the story from Usedom (Knlm 
in Jrb. d. Berl. ges. f, d. spi% 5, 246). A captive giant is to be let 
go when he^s pulled all the hair off a cow's hide, but he inayn^t 
pluck more than one hair in 100 years, Wiesel^ren 459. 

p, 549.] Similar huildui/) stones in Miillenh, nos. 410-2. 
Faye p, 13, A Bavarian tale of the fiiant builder, in which a 
hammer is hurled, Ober-bair, arch. 5, 316-7, A horse brings the 
stones, like Sra^tlfaHf Haltrich 29 ; conf. old Bayard at Cologne 

p. 551.] The giantesses spin like the fays, even giants spin, 
Firmen, 1, 323, In the Olafs saga Olaf fights the man/jj/yr, and 
brings away her hand as trophy, Fornm, scig. 4, 56-7-8. Red- 
bearded Olaf is called Olafr liosiarpr ä hdr 4, 38. His pipttga 
skagg could also be explained as the Dan. fip-skiäg^ first beard. 

p. 552 n.] Instead of the words in Danske v. 1, 223 the 
Kämpe v, 155 has : sprang til flinie-den Jede og sorie. In Norske 
ev. 1,87. 2, 28 (new ed, 162. 212) \ flijve i ßltif, with anger. 
Korw. Lapp, gedgom, I turn to stone, am astounded, MHG, 
wwi'de ich danne ziio ebne «/«fi/ie,*Herb. 8362; conf, ille vir in 
medio ^^li amore lapis, Propert. ii. 10, 48. Conversely : in baeten 
sine gr^zen liste üz eirae terten steine getragen, Mor* 1562. 
Many Swed. tales of giants whom the first beam of sunrise turns 
into stone, Hpfc's Ztschr. 4, 503-4. Cavall. 27. Norske ev, 162. 
The mighty king Wat z mann is believed to be a petrified giant, 
Panz, Beitr. 1, 246. Frau Hütt turns into stone because she has 
rubbed herself with crnmbs» DS. no. 233; people sink into the 
ground because they've trod on a wheaten roll, Giesebrecht^s 

Bait. stud. 12, 126.^ Esp. are a bride ami hriilegroom often 

turned into stone, DS. no. 229, Müllenh. pp, 108-9. 595. 
Giesebr, BaU. stud. 12, 114-5. 126. These 'bride-stones' are 
also known to Norweg. legend, Faye p, 4; nay, we find them 
in France in the noce pifnfiee, Michelet 2, 17, and even in the 
Wallach* march. 117, Once a shepherd, his sheepdog and sheep 
were changed into stone by frau Wolle, because he bad rojected 
her petition for bread, Somm, p. IL The Wallachians have a 
similar story of an old woman, her son and her sheep, Schott 
114-5; so have the Servians, Vuk's Wtb. p. lb\ Heinr. v. Her* 
ford ad ann, 1009 relates after Will, of Malmesb. (ace. to Vincent 
25, 10) how people in a Saxon village disturb the Christmas festi- 



val by singing and dancing in a churchyard^ and Low the priesfc 
d(X)ms them to dance a whole year; in time they sink up to their 
hips in the ground, till at the end of the year they are absolved 
by hifl Grace of Cologne. The place is in some MSS. called 
Colovize ; surely these are the men of Colbcke who danced with 
what they took for stones, DS. no, 232. A lüth cent version of 
the story in Altd. bl. 1, 54-5. 

p. 553.] Stroruj Jack is sometimes named der $iarke Hannel 
(perh. Hermel), Siegthal p. 106, Finn. HiUi, gen. Hiiden, Hii- 
denpoika — wild man of the woods, giant, Salmel 1, 242. Lapp. 
HiidJaf Hiiia is a malign deity, Suomi '44 p. 30. The Esth. 
tale of EaUewepoeg is given more fully in Poss. Estl p. 174-5. 
Lönrot, who has collected from 60 to 70 giant • stories, relates in 
Krase's Urgesch. p. 177: In the sea near Abo stands a huge 
4one, which the Finn, giant Kafeviiinpoika hurled at the first 
^lurch that was built. He was going to the church himself, when 
be met a man with a sackful of worn shoes, and asked him how 
much farther it was. The man said, ' You see, IVe worn all 
these shoes through on my way/ Then K, took up the stone and 
sluDg it, but it missed the mark and fell into the sea. 

p. 555.] ON. 'iotunn 84 er Brnsi heti, hann var raikit troll ok 
mann-aeta/ Fornm. s. 3, 214. OHG. raan*ezzo, MHG. man-ezze 
(p. 520 n.), AS. mon-i^ta, Lith. vyr^fit;, viros edens. The Poly* 
phemus legend is widely diffused^ e.g. Sinbad on his third voyage 
punches out the oye of a man-eating giant j oonf, the story of 
Eigill, Nilsson 4, 33. Müller's Sageubib. 2, 612. As the Oghu- 
zian cyclop takes the arrow for a gnat, so in our Ring p. 241 : 
'ich waen, mich hab ein fleug gestochen/ Similar tales in Konr* 
V. Wiirzbg, MS. 2, 205*, Altd. w. 3, 178; esp, coarse is the ver- 
sion in the Leipzig MS., Altd. bl. 1, 122 — 7. For the giant, later 

^ries substitute a mnnhrer, Mone's Anz. '37, 399. 400 j a rob- 
er, Wal. iriärch. p. 167*8-9. Poets of the 13th cent, make 12 
ehjlcha>'re (robbers) enter the dwelling of a turs, who eats up 11 
of them, MSS. 2, 33 1\ On the merciful giantess, con f. p. 1008. 

p. 656.] A giant gets bigger as ho rises out of the ground, 
and smaller as he sinks in again, Miilleuh. p. 2GG. Giants often 
take the ßhape of an eagle (p. 633), e,g, Hraesvelgr, Suttöngr, 
Thiazi, Sn. 80-1 ; they are born as wohes 13, The story of the 
flying giantess trespasses on Beast-legend, Hpt'a Ztschr. 4, 502-3, 



p. 557.] Our Courb-poeta have preserved here and there a 
gemiiue feature of the folklore about giants: Tristan taking the 
giant's hand with him (16195) is like Beowulf bringing away 
Grendel's. Again, the old gtant-father carrying the fteroe^ up a 
hill (Daniel iu Bartsch xxviii.) occurs not only in Hero-legend, 
but in Folktale, Mülleuh, p. 266. Then, the giants of the 
TnlttnuTit in Goldemar carry long poles, Hpt*s Ztschr. 6, 521 ; 
Runze swiugs a tree over his shoulder, Wolfd. 510 ; one giant is 
named Boumgarte 493, 3. Asperiän is styled the giants' spile- 
man, Roth. 2161. In Lancelot 17247 seq, are noticed the 
giants' ogen verkereii, tanderi criseltn, hoß quehen, A giant couple 
in Ecke 7 (Hagen 5, 8) bear the names vro Eilte and her Qrinw, 
conf» Grimr and Hildr^ Vilk. saga c. 16. Note the giants' 
names in Dietr, drach,, Glockenhoz, Ftddnsioz, RiunedenwaUf 
Schelledeyiwalt, Bitia'hüch, Biiierhrüt, Bafwrmuot, KlingelhoU ; a 
Qrandeugrm, Grandgrüs 118^, 126** looks Romance, like Grand- 
gosier (great gullet) in Gargantua. Wolfes-mage (-raaw) reminds 
of the manservant Wohes-darni (-gut) iu Helbh 1, 372^ and of 
the Ssk, Urkodara (wolf's belly), Hitzig 308. Norse names: 
Ruth i Shut, Rolfi Topp, Hand i Handdl, Ellmg, Staff, Dyb. '45, 
97-9 (see p. 557). The connexion between giants and gods has 
been pointed out, Suppl. to p, 53 L 


p. 558 n*] Conf. Ictnent werden (p. 746 n.) ; zehein, Wemh. v. 
Niederrb. 11, 18. Schelling takes chaos to be the Roman 
/(i«Mn = hianus, after Festus sub v. chaos. The material sense 
is also foond in the expressions * ingunnen werien,* secari, N, 
Arist. 95 ; ' siti ingimnen,* cloven, Diemer 97, 26 ; M. Neth» 
ontginneji, secare, Fergfit 3461. 3565; conf. Hpt's Ztschr, 8, 

p. 559.] For the notion of creating, the AS. has the word 
frumHceaft, prima creatio : God h fntntsceafta fred, Cfledm, 195,9. 
The Gothic renders Kriat^i by gaskafts. On our schöpfen, bilden, 
bilde giezen, see p. 23 : wa^re ich nie gebildet, had I never been 
ßhapeu, Tit. 8283. Creature in the Bible is in OHG. hani^äi, 



mAiiQ factum, N» Pa. 18, 2 ; MHG. kant-geiM.' 
Ymir the Pers. Gajömars, Gait. Aiiz, *53, p. 

Hang thinks 

1960. Tho hirth 

from feet or legs seems to be remembered in an 0, Fr. poem : 
Fanusl^ whom his mother had conceived out of tho smell of 
flowers, touches his ikigh with a knife that had just cut an apple; 
the thigh conceives and bears St- Anne; conf. Brahma's creation 
(p. 571), Ukko yumala rubs his hands, presses them on his left 

knee, and makes three maidens, Kalevala 9, 39 — 44. Giants 

CM:>me before the Ases (p. 530-2) ; the vala sings, 'ek man iötna 
dr ofborna/ Seem» 1*; and Saxo divides m^thematici into (I) 
giganies, (2) ma^i = Ases, (3) homineB, The Indians say the cow 
ia mother of ike woi^hl, and must oot be killed, Holtzm. Ind. 
sagen 1, 65. Of Bör^s three «ontt, who create mam, it is said in 
Ssem. P: biod'itm ypto, orbes extderunt, they set on high the 
globes of heaven (p. 701), 

p. 560 n.] The Indian myth also accepts a creation out of the 
6^ c/, heaven and earth being eggshells, Somadeva 1, 10; conf. 
the birth of Helen and the Dioscuri out of eggs. 

p. 56 1.] Askr and Emhla are known as Es and Imlla among 
the Yenisei Ostiaks, Caa trends Heise in Sibirien. The division 
into öud, JcTr and la ok liir ia also fonna in Plutarch 4, 1154: 
* spirit, soul and body/ 

p. 56L] To giants, men appear as dwarfs ; they nickname us 
earihwormg, and the giant's daughter takes the ploughman for a 
wortri or beetle (p. 540)^ As dwarfs are made out of maggots in 
the Edda, so are men out of miU in Ov. Met. 7, 642 ; conf. the 
way be€$ are brought to life {p* 696). As fire is generated by 
nibbing wood, so are animals by ruhhing the maieriaU (SuppL to 
1100). Hiisi makes an tig out of various stuffs, Kalev. 7,32 seq. 

p. 567.] The two AS. accounts of the creatmn of man (p. 565, 
text and note) derive blood from fire, whereas the Emsig Code 
derives it from water, as the Edda conversely does water from 
blood. The eujhi parts were known to the Indians also (Suppl. 

to 571. The Fris. heli, ON, heili== brain, resembles Lat. 

coelum, Gr. koIXt} KOtXta^ GDS* 681. Godfrey of Viterbo's com- 
parison of the head to the sky, of the eyes to the lights of heaven 
is repeated in Walther 54, 27 ; * ir houlyel ist so wünnenrich, als 
ez loin kimel welle sin, da liuhtent zwent] «ternen abe ; ' and in 
MS. 2, 189^ the eyes are called stars j cool, himrael and gaume. 



Hpt's Ztsclir. 5, 541* A tear (tbräoe) is called in MHG. mers 

trän, wages trfm^ Gramm. 1, 170. The Edda accounts for the 
taste of sea- water bj the gnoding of salt out of the quern Grotti. 
A tear bites, like salt ; BciKpv, laertima [and tehero, tearas, zähre] 
cornea from dak^ to bite. The Etym, magn, 5*14, 45 says : Ev(feo* 
pLmv hk ßvvTji/ rr^p ddXanaap Xeyft* oloi/ — iroXvrpo^a hdxpva 
ßvvf}^ — Tov^ aXa^ ßovXo^fvo^ elir^lv. Bifin^ = ^Ivü>, GDS* 3U0* 

p. 670n.] An Esth. song in Herder p. m. 112 tells of ono 
who shaped him a wife out of wood, gilded her face, and silvered 
her shoulders. The Egyptian notion as to the origin of the first 
man comes very near that of the Bible : Ptah or Neph is picto- 
rially repres. ' turning the clay for the human creation/ Wilkin- 
son's Egyptians p. 85. 

p. 570.] Another Ind. story of the creation in SuppL to 560 n. 
The Pers* doctrine is, that heaven and fire were first created, 
then mountains, then plants, then beasts. From the horns of the 
first ox sprang fruits, from his blood grapes, etc., Görres 1, 
232-8. The description of Aths in Ovid's Met. 4, 657 agrees 
with the Teutonic myth of creation far more closely than the 
notion current among the Greeks. He lets Atlas be converted 
into a mountain-chain^ hair supplies the forest, his shouldera ^H 
and arms the hills, his head the summit, his bones the stones. ^^ 

p, 571.] The older Ind. myth makes the great spirit^ mahdn 
aimd, produce the first man out ot water ; Prometheus too forms 
men of eadk and water^ Lucian's Prom* 13; ace. to Horace, 
Od. i» 16, 13, he tempers the given * limns' with every possible 
ingredient, conf, Babr. ^'ö. The Greenlanders think the first 
man was made of earth, and the first woman t>/ Ai's thumh^ Klemm 
2, 313, as Eve was of Adam^s rib ; so Dakshus was pulled out of 
Brahma's ioB (SuppL fco 559). The ei^/Ai pari^ occur even in the 
Eigveda, Kuhn in Hafer 1, 288. 

p. 573.] For analogies in language between man and iree^ see 
Pott's Zähl-meth. 234 — 6, Ashr and other masc. names of trees 
indicate man, and femin. names woman» A^kr^ Embia begin 
with the same vowels as Adam, Eve; conf. Es^ Imlia (SuppL to 

The term Uni-stamy nation, is taken wholly from the vegetable 
kingdom, Otfr. iii. 12, 7. Plants and rocks are not dead^ they 
speak : Spvb^ xal Trerpm dicoveiv, Plato's Phsedr. 275. Men 





arise oufc of trees and stones or mud : saxis nimiTum et robortt 
nati, Stat. Theb. 4, 339 ; quij rupto robore nati, conipoftifive InfOf 
nuUoshabaere parentes, Juven. 6, 12 (conf. dieleiinineu, p, 569d.). 
Men grow out of j^i^^^ iQ Nonous (Reinh. Külilerj Halle ^53, 
p. 24) ; ji werdent solich lent voo homen nit geborn, Wolkenst. 
61 ; siner spiez-genöze sweimefc einer von dem oherden hirhoumef 
Ben. 419; ' Where people come from ? think I don't know that? 
they're torn off trees when youtig/ Ayrer's Fastn. 160*; not 
sprung from a hazel-hush^ Sclielmafsky, 1, 51 ; his father was 
drowned on the 7iut-ire€, hi^ mother carried the water up in her 
apron (sieve), Biiickner's Henneberg 17; a child is exposed on 
an ash, and is found there, Marie de Fr. 1, 150 — i. In a Finn, 
fairytale a foundling is called pnuhaara, tree- brauch ; couT our 

Fandevogel on the top of a tree, KM, no, 51.^ Ace. to Greek 

legend there were ouly gods at first, the earth bristled with 
forests^ till Prometheus made roeuj Lucian's Prom, 12 ; conf, the 
Prom, legends in Schütze's Excursus i. to ^sch. Prom, j yet 
Zeus also makes men spring out of the grmind for .^Eacus on 
hifl lonely isle. Pans. ii. 29, 2. The throwing of etojies^ which 
turn into meBj is descr. in Ov. Met. 1^ 411 1 the atones are 
styled ossaparentU 1, 388. 393, as n^achytus and Sophocles call 
rocks the bones of the earth. This sowing of stones reminds one 
oi ntana-geßs — XcLo^, tcoa-^o^ (p. 793). The Saxons, named after 
sahs (saxum), are called in the legend from the Eisenacher 
Kechtbach in Ortloff p, 700-1 Kiesdimje^ petrmU ; conf. * his da 
irqüiken zi manne/ quicken flints into men, O. i. 23, 47« Giants 
spring out of stone, and spring into stone again (pp. 532-3. 552) : 
*eine, di slug ich aus eime «^tJtVie,' Fundgr. 2, 518 ; * nun sihet 
man wol, das^ er nicht auH eine7n steine enttiprtmgea ist/ Galmy 
230; 'dasz ich aus keinem siein gesprungen/ Schadens Pasq. 76, 
87; ' many a man fancies he is sprung from a diamond^ and the 
peasant from a flint/ Ettn. Hebamme 15; 'gemacht aus klslittg^ 
plut/ flint-blood {also, donkey's rib), Fastn. Ö80, 26. 32, For 
other legends of the origin of nations, see GDS. 780. 

p. 570.] ÄCC. to Plato's Symp. 190 B, there were at first three 
sexes : appev^ d^Xv, avSpoyvvov, descended from sun, earth and 
mooD. It is an important statement in Geu. 6, 4, that the sons 
of Go*i (men) came in unto the daughters of men (ßfiantessea). 
Popular legend very remarkably derives dwarfs and saUcrrantaiu 



from the fallen angeh^ Ir. elfenm. xiii. ; tbe ' good people ' are 
not born, but dropt oat of heaven, Ir. march, 2, 73 ; the same with 
the hnldren in Norway, Asb, 1^29, Thiele 2, 175; while Fidii. 
Job. Hist. eccl. IsL 2, 368 says of the alf« : ' qtiidam enim a Deo 
immediate et sioe parentum interveutu, ut Spiritus quosdara, 
creates esse volunt; quidam vero ab Adamo, sed antequam Eva 
condita fuif, prognatos perhibent/ A N. Frisian story has it, 
that once, when Christ walked ypon earth, he blessed a woman's 
five fair children, and cursed the five foul ones she had hidden; 
from these last are sprang the undergrounders, Miillenh. p. 279. 
The same story in Iceland, F. Maguusen^s Lex. 842^. Eddalären 

3j 329. 330, Faye, pref. xxv. The giant too is called vdlandes 

barn, Trist, 401, 7. Even the devil tries to create (Snppl. to 
1024)* The Ind, Visvakarmaf like Hephaestus, fashions a woman 
at Brahma's bidding, Somad. 1, 173, On ages of the world, aod 
their several races, conf. Babrius's Prologue, and the statue 
(p, 792 n,). Ovid, in Met. 1, 89 — -127 assumes four ages, golden, 
silver, brass and iron, GDS. 1 — ^5. In the age of Saturn the 
earth-born men went naked and free from care, lived on the fruit 
of trees, and talked with beasts, Plato^s Polifcicua 272. 

p. 581.] UaXatol \6yoi of deluges (>caTaicXi;crjtto4?) are meut. 
by Plato de Leg» 3, 677* Tho form ^i«-v!uot is still retained in 
Mauritius 692, also #i?i-fluot in Anegenge 22, 17, 24, 13, but sint' 
vluot already in 25, 18, Äiwf-waege 23, 54, suif-gewaege 25, 7» 
Luther still says sind-Uut, not sündflut. By the fiood the race of 
giants is extirpated, Beow. 3377 — 84. As it subsides, three ravens 
are let fly (p. 114U) j conf. the verses in the Voluspfi, on the fall- 
ing of the waters : *falla forsar^ flggr orn yfir^ s& or k fialli fiska 

vei^ir,* Sa^m. O'*, ^In the American story of the Flood the 

people likewise take refuge in a ship, and send out animals, the 
beaver, the rat, Klemm 2, 156. DfiKkalions Flood is described 
in Athen. 1, 409 and the firsfc book of Ovid's Metamorphoses; 
conf. 8elig Cassel's Deuk. p. 223. 246* In Lucian's account also, 
all the wild beasts are taken into Denkalion's ark, and live in 

peace together, Luc, de Salt at. c, 39. The Indian narrative 

of the Flood is ' taken from the Bible,' thinks F^lix Neve (De 
Forig. de la trad, Ind. da Dui, Paris '49) ; the rapid growth of 
the fish resembles that of JormuDgandr when thrown into the 
sea, Sn. 32, and of the snake who wishes to be taken to tho sea. 



Im 2, 162; Manufi himself signifies man, Kalin^B Rec. d. 
Bigveila p. 107. On the otlier Ind. story^ that of Satyänraias, 
see Poller's MythoL des Indous 1, 244 — 7.^— German tales of a 
great flood are told in Vonbun p. 14 — 16 (conf. p, 982-3). Our 
people still have a belief that destroying water will break out of 
mountains, Panz. Beitr, 1, 276-7, German legend makes the flood 
stream out of the giant's toe, as it does out of Wäinämöinen's tee 
in Buno 3. The dwarf-story from the Rhine district in Firmen, 
2, 49 seems founded on that of L. Thtin^ DS. no. 45 ; the dwarf 
reminds one of the angel who lifts his hand holding a cloth over 
the city, Greg. Tur. 10, 24. 



p. 582.] Before the neiü gods came, there prevailed a primi- 
tive worship of Nature (p, 335), to which perhaps Cgesar^s * Luna, 
Sol, Vulcanus' is to be referred; we know the giants stand for 
primal forces of nature, for fire, air, water, sun, moon, day and 
night, conf. Plato's Cratyl 397. 408. And long after, in the 
Warnung 2243 seq., there still breaks out a nature-worship^ an 
adoring of the bird's song, of flowers, of grass. All mythologies 
make some gods represent the elements : to the Hindös Indni 
ia god of the air, Varuna of water; to the Greeks Zeus was 
the same thing as aether, aer. The Persians worshipped the 

elements, not human-shaped gods at all, Herod. 1, 131. The 

Indians admitted ßve elements i fire, water, earth, aether (akasa 
aod wind (vaya). The Chinese thought metal an element of its 
own. Galen sets down four : warm, cold, dry, wet (can we make 
these attributes represent fire, earth, air, water f). How the four 
elements run into one another, is described in MS* 1, 87*; H. 
Sachs knows 'die vier element,* 1, 255 ; 'erde und wazzer nider 
awebet, viur und luft ze berge strebet/ says Freid. 109. 24; conf. 
Reno. 6115. Animals live in all four : 'swaz get, vliuzetj swebet,' 
M§, 2, 183*. Men bewailed their sorrows to the elements, to 
earth, to fire (p, 642), 

¥0L. IV. 



1, Water, 

p. 584.] People sacrificed to groves and springs : blöbaSi 
landiD, Landn. 3, 17| bI6taSi/omri 5j 5 (p. 592) ; and Sasm. 44* 
says : Jieilog votn liloa (calent). The Hessiaos sacrificed 'lignis 
etfontibiis/ Pertz 3^ 343. The Samlander and Prussians denied 
the Christians access to groves and springs lest they should 
pollute them, Pertz 9, 375; coof. Helmold 1, 1. Prayer, sacri- 
fice and judgment were performed at the spriog, RA. 799* 
* Porro in medio noctis ailentio illas (feminas) adfoiites aquarum 
in oneniem aßuenies juxta hortum domua egressas Herwardus 
percepit; qnas statim secutua est, ubi eas eminus colloquentes 
audivib, nescio a quo euslode fo7itium respoiisa et interrogantes et 
expectantes/ Gesta Herw. Saxonis, yr. 1068 (Wright's Essays 1, 
244. 2, 9L 108, Michel's Chron. ÄBglonorm. 2, 70). An Engl, 
song has 'I the wel woke,' Wright's Ess* 1, 245; this is the 
ceremony ot waking (watching by) the toelL On the Bode in the 
Harz they still oficr a hlaek hen (?) to the river-god. Before 
starting the first waggonload from the harvest field, they throw 
three ears into a rmining sireatn; or if there is none, they throw 
three ears into the oven-fire before the waggon enters the stack- 
yard; if there was no fire, they light one- This is a Bavarian 
custom, Panz, Beitr. 2, 213. In Hartlieb's book of all Forbidden 
Arts we read that lighted tapers are set in front of water dmwn 
from three running streams before sonriae, and man ietji dem 
Wasser ere an, sam Gott selber (see p. 586). The Romans 
cherished the like reverence for water: ^ flu mini Rbeno pro salute^* 
De Wal. BO. 232 ; genio loci et Rheno pro mlute/ no. 233 ; * dens 
Rheni,^ no. 234. They greeted the bath with hare head on enter- 
ing and quitting it, and placed imtive gifts by the side of springs, 
Rudorff's Ztschr. 15» 216; they had even miuidri foniis 15, 217. 
p, 585.] As pmnno comes from prinnan to burn, the Romans 
spoke of to^Tens aqua^ from torrere to broil : ^ subita et ex abdito 
vasti amnis eniptio aras habet,^ Seneca^s Ep, 41; conf, the context 
in Rudff's Zts. 15, 214. It is said of St. Furseua (d. 650) : ' fixit 
baeulum suum in terram, et mox bnllivit fons magnus,^ Acta 
Bened* p. 321. The divine steersman in the Frisian Asegabuch, 
on touching l&ndt ßings an axe into the turt^ and a spring bursts 
upj Richthofen 440. A horse's hoof scrapes open a well (Suppl, 







L as 


to 664 n*). Brooks gash out of Achelöus^s ox-head^ Soph. Trach, 
14. A well spriogs out of an ass^s jawhonej Jadg. 15, 19. 'D6 
spranc ein braim© sA ze stete ftz der dürren molten/ Serratiua 
1382, when the thirsting gaint had ^ made a cross/ A spring 
rises where a maiden has fallen down^ Panz. Beitr. 1, 198* A 

giaDteee produces water by another method^ Sn. (1848) 1 , 286. 

The Finns have three rivers formed out of iears, Kalev. 31, 190 ; 
healing fountains rise from the sweat of a sleepiog giant, Kalevi- 
poeg 3, 87-9. Tiherinns la prettily described in Clandian^s Prob, 
et Olybr, 209 — 265 ; * Rhenus projccta torpuit urna,^ in his Rufio. 

1, 133, The nymph holds in her righfc a marble bowlt out of 
which runs the source of the rivniet, Opitz 2, 262 ; she pmirg the 
Zacken 263, where the poet uses the phrase * spring-kammcr der 
fliisse'; so in Hebel pp. 12. 38 the baby Wiese lies in silver 
cradle in her crystal closetj in hidden chainher of the rock. At 
Stabburags well and grotto (Selburg diocese) the people see a 
spinning maiden who weaves veils for brides, Krose'a Urgesch. 
pp. 51, 169. 17L OHG* klingd^ chUnM = toTren& and nympha ; 
conf, nixe, tocke (p. 492 n.), 

p. 586.] At the restoration of the Capitol it is said of the 
Vestals : aqua vims e foniibus ammbiisque hauata perluere, Tac. 
Hist* 4, 53. Springs that a saint has charmed out of the ground, 
as Servatius by his prayer, have healing power : * die mit dehei- 
nen s^ren (any pains) w&ren gebunden, geuäde die fanden ze 
demselben urapringe/ Servat. 1390* Such medicinal sprintjs 
were »ought for with rushes, out of which flew a spark, Ir. march. 

2, 76-7. The notion that at holy seasons waler tnrn» into wltiüf 
prevails in Scandinavia too, Wieselgr, 412. Wells out of which 
a saint draws yield wine, MuUenh. p. 102-3 ; so in Bader no* S-iS 
wine is drawn out of a spring. The well losßs its healing poicer 

hen an ungodly man has bathed his sick horse in it, Mullenh, 
, 126; the same after a noble lady has washed her little blind 
dog in it, N. Pr, prov, bl. 2, 44. Oti tlie contrary, fountains be- 
come holy by goddesses bathing in them, e.g. those in which Sit& 
bathed, see beginn- of Meghadftta. Whoever has drunk of the 
well of Reveillon in Normandy, must return to that country^ Bos- 
qoet 202. 

p. 587.] Holy water is only to be drawn in vessels that cannot 
standi but must hang or be carried, and not touch the ground. 



for if set down they tip over and spill every drop (so the polled 
plantj the fallen toothy is not to touch the ground^ Suppl. to 
658 D.). Such a vessel, fültle^ was used in the worship of Ceres 
and Vesta, Serv. ad ^o. 11^339. Schoh Cruq, ad Hon AP. 
231, ForoelL sub v.; and by the Scots at the' Well of Airth, 
where witnesses were examined. Honeys Daybk 2, 686^ 867. 
Metal vessels of the Wends, which atnfiot stand, have been found 
in several places, Bait stud. 11, 31-3.7. 12, 37, The Lettons, in 
sacrificing» durst not touch the goblet except with their teeth, 
npt^s Ztscbr, 1, 145. The hot springs at Thermopylae were 
called ;j^tJT/)0( = ollae, Herod. 7, 176; conf. olla Vulcani. 

Ud ich runrto, MB, 28% 63; keilkprutino 11^109» heilighrunno, 
29% 96. HeUchnuio, Chart. Sitbiense p. 113. Ileli<:bruntw, a 
brook in the Netherl., Waitz's Sal. ges. 55, On Seilbronn^ see 
Kudorrs Ztschr. 15, 226; conf, nohUes f antes 15, 218. ^ Helgi 
at Ih'hjavatni/ Landn. 2, 2 : HelgavaiUf Ur^fwvaln 3, 2* 3. 
Other prob, holy springs are Pholeshrunno (p. 226), Gozesbrunno 
(Suppl. to 368). A Swed. song names the Ilelge Thors källa in, 
Sua aland, fr. which water is drawn on IJohj Thursdai/ night to 
care blindness. Others are enumer. in Miillenh. p. 595. Mary 
is called * alles heiles ein Inter bach' or ^helles bach/ Altswert 98, 
23. 73. When the angel had troubled the water in the pool of 
BethesJa, whosoever then first stept in was made whole, John 5, 
4. Rivers were led over graves and treasures (p. 251-2 n.). 

p. 588.] A youih*Tedoring fountain is drunk of in May beforei.| 
sunrise, Tit. 6053. Another Jungbrunnen in the poem of Abor, 
Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 6. 7 and one in Wigamur 1611-5 by a limetree, 
M. ^ eth, joocht-borre, youth-bourn, Horae Belg, 6, 223. The eagle 
renews bis youth at a fountain ' chijck-prunnen/ Karajau 32, 12. 
98, 5; conf. Pred. 1, 29. 

p. 590.] More about Scandin. jnJgrimages to springs m Wie- 
selgr. 389. 411. A Span, song tells of picking flowers on the 
Guadalquivir on Midaum, morn, Hone's Daybk 1, 851. At War- 
saw/ Juno 24, the girls throw wreaths of roties into the Vistula, 
and watch with joy or sadness their various ways of floating down 

i© stream. This resembles the Midsum. custom of the Cologne^ 
len descr, by Petrarch, wliich Brauu also in No. 23 of the 
■^fb. traces to Cbristiauity. The Schweiz, arch. 4, 87 says 
t came to Germany in 1356^ but bis letter describing) 



the ceremony is dated 1330; in 1327 he saw Laura at Avignon^ 
and then set oufc on his tour while yet a ijoulk, Wliom does ho 
mean by the spirUus plerii of the Rhenish city ? Alb. Magnus 
lived and taoght at Cologne, but died in 1280; bis pupil Thomas 
of Aquino also taught there for a time. Duns Scotus came to 0. 
in 1308^ and died there; Meister Eckhart (d. 1329) was at C, so 
was his pupil Tauler. The University was not founded till 1388. 

p. 590 n.] Stieler p. 1402 mentions the following Easter 
CQstom : 'Habenfc Borussi verbum schrndk-oHern, quod sigoificat 
obviam quarto post tres dies Paschales Oriente die venientes 
Tirgis caedere, sicut Juventus nostra facit quarto post ferias Nata- 
litias die, et kindelen vocant in mlmoriam iunocentiura puerorum, 
Mchmach Borussis fern lam notat/ It is really more correct to 
derive the word from ama^gac, to flog (see Weinhold in Aufr. and 
Kuhn ly 255) than from smigusfcj ablution* Easter rods adorned 
with many-coloured ribbons are called schmack-osteni, Jrb. d. 
Berl. ges. f. d. spr. lOj 228-9. In Moravia schmecJc-ostemj Kolda 
(d*EIv.) 114. Weinbold'a Schlea. w. 85 distinguishes between 
schmag-oster and dyngus, 

p. 591.] In Norman stories, springs rim thy when misfortune 
18 nigh, Bosquet 20L Salt and medicinal springs dnj up as soon 
as money is asked for them, A theo. 1, 288. A countryman died 
of consumption after a cool draught from a spring; aud immedi- 
ately it ceased to ßow, Hpt's Ztschr. 3, 361 , When a new spring 
breaks out, it is a sign of dearth, ibid. By the mm^ or fall Ituj of 
water in the Tilsgraben the inhabitants foretell a good or bad 
harvest^ Harrys no. 2; conf, Müllenh* p. 104. When Wartha 
flats in Werra-dale have gone unfiooded six years running, the 
farmer can eat off silver the seventh year, they suy (Again : when 
the beaver builds his castle highi the water that year will run 
high too, Döbefs Pract. 1, 36^). In Styria the hungerbrunncn 
are also called hungerlaken^ Wolf's Ztschr, 2, 43. At different 
periods the Nile had to rise different heights— 22, 16, 14 or 12 
yards [?] — to meet the wants of the country, Herod. 2, 13, 
Strabo p. 788. Pliny 5, 10. Parthey's Plut. on Isis and Os. p. 243. 

p. 592t] Whirl^QoX is in OHG. suarh, suirhil= vortex, Graff 
6, 897; ^Wm^vorago in aqua, 6^ 873; htwrbo 4, 1237. Gr. 
')(^apvßSi^, Pott in Kuhn 5, 255, Serv. kolovrat, vortex (Ut. 
wheel-tnm) and buk, waterfalFs roar (bukati^ mugire). ' ailwmde 



(ve\ storm) =gHrge9, eeifmnnde — vortex,* Vocab. ms. VratisLjJ 
attveinda = gargeSf Diefeub. 271^. Finn. * korvalle'tulitieo koskenn 
pjbän wirran pyörtehelle/ he went to the ßry waterfall (Sw. eld- 
fi^rs), to the holy flood's loitirl, Kalev. 1, 177; cant 6, 92, 7, 785-^ 

794.8. 17,101.314. 22,10. 25,198. WaierfaU is in OHG. 

uazarcJiUnga = nymphaf Graff 4, 504; wazardlezo ^nymphA 5, 237 
wazzerdurh? uejiater? Cataracta, Trier, ps* 41, IL Windb. pa 
41, 11 ; laufen^ Staid. 1, 444. Gr. hivo<i atid StV?;. The passage 
in Plutarch^s Cscsar stands : Trora^mv StVat? xai pev^drutv i\iy 
fiol^ Kai yff6(f>ot<;. Homer has irora^h^ dpyvpo-hitff}<;, IL 21, 130; 
he pictured waterfalls as horses flying headlonfj : ^apd&pat piovaat 
i^ opiüiv cVl Kap 16, 392. 'Ti« a being below stirs up the whirl- 
pool, Leopr. 106 J Loki dwells in Franangrs-fors, Seem, 68. Sn. 
69. At the Donau-strtidel a spectre gives warning of death, 
Ann. AUahens., yr 1045; conf. the women in the Nibelg, 

p. 596.] The Greek rain-goddesses are the Hours, who guard 
the cloud-gate of Olympus, opening or shotting, and by rain and 
sunshiae ripen the fruits. The Hora has a (jobletj which she 
rinses at the fountain, Theocr. 1, 150, Men also Bacrificed to 
Zeus and Hera, when short of rain. Pans, ii, 25, 8. Ge (earth) 
is repres. in a picture, iraploring Zeus for rain 1, 24. The Lith. 
diewaitis is god of thunder, dewaiie szwenia goddess holj, g. of 
rain. 'ITie Esths call hoarfrost ' mother of mist,' Böcler 147, lu 
Gtrmanj, as late as the 13th cent., dew was honoured as a bene- 
volent being, Parz. 748, 28 : ' geßrt s! luft unde tou, daz hiute 
niorfjen M mich reis.' Dew drips from the manes of airy steeds: 
of Hrtmfaxi, Siem. 32**; of the valkyria^s hor*se 145*' (couf. p. 

641)» The ceremony reported by Burchard is also quoted ia 

Mone'a Gesch. des heident, 2, 417 from Martin's Relig* des 
Gaules. The Servian and (ace. to Schott) Wallaehian custom of 
urapjfivg round reminds me of the Hyperborean votive offerings 
wrapt in ears of corn and carried by two virgins, Herod. 4, 33, 
Creuzer 2, 117, Were the maidens themselves wrapt up? and 
can the üve wepipeph^ who escorted them be conn, with the rain- 
maiden's name TropTnjpovya ? conf» GDS. 865. In the new ed, of 
Vuk^s Diet, the dance and rain-song are called prporijshe and the 
leader prpaiz. When a priest touched the fountain with an oak^n 
hough, the rain-cloud rose out of it. Paus, viii, 38, 3; so the 
French maire dips his foot in the well of Barenton. In Algeria, 



whea there is a long drought, they throw a few Marabouts into 
the river, like the Bavariaa water-bird, GDS* 54. KL sehr. 2, 
445 seq. 

p. 598.] Nero was goiog to memure the Alcyonic lake with 
ro/ie*, Paus, ii, 37, 5. The story ia Thiele 3, 73 about souadiog 
the lake is Swod. also, Rana '44, 33. L. Wetter cries; ^mät miii 
laagd!^ Wieselgr. 459. On the Esth. worship of water, conf, 
Kreutzwald's Pref. to Kalewipoeg xii., and his and Neu's Mjth. 
lieder 113; at 114 occurs the hauling up of a goat^a skidL 

p, 60 L] To the river is sacrificed {pp. 45. 494) a reiVwfoer, 
Caatr^Q^a Reise 342. Ia wading through clear water you utter 
a prayer, Hesiod^a Erga 735; in crossing a river you take an 
uuspicium, Rudorff 25, 218. Water-ordeals in the Rhine, RA. 
935 1 coaf« the Fontinalia, Radff 15, 221. Lake and rirer are 
often personified: io Irish fairytales (1, 86^ — 89* 2, 144—152) 
the lake is Unt out, and is carried away in a many-cornered cloth. 
' Three loud lauglis the river gave/ Fleming 373, There is a 
myth of a wood or mountain sprite, who scatter a rivers into dust, 
Praetor, Katzenveifc p. 102 — 6; coaf, the stiebende brugge, Habsb. 
urbar. 94, 4, i.e. a deviFs bridge* In Denmark, on the approach 
of spring, they say of a god or genius : ' kaster en warm steen i 
vandet,' F. Magnusen's Lex. 958; do they mean Thor? 

Curioasly the MB. 13, 18, 42 speaks of an Adalbero filiiis 
Damibiii 13, 96 Alberus fiUus Danubli; 13, 96 Gozwinus dß 
Danubio, Albertus et Engelberbns de Danubio, And the Saale, 
Neckar, Lahn, Le'nie are in trod, aa persons (p. 494 and Suppl.) ; 
oonf. Hebel's personific. of the IFVe»«. 

With the notion of öuwe, ea conf. AS. Ä^/m=mare profundum, 
thougli ON* hohnr means insula, and OS, holm even collis. The 
Celts too had holg islands, Mono's Heident. 2, 377 — 380. 

Our nwer (sea), neut., though Goth, marei and OS. mart are 
both fern., OHG. meri, m. and n., has in it something divine : 
CK äXa Blav, Od. 11,2 and elsewhere. Ocean is in Lettio deewa 
uppe, God's river, Bergm. 66, To the sea men sacrLficed : ' nostri 
quidem duces ifuira ingredientes immolare Iiostias Jluctlbus con- 
aue^erunt,' Cio. da Nat, O* 3, 20. Homer furnishea it with a 
back, F<öT09, which need not imply a beast's figure, for even OHG. 
has 'mers buosen, mers bat^i/ bosom, Crraff 3, 154. It can be 
angry with men: daz wilde mer ist mir gram. En. 7659; das 



Wasser gram^ das Iwse mer, Diocl. 7336 ; de sture sS, Pürtonop. 95, 
27. It is wild, it storms and rares : Hoevum mare, Tac. Hist. 
4, 52; über den ivllden iS, MS. 1, 72^; daz wikh mer, Troj* kr. 
6922, etc.; des wtUeii wages fluot, Gerh. 3966, etc.; daz tobende 
mer, Troj, kr. 5907, etc; daz wüetunde mer, Servat, 32Ö0, etc.; 
la mer betee, Ogier 2816, Prov. 'mar belade/ Rayn. sub v. j de 
ruskende see, UiiL Voiksl. 200-1 j das wibende wabende wasser, 
Grarg, 111; std wseter, Caödtn. 7, 2. The Fris. mU^ like aX?, 
meaos both salt and sea, Ssk. lavandmhhas^ mare sals um, Welsh 
hall/or, salt sea, Ir. moir salmhar, AS. sealt waster, Cajdm. 13, 6. 
Why the sea is salt, is told in Sn. 147. The sea is purej she 
tolerates no blood, Anno 227-8, just as the ship will have no dead 
corpse, Pass. f. 379^. She ' ceased from her raging * as soon as 

Jonah was thrown in* Real proper names of the sea are; Oegir 

{p. 237), conf. AS* wseter-^'f^esti, and ' diu /reise der wilden unde/ 
Tit, 2567; Oymir, conf* gymis leoÖ^ qve&, YngL sag, c- 36; 
Brimir, akin to brim; and Geo/en (p. 239). Names of particular 
seas : wmidilmeri, endthneri, lebermerit Graff 2, 820. To -^Ifred^ 
ivendelsae is the Black Sea, only a part of the Mediterranean ; daa 
tiefe wenielmere, Diut. 3, 48 j wendeise , Tundal 42% 4, and often in 
Morolt; wendelzeef Bergh^s Ndrh volksr. p. 146. Then : lebermer, 
Wh. 141, 20. Tit. 5448. 6005. Amur 1730, Fundgr.2,4. HpVs 
Ztschr. 7, 276, 294, Wigaloia sub v.; in dem rdtmi fet^rwter, 
Bari. 262, 16; lahermer^ Ernst 3210; leversS, Walew. 5955; lever- 
see, Y, d. Bergh 103. 127. With this term conf. the irXr.v^top 
Öa\aTTto9, sea-lung, of Pytheas; F, Magn, traces this lung to the 
dismembered Ymir. For garsecg, conf. my first ed., Vorr. xxvii.^ 
and Hpt's Ztschn 1, 578. Dahlmann in Forsch. 1, 414 explains 
gars-ecg as earth's edge; Kemble, Gl. sub v. secg, as homo jacnlo 
armatus ! For gdrsecg in the Periplus, Rask writ-es garsege, but 
explains nothing; conf. C^dm. 8, 1. 195,24. 199,27. 205,3. 
Beow. 97. 1024. The ON, htgmiafr is at once sea and sown 
crop. Seem. 50-1; Gudr. 1126-8 has 'daz vinsiertner/ sea of 

darkness. Lastly, Dianbs'haf, I)aiL&a-haJ\ Fornald. sog. 2, 4. 

The sea advances and retires, has ebb and fiood (on * ebb ' conf. 
Gramm. 3, 384 and Kl. sehr. 3, 158) ; on the alleged Fris. and 
Sax, equivalents vialma and ltd una, see Gramm. 3, 384 note. 
The ON. kolga and olga — aestns maris : ' er saman qvorao kolgo 
r (fluctos undantes) ok kilir Ungir/ Sssm. 153\ Ebb and 




flood are in Grk. afiirmn^ and pa^ta. Paus. 1, 3; in Irish con- 
iraiht and rohart, Zenss 833. The sea- waves are often treated as 
living beings : 'dhndmen ez die nnden, din eine ez der andern gap, 
unde trnogenz verre so hinab/ the waves canght it, passed it one 
to the other, etc., Pass, 313, 73, Three pi ttnging titaües are three 
witches, and get wounded; the waterspout is also a witch, Miillenh. 
p. 225. On the nine waves, conf. Passow sub* v. rptKv^ia, Trevra- 
MVfjtia: ' iv TpiKVfiuiL<; tpepofiiv^/ Procop. 1, 318, In a storm it 
is the nifith wave that sinks the ship, Wright 1, 290 after Leo 
Allatins ; it also occurs in Ir. sagen u. march, 1, 86. ON. 8kaß = 
nnda decnmana, probably no more than a very high one, from 
skefla, acervare. 

2. FiBK, 

p. 602.] Fire is a living being* With qnec-ßur conf. queckiu 
lieht, Ernst 2389» Yon can kill it : trucldare ignem, Lucr, 6, 146. 
Yon can wake it; SBled weccan, CaBdm. 175, 26; bself^m msest 
weccan, Beow. 6281, It is wild : conf, * wildfire* (pp. 603. 179) ; 
Logi viUi-eldr, Sn, COj Hans Wilds-fewer, MB, 25, 375; ein 
wlhlez tnwr aluoo in dar dach, Tro], kr. 11317; daz wilde fiur 
spranc üz den vlinzen herte 12555 ; daz grimnie wllde fiuiver, Bab. 
659 ; daz starke w, f, 698 ; daz w. /, uz den swerten spranc 412 ; 
daz grimins f, als ein lonp öz den hnof-isen atoup (spirted out of 
the horse-shoes), Dietr, 9325; daz/, ^Yovlc frelslich uz helmen u* 
^% ringen 8787, It is a devouring beast : strttdende (desolating) 
f^, Ceedm. 154, 15; brond (gl^^) sceal fretan, consume, Beow. 
6024. 6223 -, in palndum ignis, in fuaiar (fodder) des fiures. Dint. 
1, 496*; dem viure geben ze mazze, as meat, Fundgr. 2, 131. It 
is insatiable, like hell or avarice, Fraid, 69, 5; the fire saith not 
'it is enough,* Prov. SO, 16; e/rf, celed (fr. alan, nourish) means 
i^is ptutu«, the fed and steady flame ; conf. ix S^ Oi/fidrtov 
'^M^ioTo^ ov/c tSjapLire, Soph. Antig, 1007. It licks : Lith, 
* ugnis laizdo pro stog^,* at the roof; conf, tunga, tungal (p» 700); 
seven kindlings or seven tongues of flame, Colebr, Essays 1, 190, 
Jt snatches, filches : (freB/eiig, Beow. 3525; se f^r beoS peof, 
Ine 43, like Loki and the devil. It plays: tmkr hUr hiti, Sgem. 9**; 
leiki yfif logi ! 68^ Uikr yfir lindar-mcTi 192*; lacende \ig, EL 579. 
1111; lar (tire) super turrim saUit, Abbo do b. par, 1, 548. It 
tlies op like a red cock (p. 670) : den rothen halm zum giebel 



ftosjagen, Scliottel 1116^; der rothe hahti kräht ana dem dach, 
Firmen, 1, 292**; der gelbe hahn, yellow cock 1,208*; conf. blacan 
ffres, igois palHdi, Caedm. 231, 13; fire gUtters with seeds of 
gold, Holtzm. Ind. sag. 3, 194; faces aureas quatiant co^moM, 
Catall. 59, 92. It travels, ntgram viam habeua^ Bopp's Gl. 83*. 
Holtzm. 3, 194. In the Edda it is brother to the wind and sea; 
■o Sek. pävaka, fire, is lit. cleanser, fr. pü (Sappl. to 632, beg.), 
Bopp's Vocah 205, conf. Gramm. 126 (new ed. 213-6), and 
pavana, wind, is from the same root, Bopp (conf. Gramm. 124) | 
besides, fire is called vayusakhi, wind's companion. It flows : daz 
▼ior^dis, Livl. reimchr, 5956; in Holstein, when a fire breaks out, 
they call it hot rain, Schütze 4, 340 ; and the ON. hripu^r, fire, 
Saem. 40* seems to be fr. hripa, perfluere. 

There was a time when fire was unknown, for the gfiants have 
none (SoppL to 530) : ' fiure was in tiure ' dear, scarce, to them, 
Gadr. IM, 1. That time is still remembered in Kalevala 16, 
247-S (Castren 1, 195) and oar nursery tales. Fire belonged to 
the gods ; it was stolen by Prometheus, and given to men. Ace. 
to a Finn, song it is created : an eagle sti'ikes a fire for Wäinä- 
möinen, Petersb. Extract 8. Other traditions make a lUth bird 
(reblo, troglodyte) bring it from heaven, Pluquet p. 44, Bosquet 
220. A contrast to the fireless time is the Dan. arild-tid, fr. 
arild, fireplace (ild, fire), Swed. aril, focus, Westg, arell^ Helsing* 

p. 603.] Fire is holy : igtds sacer meant lightning, Amm. 
Marcell. 23, 5 ; conf. igne felici, Grotef. Umbr. 7, 5. Fire is 
called sacrifice-eater^ Holtzm. Ind. s. 1, 24-6, and four times iu 
Bopp's Gl. 401''; eldr sä er aldri sloknaÖ'l was called vtgiTan eld^ 
Landn. ed, no v. p. 336. Being often found a hostile power, it 
was used in cursing, or was conjured by a spell. Other Fr» forms 
of cursing are : male flambe t'arde / Ren. 20762 ; feu arde soti 
musel! Berte 116; conf. Holland to Yvain p. 222. The fire-cry 
in E. Gothland was : kiimbar elddr lös, Östg. lag 229. Fire^speUi 
are given in Mone's Anz. 7, 422-7. A fire is adjured in these 
words : ^ brand, stand als dem dode sein rechte hand ! ' be still as 
the dead man's hand. Wolfs Ztschr. 1, 337. If you can charm 
a fire, it jumps behind ißou wliile you do it, and you must run for 
your life (Meiniugen), Hpt'a Ztschr. 3, 363. Remigius jmts afir^ 
to flight, and locks it up^ Flodoardus 1, 12. White angels quencli 



a fire (Suppl to xliii. end, and to 3G6, Firö can be stifled with 

cloiheg that have been worn some /me, whereas in a Lutticb legend 
the earth- fire attacks some men who we&,r 7iew unwasheii smockü, 
aud 13 flogged with ropes, rods and Bticka, WolPs NdrK a, no» 407. 
To au outbreak of helle-viur, which cannot be stamped out, you 
must sacrifice a knight in gorgeous array, Ksrchr, 1 ] 38-41 . 1 160 — 
72, 1229; he tries while on horneback to »peaJc attmj the fire, 
but falla and breaka his neck, Der Causenmacher, a play, Leipz. 
1701, p* 152-6| and pref* A fire put out by means of a horaet 
Thiir. Ztschr. 2, 505. To extinguish a fire, a woman in childbed, 
whoso feet must not touch the graund, is carried to the fire, and 
utteriüg mystic gpells throws a 7iem-baked loaf into the flames 
(Austria). On quenching fires and driving out cattle, see Tettaa 
and Temrae^s Pr. sag. 263. There are people who see a fire hum' 
inif beforehand : you must then kike out the beam they indicate, 
or conjure the fire mto an oak with a bung, Miillenh* p. 570. 
Oaaittn speaks of pulling out oaks, so ih&tjire ffprings out of them» 

Fires leap mtt of the ground like water, Paus, ii, 34, 2 : ein 

loichel vüwer sich truoc ttf {uz ?) der erden mimde (mouth), Pass. 
>9, 58 ; als viarin urspriuge (fiery springs) d& waeren enspruugen, 
Lanz. 2590. Burning mountain« may be seen on seals of the 
14th cent», MsH. 4, 280% conf. Pgrmont, Brennenherg, Fire 
struck out of a helmet may be caught on a schoup (truss of rye). 
Er. 9206. Eggs put out fire : *holt lescid van eta, w&di ne bren- 
Dtd'; ovorum autem tantam vim esse dicunt, ut lignum eis 
perfusum nou ardeat, ac ne vest is quidem contacta aduratur, Gl. 
Argen tor. Diut. 2, 194** Milk, camel's milk qaenches fire, Ferabr* 

p, 603*] The Indiana had three sorts of fire : common, celestial, 
frictile, Holtzm. Ind. s. 8, 112. lu Oegir's hall was * lysi-guil 
fyrir elds4i6&,* Saam. 59 < Out of helmets and swords came fire 
and light: ob in des fiures zerinnet (when short of fire), daz 
kunnen aie wol suochen in helni-spange, Tit* 3222 ; among the 
Aaes tlje sword gives light, Sn, 79 ; it shines in the dark, Landn. 
1, 5; 'sin swert hiez si in bar nemen sunder stu gewanfc . . . 
daz er^z mit im naeme, su 'r iu dio helle quaeme, in die vinster- 
aisse, daz er im gewisse dAmite litihten solde,^ En. 2858 (she 
bids Aeneas take his 7iaked sword, that when be came into hell's 
darkness, he should light him therewith). Yirgii, it is true, 



makes Aeneas draw his sword (vi. 260. 291), bnfc not to give 
light. Again: ^zuch hervor din swert, di\ trage 'z m diner hand 
bar, iinde liithte dir dAmite * 3172. Nothing of the kind in Vir- 
gil. Flint-eld is struck over cattle, DybecVs Rima *44, 7. If 

sparks fly out of a beam that is being hewn, it betokens fire to - 
the house into which it is built, Miillenh. p. 570. 

p. 607.] Wildfire is described in Miede's Hasenmelker p. 43» 
Need G re must be rubbed by two brothers, or at leasfc two men of 
the same Christian name, (Fischer's) bach vom Abergh, Leipz. 
1791 J p. 177, Some new facts are colL by Colshorn 231-2. 
850-1. The Mecklenbg custom is described by Lisch 6\ J27j 
that of the Moravian shepherds by Kulda (d'Elv.) 123-4. A 
giant rubs fire out of stones, Eother 1041 (ace. to two readings). 
The noiten held on Midsum. Night, and twice mentioned in the 
Acct bk of Frankfort city, yr 1374, points to the supposed root 

p. 608.] Swed. accounts of gnid-eld (rubbed fire) run thua : 
' Genom giddeld tagen i en ekesticke {piece of oak) fraii ett snore ^ 
(string) som sä liinge dragits fram och ater {pulled to and fro) i 
en has-dorr, till-dess det blifvit antandt (kindled) j och derefter 
3 ganger ansyls ford omkring personen, samt med ett serdelea 
formuUir siguad, berokas och botassjuka kreatur (cattle besmoked 
and cured).' Again: 'For samma andamal bor ras hal (hole 
bored) uti en ek, hvaruti genom en pinne ehl (pudes, dermed 
antändes 9 sUkjh tnid, Öfver hvilken kreaturen bora gä ' ; con f. 
Suppl to 1089 (?). 

p* 609.] Cows or calves are sacrif» elsewhere too, to protect 
the herd from plague: ' Nar kalfvorne mycket bordo, skall man 
valdsiimt fatta an vid hufvudet framslilppa houom ifnm kjötten, 
och honom verkeligen hals-hugga öfver fähu-sträskeln,' ßfiüf, A 
Um com is buried in the ground against murrain, Wieselgr. 409 ; 
or one of ike herd under the stable-door (p. 1142) ; conf. WolPs 
March, p. 327, where a cow^s head is cut off and laid in the loft 
(seep. 1188). 

p* 610.] In Ssk. needßre or wildfire is called rub-fire, and is 
produced by rubbing a male and a female stick together, Böhtling 
1, 522, conf, 1, 404, Ace. to Kuhn'a Rec. d. Rigv. p. 98, it is 
rubbed out of the amni (premna spinosa). Holtzm. Ind, s* 3, 12- ; 
is this the aihvatundi? Weber's Ind, stud. 2, 4 says it comes 



out of Pmnava, the bow and arrow of self (the lotus-flower). The 
Arabs call the old-fashioDed fire-rubbing sticks zend and zendet, 
the first being the upper and male^ the second the female or lower 
one with the hole iu it ; striking steel and stooe together is 
reckoned a barbarism, Rückert^s Hariri 1, 648-9. Finn, hela- 
valkya {fr» hela, the spring festival), ignis nou ex silice, sed ex 

'lignis duobus vi confricatia elicitusj also hitkan-valkyaj rub-firej 
Benvall 1, 64. 

p. 61 L] A jyerpeiualfire was kept up by the Israelites^ Levit. 

6, 12-3; and is still by Parseea and Guebersj as among the 

ancient Persians, Such a fire burned on the altar of Athena 

?olias at Athens, Paus, i, 26^ 7, and in the temple of Pan in Ar- 

Peadia^ viii. 37, 8. Famous oracles maintained ever-burning fires, 
as that of Delphi, whose priests in time of war conveyed the sacred 
flame to Platasa, Pint. Nu ma cap. 9 ; conf. Valckeuaer on Herod, 
6, 108 ; so the fires of Dolos were carried to Lemnos^ Welcker'a 
Aeschyh Trilog. p. 247 seq. We know the undying fire of Hestia^ 
Vesta. Colonies took iheir sacred fire with them from the mother- 
city; if it happened to go out, there alone could they light it 

■again, Larcher on Herod, I, no. 360. Wachsm. Hell, alterth. i. 1, 
102. ii. 2, 118. Munter's Hel. d. Garth, p. 49. The Samogitrans 
nourished a perpetual fire, Lasicz. 56, On the eternal bnnp in 
the worship of Mary, see Lange's Abh. v. d, ewigen lampe (Verm, 
»Chr., Leipz. 1832) pp, 191— 20 k 

p. 614.] Tolaud^B Hist, of Druids (quoted m Hone's Yrbk 876 
aeq.) supposes three beaUines in the year. May I, Midsum. eve, 
Nov. L The first of May and of Nov* wore called belian, says 

^Vülemarqu^'s Bardes Bretons p. 386-7. GDS, 108. On Bel, 
I Diefenb. Celt 1, 185, Stokes 349. Jamieson (Daybk 2, 659). 
The great and little Bel^ Meier^s Schwab, sag. 297. On Beltaine, 
Bdtoii eve, see Stewart's Pop. superst. 258 seq. Brand's Pop, 
Antiq. 1, 337. Stokes 349. Michelet 1, 452 seq. Ir. sag. u, 
march. 1, 275-6. 2, 479. The May fire is also called koelkm, 
coelcerih, Villem. B,B* 232. 385-6-7, but he does not explain the 

word^ elsewh. cod is omeo, fides, and eerth signum. An Ar- 

moric folk-song speaks of eight fires, and of the father-fira being 
lighted in May, Villem. Barzaa braiz 1,8; Hone's Daybk 2, 659. 
866 puts the chief fire on Midsum. Day. Samhhuinn means Nov, 1 
(O'Brien; samhaiun^ Allliallows-tide). The Druidic November- 



fire was also called tlachdgka, tine tlaclidglia, O^Briea sub v. 
Tlie sacred fires are thus described in O'Connor's Proleg. 1, 24: 
'duos ignes splendentes faciebant druidae cum incantaimiibus 
magnis supra eis, et ducebant greges quo« cogebant transire 
per eos igftes*; conf. O'Brien sub v. bealtiue. Horses* heads were 
thrown into the May-firö in Ireland, Honeys Dajbk 2, 595 (as 
into the Midsum. fire in Germany, p. 618). 

p. 617,] On Easter -fires J coof, Woesfc© p. 288; ä&iosterfür an- 
boiten, J. v, Scheppan's Oster-pred. p» 8 ; das ostti^maen-htchten 
in Wibter-marschj MüUenh. p* 168. Even in S. Germany, e.g. 
abont Abensberg in Lower Bavaria, tbey used at Easter time to 
burn the östei^mann. After service at church a fellow lighted a 
candle, ran out into the fields with it, and set the straw Easter- 
man on fire. A Paderborn edicfc of 1781 abolished the Easter» 
fire, WigainVs Pad, and Corv. 3, 28 L 1, 317, Instead of hacks- 
thorn (p. 616 n,), Groten's Gesch. v. Northeim 1723, p. 7 says: 
' On this hill the hocks-horti was held within the memory of man/ 
The Easter squirrel-himt in the Harz (p. 61ö) reminds of the 
Lay of Igor (Hanka p. 6ö), where every householder pays a 
squirrel by way of tax. Akin to Easter-fires are the Walbvrgs 
(Mayday) /re«, Mullenh. p. 168 : in Rügen, on Mayday eve, took 
place a molkentoverschen hernen with fire-bladders (p. 1072 n.), 
conf. Osnabr. verein 3, 229 ; on the Hnndsinick the young mea 
and boys are allowed to cut wood in the forest on St. Walburg'g 
eve, Weisth. 2, 168. 

p. 620.] The soUstiilum is in Homer rpowv^ ^eXioio, Od, 15, 
404; afi(f>i depivas rpoira^^ Procop. B. Gotb, 2, 13 ; afit^l rpoTra? 
^€tfieptpd<: 3, 27. The Bavar. records have sunwenden, sunhenden, 
the Alemau, sun^ihten : ' ze sungihten,' Weiath. Ip 293. 304. 
316—8; Ee s ingeht 1,325; nach sungehten 1, 669; ze sttiigideni 
1, 322-3; zu sungihie 1, 708 ; zu slngihien 1, 745 ; singiht-tag 1, 
727; suiigtht'tag 1, 669; singehtag, NamenbuchL p. 114. Tli© ' 
AS. siingiht, solatitium, stands in Menolog, for June 24 ; Scbilter 
on Konigah. p. 458 has the whole passage. MHG. drt tage vor , 
snnegihteji, Lanz. 7051 ; conf, heite-gaht, N. Cap. 46, kirch-g iht 
(-going, Oberlin). — — Vor der sunnewejiden^ Bamb. rehfc. ed. 
Zopfl 154; ' hiute ist der aht« tao nach simewenden, di sol daz 
jarzit enden.' Iw. 2940. 

Midsummer was a great time for meetings and merrymakings : 



*ze einen sunewefiden da Sifrifc riiters namen gewan/ Nib. 32, 4 ; 
* vor disen suiiewmiden ' Siegfried and Kriemliilt visit Worms 
670, 3. 694, 3 ; and it is during the wedding festivities at Mid- 
sammer that Siegfi'ied is killedj as raay be fairly inferred, if it is 
not expressed. The wedding in the Heunenland is to take place 
'zen naehsten sunewejideiir * 1424, 4; and the heroes arrive at 
Etzel's court 'an sunewendeii dbent' 1754, L On Midsmn. day 
the Zurich people carry their hot pottage over the water to 

Strassburg, Gliickh. schiflF, v. 194 seq.- On Himwend-ßreSf see 

Panz. Beitr. 1, 210 seq. Sunwenfc was corrup, into summit, 
»trmnet'/eur, Leopr. 182 ; Mimenifeuer, H. Sachs 1, 423''; som-fner- 
feUTj Albertini's Narrenhatz 100; S. JohannU-furh^ Germ. 1, 
442, A sage remark on the sonwend-fire in Firmen. 2, 703 ; 
feuta hupfa z* Johanne, Schnegraf der wtildler p, 31. Always a 
lad and lass together« in conples, jump over the fire, Leopr, 183 ; 
some wantonly push others in, and spread their coat over the hot 
coals^ Gesch. v. Gaustall (Bamb. ver. 8, 112). At Vienna, com- 
mon women, loose girls, danced at the Midsum. fire, Schlager's 
Wiener skizzen 1, 270. 5, 352. Fienj wheels are driven in 
Tyrol and Hungary, Wolf's Ztschr. 1, 286-7. 270-1, and in Aus- 
tria, Duller p. 46^7 ; conf, the joy- fires of Swiss herdsmen in the 
Pö«fer-nights, Staid 1, 209, 210, Prohibitions of the Midsura. 
fire, Kaltenback's Pan laid. 98^ 104\ 

p, 624.] On Engl, bonßree, see Hone's Daybk 1, 827. 846, 
851-2. Brand 1, 299 seq. In Prance embers taken home from 
a John's- fire, in Eu gland any live coals are a protection against 
magic. Hone's Yrbk 1553. Brising, the Nor weg. for Midsura. 
fir66| may be akin to bris — flam ma, brisa = flaramare (Aasen), conf, 
braaa, our prasseln, to crackle* Midsum, fires flamed in Sweden 
too, 9 sorts of wood being used, and 9 sorts of flowers picked 
for posies, Runa *44, p. 22. Wieselgr, 411. In Spain they 
gathered verbenas in the dawn of St. John's day, and lighted 
fires, over which they leapt, Handbk of Sp. 1, 270^ A St. John's 
fire in Portugal is descr. in the Jrb. d. Berl. sprachges. 8, 373» 
' John's folk * is what the Letts cal[ those who bring Jolm's- 
wort (hypericum, and raggana kauli, witch's bones), and sing 
[»nga, Stender's Gram. p. 50, Diet, 85*; on St. John's morning 
'a wreath of flowers, or hawthorn, is hung over the doors, Fr. 
Michera fiaces maud« 2, 147. In Esthonia they liglit a John's 



fire, and gather a bundle of sweet-smelling herbs; tbese the girls 
put under their pillows, and what they dream comes true, Pos- 
sart's EsthL p, 172. On the Zohfcn-bei-g in Silesia (fr, Sobota, ' 
sabbath) the Slavs kept their 8obQiky, Schafarik 2, 407 of transL; 
it is also called * mens Slesie, mons czobothus/ conL Dietmar (ia ^ 
Pertz 5, 855). Moravia too has its Jahn^s fires, Kulda (in d'Elv) 
111-2, Plato de Legg. 19, 945 speaks of a festival following the 
summer solstice, 

p* 625,] To Ovid's picture of tho Palilia, add that of TibuUns 
ii. 5, 87 : 

at mad id us Baccho sua festa Pal ilia pastor 
concinet : a stahulis tunc procul este^ lupi ! 
ille levis »tijmfae solemn is potus aeervos 
accendei^ ßamnuiii iransUietque jfacras* 

p. 628.] In Christmas-fires, mark the practice of saving up 
the half-burnt yuJe-log, Gef ken's Cat. 56. Other fires are the 
Shrovdide fire^ Stalder 1, 356, and the so-called hoop-drivlng ^^ 
(burning wheel) in Up. Swabia on the first Sunday in Lentj tho^H 
N. Frisian biikm-hrennen on Febr. 22j see Miillenk p. 167. 

p. 630.] Old examples of illumination : J ok Chrys. Or, in red* 
Flaviani c. 4 : orrep ovv iTroiijtrare aT€<f>avü}<TavTe^ rijp wyopav 
Kal \v)(yöv^ äx/rapTe?. Greg, Naz. Or. de red. Athanasii 21 p. 

391 ; eÄ X€^€W . . . iraaav ^cöt! xaTaarpaTrrofiivTjv woXiv^ 
Choricii Gazaei Orr., ed. Boissonade ^46 p. 101 : atc^veai Se 
^oiTo? elpyacfiivoi^ €v<pf}fioujj.€v rot/? €V€pyiTa<;, splendida fuit 
illumination mos is fuit veterum diebus laetis ac festis. Ann. 
Worm. 1251 (Böhm. Font. 2, 168): regem incejisls cmidelis et 
campanis pulsatis siogulis diobus festivia denunciare. Tree» 
of candles were carried in processions, Liinzel's Stiftsfehde 
135-6. 279; vil liehtes gap M manec rone, TurL WL 99*» 
(conf. Seem. 22^: med hrennandom liosovi oc bornom vi&i). The 
Ksrchr, 91 has b7*innende olvaz. Walth. 28, 14 speaks only of 
ringing bells : ir w erden t h6b enpfangeuj ir sit wol wert daz wir 
die glogtjen gen iu lluten. 

3. AiE. 

p. 632.] Wind is in Ssk. ani!a = ävefios, also pavana, cleanser^ 
fr, pü, like pävaka, fire {Suppl. to 602). So in Finn, tuull ventuSj 







iuU ignis; conf, * des fiiiwers mni* Gudr* 499, 2, and viwer-roter 
wint. Nib. 1999, 2. An OHG. suep^ndr, Graff 6, 856, ON. svif 
= motiis repentinus, vibratio. As W6dan is the all-pervading 
SDther, Zeus is eqniv, to oer: aijp hv av rt^ ovQ^dtrste teal Aia^ 
Frag. Philem» in Meiaeke 4j 32 (Etiripides has aether for Zeus). 
In Latin also, Jupiter stands for acp, Valcken. ad Herod. 2, 13; 
conf. 'plnrimus Jupiter — m\ch\\ Infi* air, GI. Sletst. 6, 467 j 
and Servius ad Aen. 1, 51 says Juno was taken to mean air. 
The Greeks sacrijiced to Boreas, Xen. Anab. (Koch 92), The 
Scythians worship apefiof; as cause of life, and the sword as that 
of death, Lucian's Tox. 38. GDS. 222. 459. The Finns call a 
fiaXaKia (calm) Wäinämöinen's way, Väinämölsen tie or kulku: 
the god has walked^ and all is hushed; he is named Suvajitolaitien 
fn suvanto, locus ubi aqua quiescit. The Norse Andoari is a 
dfrarf, but also ventua lenis, contrarius ; conf. Bifltäfi, ojilcabyrr 
(pp. 149. 637), Wüetelgüz (p. 367 n.), Jjoden (SuppL to 132 end). 
In the Mid. Ages Paal and John * habent d& ze himile weteres 
gewalt,^ Ksrchr/ 1 0943 ; they are the weather-lords, and their 

day (June 26) the haiUholiday, Scheff Hattaus 111. Walt- 

UHnf = auster. Moneys Anz. 8, 409, because it originates in the 
forest. The winds have a home : Vindheim vtSan byggja, Saöm* 
10 \ Winf, Wintj^öz, Wintesbiü? are prop, names, Graff 1, 624. 
Wind is the windhund (greyhound), Kuhn in Hpt^s Ztschr, 6, 
131, as Donner, Sturm are names of dogs. Wind is worshipped : 
* des solt der Infi sin geret (air be honoured) von spers krache,' 
Tit 2, 2 ; 'er neic gegen dem winde der da w&te von Gofcliude,' 
bowed to the wind that blew fr, G., Helmbr. 461 ; ' Bt& bt, Ik 
mich den xvint anwaejen (let the wind fan me), der kumt von 
mines herzen küneginnen,* MS* 1, 6^ Wind is spoken of as a 
person, it joe«, ifiand$ §tiU: spiritua ubi vuU spirat, 'der wint 
wneje als er welle/ blow as he would, Bari. 257, 11 ; *vluch (flew) 
waer die wint gheböt/ bade, MaerL in Kästner 18^. Winds ride, 
Ahlw. on Oiaian 2, 278. They guide people: 'quel vent voa 
gute?' Ben. 2127. 3728; 'quel vent vos maine?' 2675; * quel 
L vent vos metie et quel ore?' 2654 = whence come you? conf. 

■ 'what devil^ mckoo brings you here?' (p. 1013). They are 
I wnW, Trist. 2415. Greg. 646. 754. Renn. 22962; angry: 
I erviimei sind die lüfte,' Dietr* u. ges« 393 ; ' die liifte solden 
I züm^i* at the height of the towers, Servat* 84. The air groans, 

■ VOL. IV. Q 




mutters, gruDta : ' grtinzet tone ungewitere/ N. Cap. 58 ; ' grdfc 
wint ende ^esoech,' Lane. 3899 j 'die winde begiioden swegelen,* 
began to pipe, Servat. 3233 ; conf, ' up dem windea hom€f' 
Weisth, 3, 231. On Fönn, Drifa, Miöll, see GDS. 685. 

p. 632.] Of the wind's bride ; mifc einer windes-brittte wurden 
sie getwuDgen, Servat 2302; in nam ein windes-hrüt 2844 j 
äugen vaster dan ein w, 6., Engelh. 4771 ; daz diii w, b. gelit, 
Hpt's Ztschr, 7, 381; gelich der tmndesbriuie, Troj. kr. 33571, 
Lather says wind^braiit for ventas typhonicus, Acts 27, 14. Old 
glosses have nimphiiSf nimpha, storm wind, ürafE 1, 625 ; is thia 
a misapplication of nimbus ? or a congener ? lu France they 
speak of the whining of Mehisine (p. 434), who in Bohemia passes 
for a goddess of wind, and to whom they throw floor out of the 
window for her children {Suppl. to 636) ; conf the whimpering 
of the Vila, and the weepiog of the Esth. tuuleetna, wind'a 
mother, Bocler 146-7, Is the Swiss harein, St^ld. 2, 21, fr. 
OHG, harßn — clamare, Graff 4, 578, or fr, chan>n — queri 5, 465? 

Other expressions for wind's bride: whid-gelle — yenti pellex 

(snd-gelle), Hpt's Ztschr. 6, 290. Rocholz 2, 408 ; Bavar, wmti- 
gagperl, Swab, wind-glispehj Leopr. 101. 120; Bavar. windsch^ 
brach, -hrausz, Panz, Beitr, 2, 209; sau-Jcegel^ Koeholz 2, 187, 
OHG, wanda = turho, Graff 1, 761; ON* roka, turbo. Other 
OHG. terms: wtf^iVinomi^strepitus (MHG, tm^e^^Mm, vehementia 
aeris, Superst. H* cap. 77) ; migewitiTi — tempesfcas, procella, 
Graff 1, 630; arapeii = do^ do. Ij 407 ; fcei/ifi = teinpesta3, Wiadb* 
308. 313; u?yri — procelkj tempestas, AS. ml; with treip = s^gehskt 
(nubila ventus), Graff 5, 482, conf. ON- drtfa^ snowstorm, dH/a 
örva, a storm of arrows.— — Heralds of winter were ' twer und 
sürin hise/ MS. 2, 193^; contrary wind ia in MH6. twer or (were, 
and ON. And-pvari^ Avdvari is said to be that as well as a 
dwarf's name; conf. ^von luftes geduere/ Himelr. 292 (Hpt's 
Ztschr. 8, 153), ' die winde sluogen in miiwer/ Hpt 7, 378-9. A 
hurricane, squall, flaw, is called ßäge in Pass, and Jeroschtn ; 
windea vldgen, Marienleg. 84,21. 87,8; die wint ene vlaghe 
brachte, Rose 13151, Maerl 3, 189; Dut. vlawg, Gothl. flagä, 
vindflagä, Almqvist 422**; Gotten und Sturmwinde,^ Luther's 
Letters 5, 155, In Slavic it is vikhr, PoL wicher, Boh, wichr; 
Lith. ummaras, vestdag, whirlwind (conf. our provinc. ' eilung,* 
M. Neth. ylinge, Wessers Bibel p. 7, with ON. 61, jel, nimbus). 



The Greeks had aeWa, OveXXa, XatXayfr, Ital. fortuna di itiare = 

p. 633.] Zlo resetnbleB Mars and Indras^ the god of winds and 
of soals, who with hia Martits or spirits of storm makes war on 
the giants of darkness, Hpt*s Ztschr, 5, 488-9. 6, 13L Wuotan, 
the god of the Wild Hunt^ sweeps like the storm through 
crpan doors (p. 926-7, etc.). Hodeke howls (SnppL to 511 beg.). 
Both wind's bride and devil are called sow-iaü (p* 996) or hammer 

_ (p. 999): conf. sau-ke(jel, Rochola 2, 187; in Bavaria wind-aau, 

I Zingerle's Oswalt 83 {avyi^, goatskin, hurricane), Fran Fiuh or 

I Frick also acts as goddess of wind, Hpt'a Ztschr, 5, 376, 6, 131 ; 

I conf. the fahrende tnuiter, WolPa Ndrl. sag, no. 518, At a 

I village near Passaii they call the whirlwind mueml^ annty ; 

I 'mueml ist drin I ' (m, is also toad); or else schratlj Scbm. 3, 

I 519. 522, The hnrricaoe has hands: ' nn bin ich starmwinden 

I alrSrst m die hant gevarn/ f alien j Triat. 8848. 

I p. 635.] Was there a wind named Vorwitz (prnrient cariosity) f 

^^H, do kam ein wint geflogen dar, 

^^^^ der ist virwitz genanti 

^^^B in h^nt die meide wol erkant 

^^H- nnde onch die vronwen über alle lant. Renn. 84. 

^^B B&n kumt her virwitz gerant 

nnd loeset den meiden uf (unlooses) diu baut. Bonn. 268. ^ 

Conf. ' der fm*wiit, so jangfern theuer machet,' Simplic. 1, 568 ; 

* hine fyrmt brmc/ Beow, 464. 3966, 5565; vurwitz segetis, Turl. 
Wh, 128» (Suppl. to 273 n.) ; 's sticht's der wimdenaitz, Hebel 
157; fürwitz, der krämer (bnckster), Uhl, Volksl. 636, OHG- 

ßriwizi is also portentnmj mirificum, GraflTl, 1099; 'man saget 

mir von kinde, daz kerne uns von dem winde/ Erlösung 2440, 

As the North had its storm-giant Hrseavelg, KL Grooth's Quick- 
bom calls a tempest ' de grote und de liitge windkerl ' ; conf. 

* Ooit flieget den wind/ Rabenschi. 619; * der Gotes geist daz 

(saz?) öf des luftes vederenj Aneg, Hahn 4^ 72, AhXo^, if>iXQ^ 

affaparoiai ßeolai. Od, 10^ 2 ; tceipov yap rafjilffv ävi^mv Trotvia'f 

Kpopttap, 10, 21. Virgil's ^olus sits in a hollow mountain, and 

Jano begs wind of him^ JEn, l, 52, 64; conf* KM, no, 89 : 'weh', 

weh*, windchen ! * blow, blow, Windie. 

^ Coni. \vfft*ltiivot, (i^r X(y<xr. Tibi (Hymenaee) Tirgine« zonuU boIfohI iiaoi* 
G»ttm. 59, 68 ; ftooam »olver« Tirgiaeam 05» 38. 



Eagles were 6xed on gables or the top of a tent pretty often T^ 
le grant tref Karlemaine font contremont lever, 
par desor le pomel font Vaigle d'or poser, 
par devera Montaaban en ßst le obief tomer. 

Renalis 151, 2 — ^. 

A golden eagle on tbe top of the castle, Auberi 73 j high on the 
tent ^ein gnldin ar^^ En. 9160. On the inroad of the 'Welschen ' 
in 978j conf. Giesebre<3ht'9 Otto II, p. 48. In Kalevala, torn. 
2, 12 (1 ed. 17,341): 

da nain brn, min sköna fogel, 

Täüd (turn) ät annat hall ditt hafimd (head), 

tillslnt (shut) dina skarpa ogon 1 

A golden eagle on the roof in Athenaeas 2, 259 ; and observe, 
that aero^ is both eagle and gable. The Basque egoa, south 
windj is akin to egoa, egaa, egala, wing, Pott 2, 190. In Goethe, 
winds wave their noiseless wings. Thunder-clouds are also 
likened to the wide-spreading root of a tree, and called wind- 
wtirzel (-root), a sign of hurricane, Schmidt v. Werneuchen 131. 

p. 636.] The wind isfed with rags or tow, which is thrown to 
it, Leopr. 102. In Austria too they offer meal in a bread-shovel 
out of the *attic window to the storm^ saying (Popovitch sub y* 
wind) : 

• nimm hin, mein lieber wind, 

trag heim deinem weib und kindi 

und komm nimmer 1 

Instead of giving the wind food, a woman says * I*d rather stab 
the dog dead,' and throws a knife into the yard {p. 632 n.) ; conf. 
M, Koch's Beise in Tirol p. 87-8. Winds were thought of as 
meal-devouring dogs, Hpt's Ztschr* 5, 373-6. 6, 131 ; conf. 
Hodeke^s howling (Suppl. to 633), In a storm at sea a dove 
appears, flies three times roand the ship, one man puts out his 
arm and ' de cauda ejus ires tulit pennas, quas man intinguenaj 
tempestatem compescuit,' Yenant. Fortan, vita Hadegundis, Act 
Bened. sec. 1, p* 332. The Gr. dveWa snatches away. Od. 20j| 
63-6, like the Norweg. northwind. To hurtful winds bh 
lambs were sacrificed, to fair winds white, Aristoph, Ran, 843j 
Tirg. ^n, 3^ 120. For a fayoarable wind a he-goat is hung on 






the mast. Hone's Yrbk 1553. On Irish wind- worship, see Conan 

p. 687»] Divine, aemi-divine or diabolic beings excite wind" 
(Sappl. to 145) : Got flieget den wint, Brabenschl. 619; in Ser7. 
»OQgB God is implored for wind, Vuk ii. 56 L 1089. i. 369 (no. 
511). 370 (no. 513). 322 (no. 455) ; Christ is appealed to, Sv. 
viB. 2, 167. The saints invoked in a storm are called wazzer- 
heüige^ water-holies, Marienleg. p. 85 ; the martyrs Paul and 
John ' h&nt d4 ze himele weteres gewali/ Ksrchr. Diem. 335^ L 
Ser&wunc in Hpt's Zeitschr, 6, 290 seems the name of a weather- 
gjant; Fasolt chases a woman in the mountains^ Ecke 167j as 
Waotan does; conf. 'mein söhn Windkeini/ WolPs Ztschr. 1, 
31 L Is there a special meaning in ' der wint von Aspriäne doz/ 
whizzed^ Roth. 4226 ? ' Folks said it wasn't a natural wind, 
they believed there wasn't a tufel left in hell, they was all from 
home, trying to bluster us out of our wits/ StoUe 1 70 ; conf, 
'qael vent vos guie ' etc, (Suppl. to 632 end). Oxen with their 
boms dig the tempest out of a sand hill, Thiele 2, 257. Miillenh. 

p, 128. With Wodan oska^bi^rr conf. SuppL to 149. ON. %r, 

Dan. bor, fair wind. Low Germ, seamen's words are bo, a sud- 
den and passing squall, bol^jes wetter, donnerböf regettbö, hagslbö, 
Slav, buria == procella, Miklos. p. 6 ; Serv. bura. Buss, burdn, 
hamcane, conf. ßopim. Boreas helps the Greeks^ Herod. 7, 189, 
Od Juno, see SuppL to 632 beg. Can 05in's name of ViSrir be 
akin to AS. kwiSa, Ai£Teocfa = anra lenia, Aiüeotfrtajt^murmurare ? 
The Slav, pOijoda is in Lith. pagada, fair wind, fair weather. 
Mist in ON, is called kerlingar veUa, nebula humi repens. 

p. 639.] With the provisions of the Ler Visigoth., conf. the 
lodtcalns Saperstit. (in Pertz 3, 20) de tempestatibus and corni-^ 
bus ©t cocleis, and the passage fr. Seneca in Wolf's Ndrl. sag. 
p. 693 about ^aXafo-i^uXa/te?, hail-wardens; iv Ferai^ y^aXa^av 
18 aaid of Zeusi, Lucian 7, 51. 

p. 640.] The passage fr. Bartholom. Anglicus is also in Hpt^s 
Ztschr. 4, 494-5, where Wackernagel understands Winlaudia as 
Pinlandia; and it is true the Finns are said to m^ke fiölkyngveÖ'r, 
Fomoi. sog. 4f 44. In a Lapland epos a maiden has three sorts 
of magic kiwis ; she unties the first, wind fills the sails and the 
ship gets under way; then the second and the third, followed by 
atorm and shipwreck; conf. Klemm 3^ 100. Such wind-knots a 



woman on the Schlei and a witch of Führ know how to make^ 
Miillenh. p. 222-5 ; conf the sailor's belief about wind in Temme*» 
Pom. sag. 347-8, and the Hollen in Gefken's Catal. p, 55. In 
Gerras. Tilb, p. 972 ed, Leibn. (Liebrecht p. 21), is a storj *de 
vento ehirothecae Archiepiscopi Arelatensis incluso, et valli veotis 
imperviae illato/ 

p, 641.] The oo-zco? of .^^lus. Od, 10, 19, is also in Ofid's 
Met, 14, 224; .^Eolon Hippotaden, cohibentem carcere ventos, 
hoins inclusos tergo ; and 14, 230: dempaiase ligamioa ventis- 
Eight whirlwinds are hidden in a cap, Schiefner's Finn, in- p. 611 
[a formidable ' capful of wind ']. Conf. mitlng the cap this way 
or that in Sommer p. 30-1, and Hätchen, Hodehe. 

p* 641.] Mail ia called in Ind. maniiphiila, fruit of the Maruts, 
Hpt*8 Ztschr. 5, 489 ; an ON, name for it is siein-o^i, in saxa 
«aeviena, Egilss. 600^ an OHG. apparently scrdivunc, Hpt 6^ 290- 
On fnilikw, conf* Schmeller 2, 567. Ace. to Jungm, 1,56^ fca% 
(grannies) are clouds heaped up like hills. Our people ascribe 
the rising of mountain mist not to animals alone; at the Kif* 
hauser they say : ' Oho, Kaiser Friedrich w hrewingj there'll be 
soft weather/ Pnetor. Alectr. pp. 69, 70, 

p. 64L] To the Greeks it was Zeas that shed the siww, II. 12^ 
280-1 ; €vi<j>€y i Zevi, Babr. 45, L *Die toren (fools) sprechent 
{in winter) ßnia sni! ' Walth> 76, L 

4. Earth, 

p. 642.] Ssk. dhara, Gr. %ci/>a, Bopp's Comp. Gr, p. 304. Irl 
iir, LaL terra, 'akin to torreo, and eignif. the dry/ Pott 1, 270- 
Another Ssk* word is kgham, Bopp^s GL 92*. ON, kauÖ^r, neut*, 
Saem. 120-6-7. Goth, grimdug fr, grindan, as our mel, malm^ 
molto (meal, dust, mould) are fr. malan; schölle grund, Ph. v. 

Sittew. 601. Epithets applied to the earth's outside : daz preita 

Musp. 63; sid folde, Ciedm, 154, 5; on rümre foldan, 
25; evpelax^f^y, conf. Wh. GO, 2S, Altd. bl. 1, 388. 
if der scibligen (round) erde^ Diemer 214, 23 ; flf 
«, Mar. 157, 39; din vinster erde. Tit. 5120; in 
93, 10; urn ein wenig rothe erde, Simpl. 1, 
n» 13, 3; Guds grona jord, Sv. folks. 
in Marcellus no. 24 mean grassy? 
But the Earth ia also Uebe Qvde, 






Schweinichen 1, 104 ; din meze erde, Wernher v» Ndrrh. 35, 9 ; 
hinforTta fold, Saem» 55**; 'sieht wio die heiluj erd/ looks (black) 
as earth, H. Sachs v, 368\ coüf. (Itto ya^ ayia^i, Athen. 3, 494 j 
Swed. ' Ouds grona jord/' our * Gottes boden/ Chapbk of Hum, 
Siegfr., Pol. maulaffe p. 231, Weisen's Coni, probe 39; we say 
* Hide in Qod^s earth for shame I ' Dying is called ze gründe 
gän ; conf. ' daz ich bezite werde dir gelick/ soon be like thee, 
Wh. 60, 28; 'sich aus dem staabe maoheii/ make oneself out of 

the dust, scarce. The earth will take in liquids : fold seal viiS 

flftdi taka, Saem, 27''; but * hliiot beuiraet (robs) der erde dea 
magehu>fn,^ maidenhood. Mos. 10, 28 ; dannoch was diu erde ein 
machet y Parz, 464, 13. Earth bears not on her breast the man of 
blood: 'ja solte mich diu erde umbe dis mort nibt en-tragen/ 
Ecke 143 ; ' mich wundert daz mich dia erde geruochet tragen/ 
»till deigns to bear, Greg. 2511; *den diu erde niht soldo tra/jen/ 
Wackern. lb. 588, 3. Strieker's Klage 38 ; conf. ' daz iuch die 
erde niht rershifit/ swallowed. Warn. 3203; ' terre, car ottvrez, 
m reecig moi chaitis! ' Garin 2, 263 ; ' heald }a nn hrdse ! ^ Beow. 
4489. So the witch may not touch the bare earth (p, 1074), holy 
water must not touch the ground (Suppl, to 587) ; whereas to the 
saint she offers herself as a seat : ' diu erde nihi eii-doUe daz er 
büge sin gebeine (tholed not that he bent his limbs), si bot sich 
her engeine^ daz er als uf einem stuole saz,' Servat. 1592. On 
earthquakes, see p. 816. Men confided secrets to the earth, 
Lot her u. Mail er 36-7 : 'si klagten so senliche, daz in daz ertriche 
möhte g'antwiirtet hftn/ would fain have answered them. Mat 44, 
21 ; they made their plaint to the stone, Liseh's MeckL jrb. 5, 100, 
Mullenb* p. 37, or told their tale to the ihad wall, Arnim's Miirch. 
1, 70. 

Much might be said on gold, silver, iron. To the Finns iron 
(raota, Lapp, route) is brother to water andßre, Kalev. 4, 29, and 
18 born of virgin's milk. There is liquid gold and milk in amrita 
(p. 317). Gold is called FroÖ^a miöl, Egilss. p. 450, 6gnarliomi = 
ooeani lumen, Saem. 152*, and munnßjlU or munnfal iotna^ Sn, 
88; conf. ' morgenstand h^t gold im mund,' though F.Magn. derives 
those words fr. mund = hand. Gold placed under a dumb woman's 
tongue makes her speak, Fornm. s. 8, 1 1 7 — 9 ; gold is tempered 
in dew, Tit. 3698 (Tigrisgold, 4348). On dragons' and griffins' 
gold, Bce pp. 978. 980. 



p. 643.] For Sek. Uma, Bopp id Gl 78*. 86** writes knSa 
I find a reincui-ni also in Hpt's Ztschr, 5, 364, rei«6^ra« = alga, i 
SnnaerL 54. Putting earth or turf on the head securea against, 
magio, Paoz. Beitr. 1, 240-1. Kiikn's Nord, s, p. 378. 

p. 644.] Emigrants took earth as well as fire oat with them 
(SappL to 611) ; conf. the strewing of earth in the Old Saxon 
legend. pdrhaddr var hofgo^i i pnlndheimi, hann f^stist til 
Islands, ok tök äSr ofan haßt, ok haf^i me"5 ser hoh-moldina ok 
sfllurnar, Landn. 4, 6. 

p. 644.] Demeter meets Jasion in the thrifallow^ the fmitfullest 
cornland : ßjtiyt} ^iXot^t* fcal €vvt) vei^ tvi rpiTroXt^, Od* 5, 1*27, 
conf. Hee, Theog. 971 and vcio? TptVaXo?, U. 18, 541 ; OHG. 
drUl-a, GDS. 53. 61-2, 

p. 645.] A mom sandus near Jugenheim is mentioned in a 
record of 126^4; conf. svetd <^(>ra = Mt Athos * an Spo^ Upov of 
tbe Get© named KayyaiMvov, Strabo 7, 298 ; a holy mount Öij/ciy^ 
in Pontus, Xen. Annb. iv, 7, IL The mountains named grand* 
father are discussed in Hpt*s Ztschr. 1, 26. Two adjacent moun^ 
tains in Lausitz are named by the Wends corny boh and hjefy hoh, 
black god^ white god, Wend, volksl. 2, 285» The Ossetea 
worship their highest moon tains (brakabseli, fair mountains}» 
Kohl*s S. Bnssia 1, 296. 

p. 645.] The notable passage on rack-wonhip in Landn, 2, 
1 2 is as follows : ^ hann (Thorolfr) hafSi svä mikinn dt^-nnaä ä 
fialU ^y% er stoS i nesinu, er hann kalladi HelgaJeU^ at )7äugut ^_ 
skyldi engi malSr opveginn lUa; ok svu var par mikil J riähelgi, ^H 
at ^T skjldj enga graoda i fiaUinu, hvarki fö ne monnum^ nema 
sialft gengi brott. pat var trua f^eirra porölfs fraenda, at yeir 
doei aUir i fialUi (al. codex : J?a j>eir dosij rouiidi }?eir ißaUit hverfa 
allir).* And 2, 16: * iiöföu mikinn diriinu^ a kolano — trft^u 
Jjeir ]?vt, at ]>eir t^tiei J hohma' (holl = tumulus, coll icuius) ; conf. 
' dijing {vanUhintj) into the mountaiuJ The Icelander Kodrau of 
Yatnsdal had a stone at Gi)ja, to which he and his fathers sacri- 
ficed ; they imagined the tlr-ma^r lived inside it, from whom 

fruitful years proceedod, Kristnisaga c. 2. Stones prtiphemj, 

Norske ev. no. 30 ; they are washed^ anointed^ honoured, F. Magu. 
Lex. p. 96 L When winds are contrary, sailors wash a blue itone, 
and obtain a fair wind ; they also take oaths upon it, Hone'a 
Yrbk 1553* People kned ttaked before the holy stone, Honest 



Daybk 1, 825. 2, 1035, Thej creep through hollow stones (p. 
1 166), they go ioto hollow rocks to present offerioga (p. 58) ; conf. 
the Gibichen*stoiies, the pottle-stones with pits and holes^ Gieaebr. 
Bait« stud* 12, 114, 128. 'De his quae faciuut super petras^ is 
the heading of cap. 7 of Indicul. Supersfc. On stone- worship among 

Celts, see Michelet 2, 16-7. In Swed. tales and spells a stone 

is always ^ jord-fasi sten/ one fixed in the earth, Runs '44, 22 ; 
ä iard/dstom steini st6^ ec innan dyra, Saem. 99* ; till en jord^ 
fasten sten, St. folks. 1, 217. Sv. äfventyr 1, 282-4-8, 305; 
AS. earSfaest. But we also hear of the * wahsender biihel,' grow- 
ing hill, Lanz. 5132 ; and a Slov. riddle, ' kai route bres korenia 
(what grows without root) V has the answer ' kamtm/ stone, A 
distinction is also drawn between walgende and vaste-ligende 
tteine, Leyser 129, 35; usque ad wagoden Bteiiif Mon, ZolL no. 
1, wagoftden stein, no. 12 ; gnappstein, Stalder 2, 519; Dan, roJcke- 
itene, Schreiber's Feen 21. These stones by their rocking are 
said to bring on ikundsr and ram, 0. Müller 2, 340. Stones are 
often landmarks : zu dem grawen stein, Weisth. 1, 242, an dem 
blauen stein 2, 661. 

p. 646.] Giants and men turn into stone (p. 551*2) ; stones 
have sense and feeling. It is true we say 'stone-deaf, stone- 
dead/ stille sam die steine, Karl 92'', 94», and Otfried ir. 7, 4 
calla them unlhrdie^ P»gn; yet in Luke 19, 40 'the stones would 
cry out;' the stone hold« fast, Müllenh, p. 142-3. The pierte* 
de mintiit move at midnight, conf. the turning -stones in the Ir, 
march» 2, 37 — 44; the stone turns round on Christmas night, 
Harrys 1 no, 34 (conf, Heusinger p. 20), or when bells ring, 
Dybeck 4, 43, Men complain to stones as they do to earth (p, 
642) and fire (p. 629), as if to elemental gods. The stone yon 
complain to changes colour, the white turns red, the red blue, 
Wächter^» Statistik pp. 13. 156. * Si klagten, daz sich die 
milrsteine mohten kliehen herdan,' Klag© 977 (so: * si ruoften, 
das din erde unter in sich mehto haben of getan,' opened under 
them 1073) ; ' stahel, vUns u. stein sih muosen von dem jämer 
kliebcn,^ Türl. Wh, 3*^; * klage, diu flinse het gespalteHf* split 
tltnts, Tit. 3765; 'von ir schoene müesfce ein vela erkrachen/ 
MsH. 3, 173' [similar examples omitted] ; ' hiute ist der stein 
naz, dd Karl uffe saz, vil heize weinunde,' to-day the stone is wet, 
whereon K, sat hotly weeping, Ksrchr, 14937, Stones relent in 



the story of Hoyer, Wigal p. 57—9. 452, Bait, stud, xi. 2, 191,* 
A stone will not let a false man ait on it^ *df der Even (6r6n f 
hoiiour^s) steine Bitzen/ Lanz. 5178 seq. 



p, 647.] Ab Freidaok 10, 7 say» that angels are immorfcal, 
that of men the spirit is immortal^ but the body morbal^ and of 
beasts both body and soul are mortal; so Berthold p, 364 allow«» 
being to stones, being and life to plants^ feeling to animals, 
Schelling says, life sleeps in the stone, dozes in the plant, dreams 
in the beast, wakes in man. The Ssk. a-ga, na-ga (non iens) 
= tre©, hill, Bopp's Gl, 2». 189*. So ia the Mid. Ages the line is 
di-awn between * ligendez und lebendez,^ Diemer 89, 24. Notker'a 
Boeth. speaks of bourne and chriuter (trees and herbs) din fone 
saffe lehe?tt, and of imYwing lapides, metalla. In Eath., beasts 
are ellayat, living ones, and plants kasvias, that which lives, — — 
Not only do wild birds grieve at man*s lament, Walth. 124, 30, 
and beasts and fishes help him to mourn, Ges. Abent. 1, 8, but 
' elliu geschefede,^ all created things^ May, summer's bliss, heath, 
clover, wood, sun and Venus, MS. 1, 3^*; ' gi bom, gras, lof undo 
krüt (leaf and herb), helpet mi skrigen over lot (cry aloud) !' 
Harienklage dS6. Grass and flower fret at misdeedsj and mourn, ^ 
Petersb, extr. fr. Kalev, p. 25, and in folksongs wither up, 
Binomen brehent u. Äim^fre?/^, MS, 1,44^; do daz spil ergangeal 
was, do lachieti bluomen n, gras, Hagen^s Ges. Abent. 1,464; 
die bourn begun den Icracheu, die rösen s^re lacfien^ ibid. Flo wer«, j 
on the heath quarrel : ' do sach . ich hhwmen stnieii wider den 
griienen Me (clover), weder ir longer waere,^ which of them was 
taller, Walth. 114, 28 ; du hist kurzer, ich bin langer, also ätrUens 
uf dem anger hin omen nndekle bl/'^b ; vil maniger ban de hhwmei^ ■ 
kip (chid), MS. 1, S^^ ; bluoitien Jcriegent umb ir schin, Lohengr. j 
p, 154; bluomen Imheiii durch daz gras, der kurzer, dirre lenger] 
was, Dietr. drach. 1067; conf. Kl. achr. 2, 157, They have their I 
rules, Alfcd. w. 1, their precedences, their meanings and langnagd^J 
conf. the Flower-games (Suppl. to 909), Tree* worship wa 



highly developed among the Indians and Greeks, The Hindus 
with elaborate ceremonies marry trees to one another, esp. the 
mango and tamarind, shrubs like the rose and jessamine, even 
tanks and stones, Sleeman's Bambles and Recoil [Horace : vitem 
vidoas ducit ad arbores]. Woyoicki, Germ* ed, p, 144-5< For 
Greeks, see Botticher. The Germans wake tree as well as corn, 
Zingerle 691 ; büomchen, schlaf nicht, fraa Holle kommt . . . 
bäamchen, wach auf, neujahr ist da, Somm« 162. 182 ; the forest 
sleeps at New-year, P. Dieffenb. Wetterauer sag. p. 274; conf, 
Gerhard's hymn : ' Nan ruhen alle wälder/ Tree-topn wave, and 
carry messages. Wolfs Ztschr. 2, ,161 ; * the birches fcnoii? it 
still,' Geliert 3, 388. Tree^ blossom at a happy event, and wither. 
when a death is near, Sueton. Galba 1 ; and like the Emperors, 
the Greeks had family-trees, Völsung's tree, barn-atoekr, stood 
in the hall. Vols, cap. 2 ; conf, our ■ genealogical tree/ • 

h TbB£S. 

p. 649.] Akin to nimid is vememet = fa,num ingens^ Yenant, 
Fort, 1, 9. Diefenb. Celt, 1^ 83-4 : silva quae vocatur nemet, 
Glück p. 17; Bpv^vifj^€To^, Strabo 567. GDS. 497. Zeiiss'a Die 
Dent, derives nemet fr. neamch = coelum^ and sees in it a ' sub 
divo,* therefore a contrast to wood. A Vocab. optita. p. 47* 
renders silva wilder wait, nemos schoener wait. Incus dicker 
wait; saltns hoher wait, 

p. 651.] The Lapps shoot blinfi/old at a suspended bearskin, 
Klemm 3, 14, Dyb. Runa 4, 92. The Amer. Indians hang up 
a bison-skin on a high pole to the Lord of life, and then cut it 
up into small pieces, Klemm 2, 164; likewise a deerskin 2, 179. 
Skins of sacrifices are hung up by Tungüses, Ostiaks, Boriats, 
Cherkesses, A, 106. 125. 114. 4,91. The golden fleece of the 
ram was nailed to an oak^ Preller 2, 21 L 

p, 651.] That is a pretty story of the holy oak, whose falling 
leaves people do not touch. When it is cut down and burnt, a 
dog appears in the ashes, and makes the people take all the ashes 
back to where the tree stood, Firmen. 1, 358. The oak as a freer 
of plaints occurs in Megenberg, Hpt*s Zschr. 4, 255* Messages 
ap© delivered to a holy oak, Livy 3, 25. Its great age inspired 
reapect: *so long as oak and earth do stand,' Weisth. 2, 225: 
' while the tree is in the ground and the acorn thereon/ 3, 779 ; 



j'ai TU le gland et la gaulöi Barzas br. 1, 28. 32. On oak and 
beech J see Dyb* *45, 7S-9 ; conf, rrjif waXaiäv (ftf)yoVf Soph. Trach. 
171. ' Af fornrnn poUi/ ex antiqua pinu, Sn. ed. '48, 1, 308; bub 

^af eikirotu' 310, The ash was also holy: fraxinas quern 

imperiti sacrum vocant, Kemble 5, 103 {yr 854). It is hoatile to 
snakesj Panz. Beitr. 1, 251-2, Pliny 16, 14 ; conl askr Yggdra- 
aillj and note, p. 796, There was a spell, that gave a has^el-rod 
the power to flog people in their absence ; in the Atharva-veda a 
branch of agvattha has the power of destroying enemies ; conf. 
the hazel-wand as wishing-rod (p. 975). Haaalwara is a proper 
name. Cod. Lanresh, 809. Lett. lasda, lagsda, Lith. lazda^cory- 
lus, bacnlas ; Lazdona — aTellauarum deus, god of filberts. 

p. 653.] It is dangerous to build where an elder-tree has stood. 
Praetor, Weltb. 1, 16. Of the ronn^ rowan, a sacred tree, we 
read in Dyb* ^44, 9 : rönnen sade till mannen : ' hugg mig ej, 
da blöder jag/ hew me not, or I bleed, Wieselgr. 378 ^ conf. the 
Pruss. tale in Tefctau and Temme p. 259, and the Finn, chpim, 
arbor vitae, 'non ccedenda in pratis.' The evil Weckholterin 
(juniper) is mentioned in the Herpin, Hagen's Ges. Ab* 3, xi. 
The Serv. for juniper, borovitza, is from bor, fir, Lett« paegle, 
because it grows under the fir; and the Swed, tall (fir, pine) is 
not to be hewn either : do so, and on turning round youTl see 
your house on fire^ Dyb. 4, 26, 44, Neither is the hawthorn, 
Nilsson 6, 4. 

p. 653.] Have we any Germ, stories of spirits that live in the 
erls (alder) ? Goethe's Krl-king seems taken from the Fr. aulne, 
auiie = ek]nnB and daemon. Kalis passes out of Nala into the 
Vibhitaka, which is regarded as haunted after that, Bopp's Natua 
p. 153. Holtzm. Ind, sag. S, 72, To the fitj-iree the Indians 
present offerings, which are consumed by crows, sparrows and 
cranes ; hence their name of sacrifice- eater. Like the maiden in 
the pine, the gods are said to live between bark and tree^ Lasicz 
46 ; conf. creeping between wood aod bark (p. 1085). Iw, 1208 : 
sam claz holz under tier rindüu^ alsam sit ir verborgen; O. Eogl. 
Iw. 741 : als the bark hilles the tre; 0, Fr. Iw. p. 146: li fuz 
qui est coverz de leacorce qui sor lui nest (nait), A holij oak 
grows out of the month of a slain king^ Harrys I no. 55. 

p. G54.] In choosing a twig [for a wishing-rod F] it is important, 
firsts that it be a new shoot, the suraer-late {p, 975), and secondly^ 



that it look to the east : & baSmi viS^r ^eim er lüta austr limar, 
Seem. 195\ Flowers were invoked: es sten dri roaen in jenem 
dal, die rufentj Jungfrau, an, UhL TolksL 87. aanctas geutee, 
qaibua haec nascuntiir m Juyriis numiiui! Jnven. Sat. 15, 10* 

2, AlftMALS. 

p. 655.] Beasts are commonlj regarded as dumb : stumbess 
tier, Iw. 7767, storame bßate, Lane. 18849, S2919, daz un- 
sprechende vihe, Warnung 2704- ; conf, muta animal ia, Dan. 
utnäleode beest, ON, ömäla ; ' der lewe zeict im unsprechenden 
gracas/ Iw. 3870. They are ignorant ; tier vil ungewizzen, Er. 
5843« Yet they not only show sympathy, like stones and plants 
(Sappl. to 646-7), but in urgent cases they, like dumb children^ 
find their tongues ; witness Balaam's ass, and i armentaque vulgo 
ansa loqui, Claud ian in Eutrop. 2, 43 ; attonito pecudas pastore 
locntos 1, 3. Oxen talk, Panz. Beitr, 1, no. 255. Nork 12, 377 ; 
ox and ass converse in the Bret, volksm. 87-8, but only for an 
hoar once a year, between 11 and 12 on Christmas night, N. 
Preuss. prov. bl. 5, 468, Bosquet p. 221. Beasts can see spirlU : 
Balaam's ass saw the angel with the sword, Nnmb. 22, 23 — 33 ; 
the dogs see the goddess, horses and hounds are ghost-seers 
(p. 667), Panz. Beitr. 1, 118; nay Athenasus 3^ 454 says all birds 
were fnen once. 

p. 656.] Conf. Ferd, Wachter's art, Pfeedb in the Halte 
EncycL, and the beautiful Serv, wedding-song (Vuk^ed, nov, 15, 
no. 23. Wesely p. 55). Sleipnir is the son of Loki, a god, and 
SvaSilfari; from him is descended SigurS's Grani, Vols. c. 13, 
and Grani has 'mans rid,' Far. qväd. 156. A sagacious trusty 
steed occurs in Walach. miirch. no. 17, one that gives advice iu 
S7. sag. 1, 164; and in German, still more in Hungarian fairy- 
tales we have wise, helpful, talking horses, Ungr. tatos s. Ispolyi 
(conf. p. 392). Skinfaxi is a cow's name in a Norweg. tale, Asb. 
Huldn 1, 202. 

p. 658.] N6tt rides on Hrim/axi, Dagr on Skinfajn. The 
Indiana thought curly hair on a horse a lucky sign, Bopp's Gl, 
84*. llie horse offered up by kings at the a^vamfidha must be 
while. To ride a white horse is a privilege of gods, kings and 
heroes, Pind* Pyth* 4, 117 : XevfeiTrTrotv waripotv, A stallion with 
three white feet and two glass eyes is ia Weisth. 2, 618. 



p. 658 n.] Helbl. 15, 293 : ein hengest der noch nie gras an J 
ßdzande en-beiz. A FüUzan in Ring 49^ 38, 49^ 31 . The Serv, 1 
for fülizant is xdrebetiak, foal's {zub underst,), A horse keep« \ 
his foal-teeth till his third year, then cuts his horse-teeth, 
den tea eqaini^ quos nonmäi trimis caballis natura concedit, Pertz 
8, 214; jonenea polaina, qaatre dens ot jet^a, Ogier 2412; dentes 
eqoij qui primi cadunt, alligati facilem dentionem praestant, 
ForoelL aab. v. dentio. 

Collo igitnr molli dentes neütentnr eqnini, 

qui primi fuerint puUo crescente caduci. Serenua sam, 1040- 

The same of a child's teeth : piieri qui primus ceciderit denSp ut ' 
terram non attiugat, inclusus in armillam et assidue in brachio 
habitus. Pliny 28, 4. GDS. 154. 

p< 659.] To Swed* gnägtja corresp. ON. gnegg;ja, Saera* 144% 
AS, hnägan, neigh. The Dan. vrindske is our brenscben, wren- 
SGhen, frenschen ; conf. wrene hengat, Lex Sal, p. xxviii. Ssk. 
vrinh, barrire^ Bopp 32**, Norw, Dan. kumraj a low humming 
neigh. In Lauz. 474: ez beguude siu ros weien, traaen undo' 
schreien ; in Garg. 240** : rihelen n. hinnewihelen, T?** : hinne- 
wiheln. Is mhelen akin to Prov* evelhier, Ferabr, 3613, and the 
horse's name Yalentiu, Ital. Yegliantino? In Gudr* 1395 : ' man' 
hörte ein ros ergrinen ' when the battle began» Bellona spuman- 
tium ad bella equorum kinnitu anres arrigens, Pertz 2, 169. 

p, 660,] Vedrebbe un teschio d' asino in »w U7i palo^ il 
quale quaudo col muso voHo vedesse verso Firenze, Decam. 7, L 
Remember too the gyrating eagle on a roof (p, 633-4), and the 
dove over a grave (p. 1134-5 n.), 

p. 660.] As to horses^ heads on gables, see Müllenh. p. 239. 
Panz. Beitr. 2^ 180, 448-9 ; they protect the rafters from wind 
and weather. Lith. zirges, roof- rider, from zirgas, horse, Nesselm. 
549 ; also ragai, antlers, 426 ; conf, capreolij tigna ad firmandum, 
and AS. He ort, Heorot, name of the house in Beowulf. 

p. 664.] The Boriata dedicate to the herdamen's god Sul- 
bundu a horse, on which he rides at night, and which they find 
all in a sweat in the morning. Klemm 3, 115. The horses ridden | 
by spirits or night- wives have stirrup, cord and wool in their 
sides, and are covered with drops of wcur, Kaisersb. Om. 42^, 43*. 
Kalmuks also consecrate a horse to tbe god, and let it run loose. 



Ledebour 2, 49. Horses scrape up gold^ like tliat of Rammels- 
berg, or a fonntain, like Pegasaa; conf, Paoz. Beitr* 1, 38-9 • 
163. 186. 201. The hoof-priots o£ a god's horse m stone ware 
believed in by the Romans : Ergo et illud in ailice^ quod hodie 
apparet apnd Regillum^ tanquam Testigiam uogalae Castoris equt 
esse credis, Cic. de Nat. D. B, 5. A sacred white horse walks on 
water without wetting his feet, Polier 2, 618, 

p. 664,] Foremost of victims stands a^va, a horse-sacrifice is 
yOiivamedha, Böhtling, 1, 520-4, The significance of a horse's 
appears in many other customs : it is played upon (pp. 849. 
1050-71), thrown into the Midsnra, fire (p. 618), stuck on a pole 
or tied on a person at Christmaa^ Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 472-4 ; in 
fairytales it works miracles, Miillenh, p, 422, often serves as a 
bridge 34. 146, 544, is nailed up under the town-gate (Falada's), 
and wooden ones are set on gables (p. C60). GDS. 151. 

p, 665.] Sacred oxen of Artemis are mentioned in Plutarch's 
LucuUus p, m. 606. Härekr keeps a blotnaid in the forest, 
Fomm. sog, 3^ 132. On the bull's head in the scutcheon of" 
Mecklenbg, see Lisch, Meckl, jrb, 10, 15 seq. 

p. 066.] Oxen dig up a hurricane with their horns. A bull- 
calf is reared to fight the dragon, DS. 142, MüUenh, p, 238. 
Thiele 1, 125. Nandini is of all kine the best : he that drinketh 
of her milk remaineth young 10,000 years, Holtzm. Ind, sag. 3, 
99. 100. *The black cow crxishes him, has trodden him' means 
* he is weighed down by want and care : ^ so trat ihn auch die 
schwarze kuh, Ambraser lieder 147 \ stör hlaa sind, Norske ©v, 1, 
111; conf, Hungar. 'has not yet trod the black cow's heel/ 
Wolf's Ztschr. 1, 271-2, Beside the cow's name ÄuÖ'humla, we 
have designations of oxen, as freyr, iörmunrekr, reginn, Sn. 221* 
(ed. Hafn. 587). 

p. 66^^,] A most ancient and fierce göUr, worshipped by the 
people, Fornm. 8, 4, 57-8; conf. eburSrung (p, 727). Wacker- 

^el in Hpt's Ztschr. 6, 280 puts a different interpret, on the 
rersea preserved by Notker; but conf. the boar of the Swed. 
folktale, that goes about grunting with a knife in his back (Hpt 
4,506-7), and the Dan, legend of Limfiorden (Thiele 1, 131) : A 
:>rcere8s gave birth to a pig, and he grew so big that his bridles 
up above the forest-trees (Notk*, bürste eben-hö forste), and 
rooted up the earth so deep that the sea flowed in to fill the 



dike; conf» swine-dike (p. 1023). A rooting black hog foretellaJ 
the fall of the city, Miillenh* p. 105 ; a Malb. gloss calls the boari 
diramni, earth-plough er, Leo Ij 75. 6DS. p. 57. With Ovid's 
descr. of a boar, Met. 8, 284 seq., con f. Alb. v. Halberstadt 
p. 269, where the tusks are an ein lane (Notk,, zene sine zuelif- ^^ 
einige) J yrhich is not in Ovid; ' dente minax* we find in KndL^W 
16j 90* Vishnu in one incarnation appears on the sea as a boar. 
A white goat is reckoned wholesome in a horse's stable^ Leopr.^H 
226. ^ 

p, 667.] The dog is named among sacrificial beasts (pp, 48. 
bZ), Kobn's Westph. sag. 2, 188 : he belongs to Hecate, Klau- 
sen's ^n, 1137. The dog knows Odysseus in his disguise; 
bitches can scent a Pannus : * ab ea cane quae femina sit ex . 
Primipara genita Faunos cerni/ Pliny 8, 40, 62 ; only a dog'^H 
with four eyes (nelliaitm)^ i.e. with spots over his eyes, can see a^^ 
devil, Est«, verh. 2, 90. A dog will bark before a haunted rock, 
Dyb. 4j 25. Dogs go mad if yon give them the bones of the 
Easter lamb, Keisersb. Om. 52*. Peter's dog appears in the 
legend of Simon and Peter, AS. homil p. 372-4. Pass. H, 175. 

p. 669.] A name similar to Veirli&i is Snmarli'Si, Fomm. s. 3, 
205 ; conf. Gramm. 2, 505. Other poetic names for the bear in 
Sn.'175. 221, e.g. iorekr, equos fugans. To Samoyeds and Ostiaks 
the bear is a god, Gastrin 285. 342 ; the Finn, okio is bom in 
heaven, and brought to earth in a golden cradle ; 'to climb on 
the bear's shoulders' means to go to heaven ; hia foam has virtuej 
and should be taken up, Kalev. 13, 236. 254. As O^inn has two 
wolveSj the Finn. Pahonev has great bloodhounds in his service, 
SalmeK 1, 193. It is believed in Scotland that deer can see 
spirits, Arvids. Ossian 1, 238. Felts aurea pro deo colitur, Pliny 
4, 29, 85; cats are poisonous, ace. to Berth, of Regensb. 303; 
Unander connects tres with our viel-fratiSf glutton. A story in 
Klemm 2, 159 makes out that the house-building beaver was 
once man. 

p. 670.] A bird demands that men shall sacrifice to him {p. 
672) ; conf. the Lettish bird-cultus (p, 77), Giesebr. Bait. stud. 
12, 128, 139, The 'servitium consuetum in blado et volatilibus,' 
Ch. a. 1311. MB. 30^, 61 need not refer to sacrifice ; it may be a 
mere tribute in corn and poultry. An angel is sent in the shape 
of a bird, see Gudrun and Sv. vis« 1, 232-4*5. As wind is repres. 


noder the form of an eagle, so the aar makes air and shade (p. 
1 133), and the cock perhaps weather^ coof. the weathercock. 

p. G7L] To the Dan. metaphor corresp. the Low Germ, 'de 
ratide han kreide ut den dack/ Firmen. 1 , 202**, Cockeroiü announces 
day : iirel S' aXifcrmp r}fj,€pav idaXtrtaej Lncian's Oeypus 114. A 
set phrase in fairytales is : "loa gal cante, e foughe jhour/ Diet, 
langiied. 224; 'cokkes ere we ande hit was daie/ Sevin sages 2536 j 
ihas huan gikundit dages kunft!, 0- iv. 18, 34; do krAt der han, 
e« was tac, Altsw* 67, 3 ; skal ek fy rives tan vindhialms bruar 
Ä5r salgofnir sujj'pio^ veki, Saem. 10 G. It scare» away spirits ; 

FeruQt vagantes daemonas 

laetos tenebris noctiam 

4jaUo cantitde extern tos 

sparsim timere et cedere. Pradentii Hym, ad galli caotum 10, 

A red and a grey cock crow to the spirit, Minstr. 3, 48, also a 
white and a greif, 2, 468. A black hen is sacrificed to the hill- 
mannikius (p. 1010). A Mack cock that was burn lame takes the 
*p«ll off an enchanted castle, Miillenh. p* 351. Out of a cock's 
egg is hatched a dragon, Leopr. 78. Of the longest taU-feaihers 
of a cock pull out the riijUt one, and you'll open any lock that you 
touch with it, walk invisible, and see everything, Luciani Somn. 
28-9. A cock with white feaiherii is cut up, and carried round 
the vineyard against the wind. Paus. ii. 34, 3. Sacred cocks in 
Athen. 3, 445.— — The cock on the steeple was already interpr. 
by the Mystics 1, 199 of the Holy Ghost. In Arabic it is called 
aboUyaksan, father of watchfulness. Fel, Faber in Evagat. 2, 219 
thinks : * Christiani cnicem cum gallo ex institutione prima haben t 
iu cul minibus suarum ecclesiarum ' ; while the Saracens have 
' liiiiam cornutam vel supinam, quia gallus erecto coUo et can da 
«tans speciom habet sapinae luoae,' 

p. 672.] To Ostiaks the eagle is holy, Klemm 3, 122; to 
Indians Garuda is king of birds, Holt2sm. lud* s. 3, 137 ; aquila, 

angla = Jovis ministra, Grotef. Inscr. Umbr» 6, 8* The hawk 

was sacred to Apollo, Schwartz p» 16-7, Od. 15, 526: fcipKO<i, 
UBu. Upa^t and the Egyptians esteemed it a holy bird, GDS* 

51. On tfparrowhawk and kestrel see Suppl. to 675. ^Like 

Huginn and Munmn, the AS> hi/ge and myne habitually go to- 
gether, Pref. to Andr* :xxxix. Buvens follow the hero ; ' Uaraldi 

fOL. I?. F 



ver fylg^Sum siz or eggi komun/ Lasebog 112*; two raveDS are 
guardian spirits, Geser Klitin 278. The raveiij like the eagle, is 
displajed on flags (p. 1 112) ; h^ is to the eagle as the wolf to the 
bear (or lion). More about the raven in Schwartz p, 42-3. 

p. 672.] The swallow, OHG. sualawä, AS. swealewe, ON. 
svala, Dan. svale, Lapp, svalfo. Goth, svaliro ? hrozda? Dae, 
criista, Lith. kregzde, Gr. ^^eXtSoij/, Lat. hirundo for ;^fp*8ttii', 
^tSmpf Wallach, rendurea, Albati. delenduse, Lett, beadeliga. 
Slav, lastovice, vlastovice, Serv. lasta, lastavitza, Russ. lasfcochka. 
Finn, pilaakyj Est, päästlenne, Huag. fetske. The swallow, a>9 
*Adtjpaiaf ia the first to pluck a borrowed plume out of the koXoio^ 
(daw), Babr, 72, 16; in prose however (Cor, 188) it is the owl 
(yXai/f). Mary^s needlewoman, who stole the ball of thread, was 
turned into a swallow, on which the white spot ahows the ball,. 
Wieselgr. 478. ISuun, like Procne, is changed into a * swallow ^ 
ace. to one reading, though the usual readiug is * linot/ nut. The 
swallow's young are born blind, Dyb. '45, <j7 ; Tif one of their 
chicks grows blind, they fetch a herb, lay it on, and restore the 
sight ; hence the herb's name of chelidonium/ celandine, Dioscor. 
2,211 ; and Megenb. says the same about schellwurz (Suppl. to 

p. 672.] The 9wan, OHG. alpiz, MHG. elbez, AS. ylfet, SL 
labud, lebedi; Gael eala, ealadh, Ir. ala, eala, Weh alarch, eleirch, 
* Ulfa )>ytr mer }?ötti illr vera lii4 songui svana/ Sn. 27; ylfate 
nmujy Cod. Exon. 307,6; see p. 436 and Schwartz p. 43-4-6. The 
Finns call their youtsen a holy bird, pyhä linu, Kalev. 8, 73. 

p. 673.] The stork is called odohom in Slettst. GL 36, 33 ; 
otfer^ ötäif^i'j Altswert 71 ♦ In Lower Germany i thhhar langb&ni^^ 
hÄlebäi langbön, knepper (rattler) langbön ; in Groningen aii^er^^H 
eiber ; in Gelders uivert heiluiver, also heilehaot, albaor, Simrock 
no. 335-6; heihhate, Hor. Belg. 7, 27*; ' to call the ^tovV heilhoU 
and otter wehr,' Frosch rneua. Ji vii^ Can we trace it to a Goth, 
addja-baira, egg- bearer, or addjö-baura, egg-born ? KL sehr. 3, 

147. 164. Outzen pp. 1. 2 says, adebar— spring'^a herald. The 

Esth. for stork is tone kurg, Finn, nalkäkurki, hunger-heron T 
Lith. gandms ; Lett, swehta putns, holy bird, and melnsprahklig^ 
black rump; PoL bociati and Boh, booan for the black stork, Pol. 
czapla and Boh, cap for the white; this last is also Boh, *bohdal/ 
God-gjvon, dieudonn^ Morav. 'bogdal, bokdal'; conf, evaeßi- 



ararov ^ü!OV, ^sop. Far. 76. Babr. 13, 7 ; candidae aves, Joru. 
, 42. The Slavic has also the coogener of our stork in str^k, 

fiklos. p. 87, Buss, sterkh, Serv. shtrk, A stork foretells the 

dowflfall of a citj^ Jörn, c. 42. Procop. 1, 330; another saves 
his father, Babr. 13, 8, Storks are men, says the Spitirockeo- 
evang. Satnafc. IG. In striking harmony with Wolfram's eulogy, 
the stork io Babr, 13, 5 says: ov airopov tcara(f>8€lpQ>, 

p. 675,] Ovid too lilts a statue 'gerens in vertice Plcum/ Met. 
14, 314; on Picus, see Klausen 844-5. 1141. Both picus and 
pica seem akin to TrotÄtXo«?, variegated ; or picus and s-pecht, 
pecker^ go together. The Greek for woodpecker is weXcKaq, fr. 
TT^Xefcav, to hack, TreXe^i/^^ hatchet ; Staid. 1,263 has tann-bicker, 
= picas martins; Lith. volnnge, wood-hacker, is the greenpecker 
Lith. genys, Serv. zhnnia, are also names of the woodpecker ; Lett. 
dsennis, dsilna, is the bee-pater. The Russ. diatel, Pol. dzi^ciol, 
Boh. datel (woodp.) seems conn, with dziöci^, ditiiij deti (child), 
perhaps because he was considered a foster-father, as Picus was 
to Romulus. The Swiss merzafiilli is in the Hennebg dialect 
sborteoed iuto a simple merz : ' der merz hackt dich,' Hpt's 
Ztschr. 3, 360. Beside kliktati, used of the woodpecker's whine 
(and of the Vila's cry, p, 436), we have totrkati = pulsare in arbore, 
ut picus fuciL Lith. ulbauya volunge, the woodp. whimpers, wails, 
TJkko created the konkelo (greenp.), Peterson 12. Renvall sub v. 
The pecker kind are treasure -birds (p. 973)* Kuhn thinks the 
woodp. is coon, with fire. What is the meaning of ' hÄn ich iu 
den speht erschozzen ? ' Hpt 6, 50 1 . 

p. 675.] The sparrowhawkj Boh* krahug, krahulec, krabuljk — 
faico nisus, Pol, krogulec, Linde 1134'*; Hung, karoly, karvoly. 
The OHG. for kestrel, wanrwwehn^ tvamimiwefhel. Graft' 1, 643, 
wannewechel in Ziemann, sounds remarkably like the Lett, vekia 
vannagjf, sparrowhawk, lit. holy hawk, for Lith. vanagas is hawk, 
v&nagelis little hawk* Garg. 279'' has the exclamation : ir 
wannenwäher ! This is the name they still give in Swabia to a 
small bird of prey : they hang little tubs or baskets {wmmen) 
outside their houses for it to build in, and think the house is then 
proof against lightning, Mono 7, 429. Frisch 2, 422 has wanne- 
weihe, accipiter tinunculus, and other forms.^ Does our weihej 

• Tintinctilufi IB no doTibt from tina, a vessel very similftr to wanne ; me Victor 
Hehti's ** Migrniiona of PknU und Animal»/' Engl. tran^. (Swatt So0nüiu<3Jimn) 
p. 487.— T&LKSL, 



wio, w!ho (milvua, kite) mean sacred bird? conf* wivo : 'mÜFOs 
laedere capitalö est ^ in England, says Leo v, Rozmital 40. 
CDS. 50. 

The owl prophesies (p. 1135). The Greeks held it sacred, as 
bird of night, bird of victory, bird of Athena. The Am er, 
Indians worshipped it, Klemm 2, 164; and conf, the Eath, 
tharapilaj horned owl (p. 77). Runes were marked *& nefi uglo,' 
fis well as ' ä arnar nefi/ Ss&m. 1%*. On strix, (yrpij^, see pp. 
1039 TK 1045. 

p. 678.] Tlie euchooj by calling oat his name, awakens joy, 
hence bis Finn, name of ilo-kaklj joy-cnckoo, Kalev. 14, 226, 
munaiset käkeni 5, 196-7 (like SwedJröste-gök) ; yet also söttow- 
euclcoo, Castren 292 ; six gold cuckoos, kuns on koUaista käkeä, 
Kaley. 14, 31 ; the sun like a golden cuckoo climbs the sky 27, 
26o. Lapp, jäkä, Syrian, ki>k, Ssk. kokila, Pott's Zähl-meth, 
229. Mark our exclamation * heida-guguk I ^ Schulmeisters- 
wahl 50-L 88. OHG./oJ«, cuckoo, Graff 3, 517, has never been 
cplained. On the cuckoo, see Reusch in N,Preuss. prov. bl. 5, 
ä21 — 343 J on the gucker, peeper, Leopr. p. 79. Shaksp,, at 
the end of liove^s Lab. Lost, quote» a verse on Spring and the 
cuckoo, and one on Winter and the owL The cuckoo is summer^s 
warden : swylce geac mmaä^ geomran reorde singe'S sujuers weardj 
mrge beode^. He prophesies to unpltghted maidens, conf. Rnna 
'44, p. 10; 'wast der knkuk hiure sane,' this year sang, Mone'a 
Schausp. 131. 

p. 680.] Zilefogef, a prop, name, Mone's Anx. 3, 13. The 
peasant's iirne-hird is the. raven, Kalenb, p, m, 284-7. In Wilt- 
shire the people sing : ' The cuckoo's a fine bird, She sings as 
she flies, She brings us good ilding», And tells ua no lies. She 
micks the small birds' eggs To make her voiee dem\ And the more 
she sings *^ cuckoo/' The summer draws near. The cuckoo comes 
in Aprilf Stays the month of May, Sings a song at Mid&twimer^ 

And then a goes awa%jj* An Ukrainian song of the cuckoo in 

Bodensted t 57. Ace. to a Germ, song of the 16th cent., the 
cuckoo 'hat sich zu tod gefallen von einer hohen weide (willow)/ 
The New Zealanders, like th© Poles, esteemed the cuckoo a god 
(catua). Klemm 4, 371. 

p. 681.] On the sceptres of Egyptian goda aits the kuhu- 
pha^s head, Bunsen 1, 435; conf. the figure at 315. 591 with the 



kukiipba-sceptre, Pindar's Pyth, 1, 10 ui^a crfcd-rrT^ Jto^, aod 
the variant in Eddaj Hafti. 2, 202 Güogoia ügla. The plates to 
PcrtB Scr, 8 show a bird parched on the sceptres of the Geroi, 
kiiig3 Henry IV» and V. (coof. the eagle on Arthur's sceptre^ 
janc. 30791). The cuckoo ia the bird of wedlock and fecundity, 
it is why he has ten wives given Iiim, Fir me a, 2, 243*. For 
lotker's ' mob/ Ps, 57, 11, both Graff 4, 1150 and Hattemer 
write kouh, A Gauchs-perh occora in Tirol, urbar. August, a. 

.1316. MB. 34^ 300; G<*geh'herij, Paiiz. Beitr, I, 28; Goggles^ 
rg, Stenb's Rhät* 47 ; the Swiss name Göggenbiihler pre- 
supposes a Gug^en-biihet (-hill) ; Oi^genberg in Up, Rhön and 
lear Hersfeld, Hess. Ztschr* 1, 245 ; conf. Tumbo saz in berge 
— Stupidus in oionte sedebat = giant, Ilenn von NarreHberg, 
Seb. Brant p. m. 131 j an Affenberg near Nürnberg, Ettn* 

rUnw, doct. 693 ; a Monkey^ s viountain [Jebel Tsatut, the anc. 
Abyla] on the African coast op p. Gibraltar, On affenbergi 
schalksberg, see Kh sehr. 2, 147. G&n dem affen-fal uzwaten, 
Hadamar 444, 4 ; der äffen zit, Fragm. 14V 

p. 682.] The cuckoo is reckoned a rtiiser, who when the leaves 

Lfsozne ont in spring, dare not eat bis fill, for fear they öhould ran 

Ifthort : * s6 der goiicli daz erste loup gesiht, so getar sich's gesäten 
iht, er vdrht ez ito zerinne,' Freid. 88, 3 ; more fully in the 
Tehche gast 114*: cent Freid. Ixxxvii. In Ssk, he is called 
'ab alio nutritns,' Bopp'a Gl. 209^. GothL gaiik-pigä, en fägel 
eom tros ligga ut gukkens 'B>gg, Almqv. 425^. He eats the hedge- 
sparrow's eggs, and puts his own in her nest, Freid. 143, 2L 

ll44, I — 10; this ia a fact of natural history, Dubel 1, 60. Schu- 
berths Lehrb. p* m, 315. Ecker m. Gespr, mit Goethe 3, 211 — 5, 
When grown up, he is said to devour his (foster-) parents, ibid, 
208, and in winter to become a bird of prey. He begins pretty 
early to stand for the devil : ' knkuk hiure unde vert I * this year 
and la,st, an old hand, Helbl. 4, 800 ; ' des wirt guot rot, kukuh I ' 

8, 1234. -Instead of the hoopoo, tbe wri^ncck takes the place of 

Benrant to the cuckoo [ Finn, käen piika, cuculi ancitla, is transl, 

I 'jynx torqoilla^ by Ren vail, 'curruca' by Jtislen. The wryneck 

' is said by Nemnich (sub v. jyox) to come a fortnight earlier than 
the cnckoo; Swed. gok-tyta, WeL gwas y gog, cnckoo's hand- 

.maid. The bittern and the hoopoo were once cowherd«. Lisch 
Meckl. jrb. 5, 77. The kibitz^ ki/wii^ peewit, which plays a 


lEES A^"B AniMAhS, 

prominent part in the märchen o£ the Juni per- tree, is called 
girifz in Stalder 1^ 4iS : 'in plover's reedy swamp (gtritÄe-ried) 
enchanted naaidens fly,' Other tales of the lapwing in Nares^a 
GL sub, V* The polytrichnin comm, is in Finn, kaen petkel, 
.cucali securis; gauch-heil (pimpernel f), which is not in Graff, 
'and is sometimes called hiibnerdarm^ morsus gallinae, is in M. 
NethL gutfchfil'hotfl, Mone 6j 448, 

p, 083*] The dove, a holy bird to the Syrians, was in Ssk, 
called kapota and pritu, Gr, ir€ptirr€pdj Lat. colnmba and 
palumba, Slav, golnbi, Lith, karv^lis, balandis, conL pp. 828. 
11 34-5 n. KL sehr, 5, 445 seq. Women speaking a foreign 
tongue were called doves, says Herod, 2, 57. Song-birds seem 
(to have been called wuli-singer^ Geo, 5849; their joy and grief 
were alluded to (p. 750-4), The iiighiingale passed for a mes- 
senger of Mary, Leopr. 79, ^ Some eay the lark and loathed toad 
change eyes/ Rom, and Jul. 3, 5. The wren^ Lith. nykszt^lis 
{thumbliug and wren), Wei, dryw (druid and wren)^ is called 
' petite poulette an bon Dieu/ Bosquet 220- L^ Disturbing the 
redbreast brings lightning on the house 22 1 ; she covers the face 
of a murdered man with leaves, Hone's Yrbk. 64 ; on the red' 
fail, see Leopr, 80. The met^Un (tit) has an angel to himself, 
Keisersb. BrosamL ID''; hunting the baum-meise is severely 
punished, Weisth. 1, 465, The Finn, tinmen^ Est, tlhhane, is 
helpful, and understands beer*brewing, Schiefner's Finn, naarch* 
<)14. Kantel 1, 110. A legend of the white spairow in Rom- 
me?8 Hess, gesch. 4, 710 from Winkel m. Chron. p. 585. On the 
kingfisher, see Gefken^s Beil. 113, 

p. 685.] Transformation into a snaJce occurs in many fairy* 
tales. The cast slough of a snake is called senedus set^pcntU in 
Pliny and Marcellas no. 4(5 (KL sehr. 2, 134. 150), agree» ug with 
ON. elli-belgr from ellij eld; e.g. at kasta ellibelguum^ vernare. 
There is a beautiful legend about the snake in Klemm 2, 3 62-3 ; 
it lives for ever, 154, Its appearing is mysterious, so is its 
vanishing, ' des slangen sluf/ Freid. 128, 7, In Ssk» it is called 
the creeper, wriggler, breast- walker, uraga, Bopp 52^ ; conf. 
Genesis 3, 14. The Ind, serpent-sacrifice lasts for years, it com- 

* Why is the wren called king in the Gr. ßaaikliTKoi, Lat. regalas, It. reattino, Fr. 
roitelet, »nd Germ, zaünkönig? becanBe of bis golden crest? And is zautikiinig a 
tmtiMl, of rc-at'tiuo« the iiauii (hedge) belog au adaptatioD by folk-etym. of tinui 
(InuruatiüUß) ?— TaANat. 




bIö all snakes to come up and throw tliemseWes into the fire, 

[oltsm. 3, 172-3, 186-8. In the Parthenon at Athens lived a 

&rpent sacred to the goddess, and had a honej-cako offered to 

it every day, Herod, 8, 4L To the Homana also the anguis waa 

h«»ly, Klausen p. 1014 A cadnceus with figures of snakes in 

Pliny 29, 54 (12) ; and snake- figures may be seen on the Stutt- 
gfift todtenbäume, A aeri>ent on a helmet was called ezlJemunf 
Beneke sub v, ; ' ezidemon daz edel konder,' Tit, 331 L Lohengr. 
p. 12, where his friedelinue (lady-love) is also alladed to. The 
word is traceable to agatho-daeraon, the Egyp. miracnloiia ser- 

ipent kneph, Gerhard in Acad. BerL '47, p. 203. Beside saribant 
and serpant we find a sanipandra-iest, serpent's head, Parz, 50, 
5. 6S, 8. As Ofnir and Svafuir are the names of two snakes, and 
at the same time by-names of Obinn, so Hermes is closely allied 
to the agathodaemon, Gerh, as above 204 ; and divine heroes, 
descended from OSinn, also inherit the ' snake in the eye ' (p. 
391). Serpents lick the ears of the sleeping Melampus, and on 
waking np he understands the speech of birds as they ßy past, 
and ever after of all beasts that foretell the future to man* 

^Prophetic Cassandra too, and her brother Helenas, had their ears 

' licked clean by snakes. 

p. 087.] The Greeks called the home-snake olieovpo^ o^i?j 
genius loci, Gerh* in Acad. Berl. '47, 203 j the Albanian mftoye is 
a homesprite, imagined in the form of a little snake, Hahn'a 
Lieder 136; the Samogitian ^/woi/o^f, black snakes, are fed aud 
worshipped as household gods, Lasicz 51-5-6. That of milk- 
ifrinkimj belongs also to the snake-stories in Vonbun p. 24. 

^Bader nos. 98. lOG (on the mocken, p. 686 n., see Sehmeller 2, 
549. Stalder 2, 212. Diut. 2, 84). Snakes had drink given 
tliem, Athen. 4, 364 ; one that sucked milk out of the breast, ia 
Lacian^s Alex. 7. With the Pomeran. story of a snake creeping 
mto the pregnant woman, conf. Vopisci Aurelian. c. 4: ' pueri 
ejuB pelvem serpentem plerumque cinxisse^ neque unquam occidi 
poiuisse ; postremo ipaam matrem, quae hoc viderat, serpentem 
quasi familiärem occidere noluisse'; and Spartiani Sever. 1: 
' dorm ten ti in stabulo serpens caput cinxit, et sine noxa, experge- 

Lfactis et acclamantibus familiaribas, abut.* ^More tales about 

the * schlangen- fcrtin/^' in Vonbun 24-5. Woeste 50; about thd 
king of snakes in Miillenh. p. 355. Panzer 1, 183; the Ssk« 



VdsukiSf rex serpeütuin, Bopp's GL 158* Hultzm. 3, 143-571 
196-7, 157. 16'L A Swed. story tells how tlie ormar elect i* 
kiug, Dyb, '45, p. 100, A serpent-king haa 12 heads; be that! ' 
hews them off, and carries them about with him, is everywhsrt^ 
vicfarioHSj Reusch do. 74 and app» When aa orra is challenged 
to fightj he keeps the engagement^ Dyb. '45, p. 9b'6, An addeu^ 
cornea carrying a stone in hia mouthj Geata Bom. ed. Keller 
pp. 08. 152 ; cont snake- si on*' , uiike-stone (p. 1219-20). Under a 
hazel on which mistletoe grows, lies a snake with a precious 
stone on his head (p. 1207). The vouivre wears but one eye in 
the middle of her forehead, and that ia a carbnncle ; when she 
stops to drink ai a Jhunlain, she faijn it aside ; that's the time to 
possess yourself of the jewel, and she is hlind ever after. The 
vouivre flies through the air like red*hot iron, Mem. des antiq. G, 
217; the like in Bosquet p. 204*6-9. 'Des Montags nach S, 
Peters tach, so aller wurmichleiche ze wazzer g^fc,' Rec. of 1286 in 
Gemeiner's Regensb» chron. 1, 423; Fafuir also Bkreiff til vatz, 
Sn, 138. Vols. c. 18. Snakes love to lie beside a spring, Aus- 
land '57, p. 832"* ; but the ash-tree has a spite against the snake, 
Panzer 1,251. 351, 

p, 088,] The serpent's hefjflng pow^r is heard of pretty early : 
'if a serpent had bitten any man, when he beheld the serpent o£ 
brass, he lived,* Numb, 21. 9. Slaver from the mouths of three 
colubrae runs into the healing, strengthening dish that has been 
cooked, Saxo ed. Müll. pp. 1*23, 193 (in two different stories) ; 
two ßnakes are blacky one white. Eating of the white snake 
makes you know the language of beasts, p. 193. DS.- no. 132. 
KM.^ 3, 27 (conf. p. 983 and Snppl. to 689. 690). On the other 
hand, venom drips from the eUr-orm, Seem. 69; snakes are made 
to suck their poison in again with their ' deinen munden/ Pass, 
310, 20, A Celtic story of the angitinum (ovum) made of ser- 
feiiVs drivel is given in Pliny 29, 3, 12. On magic wrought by 
means of snakes, conf. Spalding, Abb. d. BerL aoad. ; on the 
snake as a bridge, and the term bridge's- tail, brftarspordr, see 
pp. 078. 732 n. 

The toad also {krote, Gramm. 3, 364} is a venomous beast 
available in magic: she carries a stone in her head (p. 1220); 
she sits on fungus and on mushroom, hence the one is called 
h'öienstul, toadatool^ Out. paddestoel^ LG. paddenstolj and the 






Other wexj^'hrotUvg. Austrian tiames^ besides krot, are heppin^', 
braitliog, noting;, brotze, auke, Höfer 2, 47, 175; in Bavaria tlr 
Toale is braste, broz, bratz, Schm, 1, 274, the female hoppiii 
faeppiu, also mural {aunfcy), and women are called heppin in cod* 
tempt 2, 221. Add wetterkrote, donoerkiote, blitzkrute, 

p, ^Sih^ jdpdfCQ3vm fr. SepAfw, as i<f>t^ fr. the lost Sina} : *aharp- 
sighted as a iindvvurm/ Soester Daniel p. 141 ; Gat dearc = lacerta. 
Dragons are akin to snakes, hence the ' raultitudo serpen tum cum 
magno dracone/ Greg. Tor» 10, 1 ; conf snake ^charming and tbe 
old dragon in Lncian's Philops. c. 12, Dragons worshipped by 
the Esths, Adam. Brem. (Pertz 9, 374); portrayed on bronze 
kettles, Lisch in Meckl. jrb. 7, 35—38. 14, 32Ö— 330, interpr. by 

Gieaebercht, Bait, stud, 11, 50-1. A dragon is called ormr imi 

frani, S^m, 173*». 189*; MHG. UeveU hole, WigaU 5080, ii&veh 
trui 6443 (in 0153 ratlier the giantess). The hvit-ormlives under 
the roots of tlie oak, Dyb, %o, p* 78; but they like best to Us oh 
goldy which is therefore called Unnar logi^ Saem. 181*; the dragon 
that brings you money behaves like a homesprite (p. 511 ? 1020). 
The df&gon^s fire- gpät hi g may have arisen from con founding the 
kindred notions of fire and poison, MiiUenh, in Hpt^s Ztscbr. 7, 
428. A Welsh dragon story in Perednr, Villem. Contea 2, 193, 
Like snakes and toads, these 'worms' also carry stüues, but in 
their belly, and so many that yon could build half a tower with 
thenij Dietr, n, ges* 300, The dragon lives 90 years in the 
ground, 90 in the Hmetree, and 90 more in the desert, Van den 
Bergh p. 73 ; these stages of developmonfc wore evid. suggested 
by the changes of the caterpillar and butterfly. 

p* t)90.] Dragons are hated : UeiSari enn manui hverjom enn 
frani orrnr med fjrom,' Stem, 85" with the note : ' veruies, in 
Speculo regali, vocantur leiöendii odia, quasi res detestabiles.* 
Therefore heroes make war upon them : Apis comes to Argos, 
and älutj» the dragan's brood, ^^sch. Suppl. 202^7. There are 
ways of guarding against them, and of killing them : hliuvonn in 
Mors is a venom-spitting worm ; he can blow through seven 
church walls, but not through knitted stockings, Molb. DitiL lex. 
43. Again : ' for att en orm med ßäkerhet skall kuuna dudas, 
ritaa forst kring honom en ring med ärs-gammal hansel-kjäppf 
ioDaii han släs,' Raäf, Coats of mail are hardened in dragon's 
blood : gehert in traken bluote^ Ecke 24; ganz al umbe den rant 



Bchilt gemactet von gold und dmcheübluot, Wigam, 2105 ; swert 
geherb io drELchenbluotj Dmcheok. 11, It is said of Alexander: 
* gebeizefc was sin brnnie in eines wurmes bluoie, hunien was sin 
veete/ Diem. 209. Massm. 1300 seq. Another sword tempered 
in dragon's blood, DV. 1, 265. SigurJSr, after eating Fdfni*s . 
heart, understood the language oflnrd^j Gudron had eaten some 
too, Ssem. 211; conf. 'quin et inesse serpenti remedia mnlta 
creduntur . , , ufc possint avium ser^nonea intelligi/ Pliny 
29, 4 (SuppL to 638). 

p. 691 J In Sew. also snmk, serpen fcis genus, Boh» »mykati^ 
serpere, ON* gmhiga ; Syrian, zmeij^ snake, GabeleotÄ p. 8. 
Fij*hes too deserve attention : Athen. 3, 30-5-6 speaks of a tVjoo9 
i^ßß?, they were beasts of Arieniis and Hecah 3, 194; conf. 
Berhia's herrings (p. 273)* 

p* 692 J For chafer there is even an Egyp, cJieper ; OH 6, 
chwat-chevcr (dung-beetle), scarabasus, Graff 4, 378, suu-chever/ 
brncus, N. 104, 34; Westerw. mm-kleher, Ravensb* eckern- 
schafer ; AS, cynges cafertilnj aula regia, -^Ifr, HomiL 122. 
Keverlmye-hnvg and S^everiinfje-hurg, Hpt's Ztschr. 7, 559 ; ' pre- 
dium chäverAofh' (16b F), MB. 8, 4(J5. 500 (yr 1160), 'hodie 
kefer-Mi' 8, 516, AS. ceafor-ltah, Kemble nos. 570. 1088. Conf. 
OHG. muggi-stat, Graö 2, 654 ; brem-garten, brem-stall, Schm. 
1, 258; bre-garten = kitchen- garden, says Höfer 1, 113; Pre- 

garten, a place iu Styria, Ranch 2, 191, The other term wibel 

occurs in the adjs, 'wibel-valf wlbel-var, pale, Herb, 6S80. 128G7, 
A Welsh gwibedenj musca, gwiblo, to fly, swarm. Äai^Öapoc 
Koirpov a<palpav Trot^Jaa?, .^Esop. Fur. 223. ^Han. Hist, anim, 
10, 15. Arist. Hist. anim. 5, 19 (conf. Lucian 8, 428). The 
Cod. Exon. 426, 11 has : * is j^ass gores sunn gonge hraedra, ]x)ne 
we wi/eZ wordum nemna"8;'in the same way bees are supposed 
to spring from putrefaction (p* 696), flies froni the deviFs rotting 
tongue, Walach. march, 285 ; and chnleih, scarabseua, horse- 
beetle, kieleche or stagbeetle (Schm, 2, 269) seems to have arisen 
out of cJmO'ieiht and to rest on a belief about the beetle*s origia 
(from cow-duDg?)j Gramm* 2, 503; conf. scio-leih, monstmra. 

p. 693.] The lueanus cervus (conf, H, Müller's Griechenth. 
446) is in Finn. Uim^nihärJcäj oak -ox, Serv. yehrn^ cervus volans, 
Engl, flictc^-heetle, siag-^j^ Fr. escarbot, Swiss gueger, cerambyx, 
holz-boeJc, feuer-tc/cfc. Staid. 1, 445; feuer-lcä/er in the Harz^ 


where they wrap him in moss^ letting the horns stick out, and 
strike at him blindfold one after the other (as elsewhere at the 
cock) ; whoever hits him, takes him homo (and has luck, or some 

honour by it ?).^ ON. has also forcT-^//, Droplaog, saga p. 10 : 

iio 0ijn*ler sagas förlätas (ten sins forgiven) den som vander om 
en pd rytjg lujgande tordyifvel, Runa '44', p. S ; conf. an Trjsh tale 
of the diwlj Conan 124j and Schiefner on tar was pp. 4. o. The 
Finn, tiirtia, tmilas denotes a voracious insect that spoils fruit 
and grass, either melolontha or gryllus migra tortus, says Renvall; 
but the same word means ^iant, conf. our heimo» Any one that 
sees the u^er/i, mole-cricket, shall get off" his horse to kill it, for 
it nibbles away the roots of the corn ; to him that does so, the 
farmer owes a loaf of bread. The AS. eoi'ä-cea/oras — i&unj ut\ 
scarabeei terrestres, was doubtless modelled on the passage in 

p, 693 n,] Hung, cgerehogdr, maybug, lit, oak-chafer, oak- 
worm ; Pol. chrab^szcz, chrz^szcz, Boh. magowy chraust, Russ, 
aipli, 0, SI. sipl, Dobrowsky Jnst. 271, Prov, bertals, bertaus, 
Mahn p. 59, Finn, lehtimatt:», leaf- worm, melolontha, Swed, 
Idfmatk. Osnabr. eckel-tiewef Lyra 23, also e\\L-schawe, ^liiasterl. 
eckeT'tu/ti, Ravensb, eckevji'Schä/er ; Miirk. Pom. zebrehnhe; 
Swiss hug(treji% Staid. 1, 239. Walloon : balowey abalowe, biese a 
Lalowe — hanneton, fr baloier = vokiger, and bizer, OHG. pisun ; 
pisewarm = oestrum. Finn, urolainen, a large beetle, uros^siti 

haros, Serv» «ros/t = picus, heros. Chafers carry a mirror about 

them : children in the Wetterau hold a cockchafer in their hands, 
and sing, ' Mennche^ weibche, weis' mer emol (do show me) deiB 
spigelche i * the outspread wings T The elbeix are chafers, chry- 
salids, butterflies, spirits and holden {conf. pp. 1073-4. 1155-6)* 
The kobold sits in the box in the shape of a beetle or humblebee, 
Sommer 33-4, 171-2. Panzer 2, 173, Bochhola 2, 238-9; the 
Dan. skrukke-f roW is an insect too, but a wingless one. The 
Pentam. 3, 5 tells of a fay that plays with a sweetly humming 
chafer (scarafone). 

p, 695.] The cocciueila^ lud, Indrugopa, Indra's cowherd, 
Bopp 40*, Schiefu. on tarwas p, 5; Finn, lenni n käinen, v/hlch 
>metimes means the beautiful hero Lemmenkiiinen ; Engl. 
Ood'tmighty't cou;, Barnes j aütmenldnd, sun's child, Schütze 4, 
225 ; Austr. g&Hiiiiilalbil, sun^s calf. GolilwUnl, cicindela^ Diut, 



2, 94. Buh. slavetko (little sun), shneance, coccinelloi also Unka, 
Pol. bfohka, Serv. babe and mam, Mary; tbe girls set it on 
their fiüger, aod repeat a rhyme, Viik p* 9**. Lith, de wo y auf is, 
God's ox, God's birdie; so the glowworm is with as Uebe Gotts 
hnnmje, Alb. Schott^ the di-agonfly tntMr lieben fnmeii rössel, 
horsie, Gadespferd, God's horse, Schütze 2, 6, but also DedV» 
horse, needle and hairpin {p. 1020), Staid. I, 276, and eye-skoofer 
\, 119; Finn, luanen kotra, death^s dog, Bob. It<idt hiava, snake's 

head. The butterfly, Gael, eunan-de, bird of God, Ir. Gael* 

JeaJaU'de and Gael, tetne^de, both fire of God, Ir. auamari-de^ 
anima Dei; conf, Swed, kciritig-ßjal, old woman's soul, Ihre 2, 
529 (see p. 829). Arm. balafen, mahifeii^ melveii ; baJafennik 
dorn, petit papillun de Diea. A butter fly-song of Hanoverian 
Wendland sounds like tbe ladybird-song : ' Botterv^gel, %ött di, 
Vader unn moder rupt di, Mul onn nese blott di ', thy mouth 
and nose are bleeding; otherwise * MlJschottke^ midtirhmike, sott 
di,' etc, A children's song at Luben calls the butterfly kef el hot er, 
kettle-mender, Firmen, 3, 480. 

p, ^97,] Boes live among meu, and t&o joys and sorrows of 
the family are duly reported to the beehives, Bosquet 217, esp. 
the death of the master, 'if you wouldn't have all your hives 
waste away within year And day' they say in Münsterlnnd. The 
same thing in Wilts, Berks and Surrey. Bees foretell the future 
to man (p, 1136) : a bumblebee in the bor gives notice of spring. 
Panzer 2, 173, 'Apes fiirtivae ' do not thrive, Pliny 19, 7, 37. 
Bosq, 217, Their home is carefully prepared: ' istud vas lacte 
et bona herba linivimus,* Acta Bened. sec. 2, p. 133. They have 

come down from the golden age, Leo's Malb. gl. 1, 119. Ssk. 

names for the bee are madhu-pa, madhu-karay madhu^Hh^ honey- 
drinker, -maker, -licker; Abrah. a S. Clara calls them nieit- 
siedcri, mead- boilers, Sehm* 1, 165. (Kl. sehr. 2, 369). Gn 
upGffSwp, flower-eater; but she drinks water too, ace. to a law- 
phrase iu the Weistbiimer; conf, 'die bin netzen,' to water the 
bees, Fiscbart's Gesch, kL 87*. A pretty name is * pini-»dyt% 
(bee-suck) = thymus,' Le. heath. Finn, mehiläiakajierva = cllno- 
podium vulg, A queen-bee settles on tho lips of a favoured 
person, Sv, folks. 1, 78. — —Their origin is miraculous: 'diu pie 
ist maget, wird due htleichiu diuc geboro,' tbe bee is maiden, 
boru without nuptial doings^ Predigten hrsg. v, Kelle 40, ' Der 



Veldtbau/ Strasbg 1556, bk 15 cap. 1 relates after Varro de R. 
K. 2, 5 how bees spring out of tlie decaying body of a dead bull. 
Miklosich brings both bHchela, p«:/i*?/o = apisj and byk = tauruS| 
under boukati = mugire (the hum of the bee?). The GL Salom» 
make wasps come from the rotten flesh of asses, droues from that 
of mules^ hornets from thatof horses, and hees from that of calves^ 
conf Dint. 2, 194 : ifnro^ €pptfj^po<: cr(f>r}Kü>v yev€€ri<: ian^ Leasing 
9, 146 fr. Aelian 1, 28 j sod bees proceed from thfi carcase of 
the lion slain bj Samson, Judg. 14, 8. An account of the genera- 
tion of hornet and bee in Schröter p. 136. Peterson^ p. 55. In 
ihe Walach. March, 2&lr the white bee turns black. As the 
bee in Germ, weaves (wift^ wabe), in Lith. ehe »ewß (pri-sdti) : 
• bittes dang pri*snwo/ the bees have stitched a good piece on. 
Been build: ev6a rtßaißwü'a'oi/ai fjteXtcriraif Od. Id, 106; they 
baild a wax palace, S tier's Volksm. 24. On the church wall at 
Folsbach was carved a huramel-uest, because the people had 
carted stones to it as diligently as the hnmblebee gathers honey, 
Panz. Beitr. 2, 17S. A man in Elsass having stolen the Host 
aQd thrown it in a field of standing corn^ it hung balanced on 
three stalks, and bees came and bailt their waben (combs) round 
it, and over it was reared a chapel, that of the Three Ears ; conf. 
Upt'a Ztschr. 7, 533. Predigermarch, 10, 12. Boyes Rodolphi 
de H. p- 257. In Csbs. Heisterb, 9, 8 the bees themaelres build 
a chapel o%*er the Hostie, 

In Virgirs Georg. 4, 68, 75. 106 the Bovereign of the bees is 
called rex, and 4, 4. 88 dux, dnctor ; ' einen y«r«/^?n (prince) hänt 
bien/ MS. 1, 84*; 'volgheden, alse haren coninc doen die bien,' 
Maerl. 3, 343; ' alsam diu bin auo den karn mit froideti valient, 
ob ir rehter 10^^*7 (var. ivisef) d rinne si,' MS. 2, 3' ; Flem. ^ konhuj 
der bien/ Hpt. 7, 533; Hennebg. 'der hadherr, der weisel,' 
Bruckner. Cherkess psheh, prince^ Klemm 4, 18. The Samogits 
•hUowed bees a god of their own, Babilos, and a goddesa, Austheia, 
icx 48. On the other hand, the Vita S. Galli (Pertz 2, 7) 
»ays: in modum parvissimae mafrls aph, conf, mater aviorum 
(p, 1242); bienen-mutler, Haltrich 121. Their honey is not 
ery where sweet : to yap fiiXi iv awaa-t roi^ TpaTre^ovifTo*; 
^wpioi^ TTiicpov yiverai, Procop. 2, 46 i; p^iXi riovriKov TrtKpop 

j iari Mal dfjBis-, Dio Chrysost. Or. 9 (ed. Ileiske 1, 289. 290). 

I The devil appears as a/y, so does Loki (p. 999). Spiders are 



akiQ to dwarfii (p. 471). Out of all herbs tlie bee sucks sweetness, 
the spider poison. Yet may the spider be of good omen too ; 
thus the kind enchantress cUmbs to the ceiling a spider, and* 
drops down a woman, Armm's March. 1, 52*7 ; conf* Itick-spinner 
(p. 1136). Cobwebs fluttering on the ceiling betoken luck and. 
a wedding, Lisch 5, 88; coof. the fortune-telling spider's head' 
{Suppl. to 380 end). Lastly consider the myth of Minerva and 


p. 700.] Himmel comes from hima — tego; the root appeal 
without suffix in 0*Swed* hiini-rike; Bopp again would derive 
from kam = splenderej Gl. 168^ bat this kam in GL 65** means 
amare, which is more likely to have had the or ig. sense of shelter, J^ 
cover; and OHG* himil already included the meaning laquear,^^ 
lacunar* AS. ^ scfip heofon to hrofe/ and hrof is roof ; ' s6 himil 
thelnt thaz lant/ O. ii. 7, 4; 'rait dem himel was ich htdtif*ht/ 
bethatched, Tragemnnd. We still say ' the sky is my decke 
(ceiling, coverlid), the earth ray bed/ or * the sky is my hat/ as 
the ON. calls it * foldar haitr/ earth's hat. The sky is a vault, 
hence * under heofones hweal// Beow. 1 146. It may burst open : 
' ich wände der himel waere enzwel/ in-two, when it thundered, 
Dietr. Drach* 122*. 143* (on the comparison of heaven to the roof 
of the month, see Hpt's Ztschr, 6, 541). A variation of the idea 
in the ON. 'uod himin-skautora,' nnder the skirts of heaven. 
Seem. 173*'. Nor weg. hihna' leite, himna-leiie ^^horizon, Germ, 

kinuuj khfiminfj. -After death we may go to h'mhiel (not heven) • 

but the sun, moon and stars in L. Saxony stand in heven (not 
himmel) j heven-scker^ scudding clouds, Brem. Ndrs. wfcb. 4, 645. 
Heven seems more the Bother, the ' radur^ rod or ' of next paragraph . 
In Austria they call heaven hlo-landlj Blue-ahire ; andOHG. uflih 
= Olympus, supernum. 

OS. raditr, AS. rodor (noi^*rodor, Cod. Eion. 178, 33) can 
hardly be conn, with Ssk, rödas, coelum et terra, Bopp 295*** 
Does the (perh, kindred) word äff-röö^tiU, m,, Saem. 37% mean thL' 



I? With AS. Bceld-byrig counect another expression of 
CaBdmon'8^ 182, 22 : dteg-scealdes hleo, day -shield's (?) roof, 

p* 70L] Ssk. ianif f., Zend, siar, Gr. da-jijp, hat stelia fr. 
sterna^ is expl* by Bopp, Vocal* 1 79 as that which U strewii over 
the sky; by Benfey 1, 661 as that which titrews its beams, from 
root fitri» With sldus^ Pott 1, 127 compares Lith* awidus, shin- 
ing, and aiö7}po^. It belouofs more likely to sido, coasido, aa 
perhaps even Stella and star are conn« with sta, stand ; conf. stal- 
baum, and 'er (Got) sitzet of den himel-^^e6i ^ rhy, zeln, weln, 

MSH. 2, 236^ MS. 2, 166\' Iq Vermland, timgel^sUr, 

Almqv. 391*. HekiDgl, 403* j in Angermanland, tongel =^ mhne, 
Aimqv. 307^. In several languageSj flame is called fconguej be- 
cause it licks ; in Irish the stars are rinny which answers to the 
Gael roinn=^tip. In Fnndgr. 1, 145 a constellation is called 
lipM'Vaz, lump. 

The OHG. girusti of the stars agrees with AS. hyrste gerun, 
rodorea tungel, Caedm* 132, 7; 'each star sat in his own little 
chair,' KM. 31, 138; * when it thunders, youVe afraid a trofi will 
tumble out of heaven,^ Garg. 181^; the Xafiirpa rpÜ7r€^a rov 
riXiov, sun's bright table, Aesop 350. The sun has a tent : 
* undir roSuIs tialdt,' Hervar. s, p, 438 {conf. Psalm 19, 4). The 
stars are considered sons and daughters; 'da möbten jttngiu 
'§unfielin wahsen uz sim lichten schin,' little suns grow out of, 
Wh. 254, 5 (p. 703 end) ; 'eina dotUtr berr 41f-rö5ull,' moon (?) has 
m daughter, Saöm, 37*, In Lett, songs the stars are sanies rneiias, 
büu'e girls, deeva deli, sons of God, Büttner no?* 15. 18 (1842). 

p. 7080 The 8tm is 'der werlde sehui,' MS. 1, 54*; 'der 
herschfiijif' Fromm* Mundart. 4, 98. 113 (but see Suppl. to 731) : 
se (EÖhla gJednif Cod. Exod. 178, 31 ; beorht beacon Godettf Beow, 
1134; nkinandi goS, Saem. 45*. 195*; hed&O'Sigel, sol e mari 
progrediens. Cod. Ex on. 486, 17 (conf. p. 223). Three suns are 
spoken of in Nialss. c. 131 end : til ]?ess er prtar solir eru af 

himni. 0. Müller thinks sol and fjXios come fr. one fundam. 

form Savelios, see Schmidt's Ztscbr. 2, 124 (Kl sehr. 3, 120); 
Etr, Uifil, Sab- au»eL Bopp's Comp. Gram, 42, 1318*9 derives 
the Zend, hvare and Ssk* sura, surga^ sun, fr. avar, svarga^ 
Bky; 18 Süryaa the same word as fiKto^ (for a/'^Xi09) and sol? 
(Pref. liv., GDS. 301), We might also conn, the Goth, «tiuil with 
84alaascolamna (Kl. sohr. 3^ 120) , The sun is descr. as a 



wlie4 in Ksrchr. 80; daz rat der sunnen, Myst. 2, 180. Hvel, 
hweol is also tbe spinning-wheel, and in Finn, the sun is called 
Gad's spindle, Kalev. 32, 20 (its usual name l^ päivä, sol and 
dies, but also aurinko) ; conf» the constell. Frejja^s-spindlei 
and TertullJan^s pectines solis, GDS, 107. Before the sun there 
stands a «/aeW ; if it fall, it will set mountaiii and sea ablaze : 

Svalr heifcir, hann stand r sÖlo for, 

Bciöldr SCI Dan da go^i ; 

biörg oc brim ec veit at brenua acolo, 

ef hann fellr 1 fra. ^mmAh\ 195^ 

Erinius (in Varro 7, 73) calls the sua caell cUperts, and the notion 

is Slavic too, Hanusch 25G. ^Oii the sen as an e^fe, conf, Kuba 

(in Höfer 1, 150), Passow sub vv. ofißjLa, 6<f>6a\fx6^, Li solans 
qui tout aguete, Rose 1550. The sun's eye hidden in the well 
seems to be referred to in such names as Sunnebrunno near 
Düsseldorf, Lacombl. 1, no. 68 (jr 874) j Sofmefibrtmne^ Mone'a 
AnK. 6, 227; Stmnehrunnenf Sonnehorn in Saxe Gotha, Dronke's 
Trad. Fuld, pp. 42.61; Sunneborn, Landau's Hessengau 181; 
Sumborn near Gelnhausen ; Snnnobrunnmi, Werdeu's Reg. 236, 

and oufjenbrunne 6,230; conf. Forstenmnn 2,1336* ^To AS. 

wiildres gim^ henfoncs gim^ Cod. Exon. 174, 30^ corresp. the Ssk. 
iliei dominus, diei ^ewma — sol, Bopp 27*. Other AS, terms are : 
fdca frl&iiandelj Caedm. 
ntndelf Beow, 3143, if^ruldcai 
174, 3L 

p. 704.] The Letts regard the sun and moon as sister and 
brother, Bergm, 120; in Dalecarlia the moon is called tmkarsol, 
Almqv. 261 (is not that Lappish, the junkare's sun?}. Goth. 
rnina, OHG, mano, AS. mona, ON. mdni, all masc. ; Carinth. 
inonet, Lexer's Kämt. wtb. Yet also: ^ diu trm^nut begltmet,^ 
V, Gelouben 118 (glimo, gleimo, Graff 4, 289); dm maeninne^ 
MF. 122, 4; diu mämnne, Diemer 341, 22. 843, IL 342, 27; 

* der Fun (>funne] und diu rnneimtnef' Karaj. 47, 8 (Ksrchr. SS- 
DO). MHG. diu sumie, Hpt 8, 54 L Diemer 384, 6; in Rollenh. : 

* der harte mond, die liebe sonn/ The Angevins on the contrary 
called ' le soleil seigneur, et la lune dame/ Bodin^s Recb. sur 
I'Anjou 1, 86; so in Ksrchr. 3754 'der hmre' seems to mean the 
sun, but in'contrad. to p. 3756. The forester kneels to sun^i 

— sol, Bopp 27*. Other AS, terms are : 
153, 15, heofoncandel 181, 34; rodoreg -^M 
Jdcandtd 3926; wyncandtl, Cod. Exon. ^ 



fnoon and God, Baader iii. 21 ; ' the imrship'd s««/ Bom, and JiiL 
i. 1. Men prayed towards the sun, N.Pr, prov. bl. 1, 300; they 
salute him (pp. 737. 749), esp. when risiofif : o Se eiarfjtcet ßixP^ 
€0»^ iy€V€To Kal tJXio? avea-^^ev* iir^ira ^x^"^^ mnwVy irpoa^v^dfLtvos 
to! lyXtüj, Plato^B Symp. 220. A feast of the »un was held in 
Dauphine, Champoll. Dial. p. 11. On the Tartar worship of the 
sun, see K. Schlözer 32-3, Among Tnngüses an accused man 
has to walk toward the sun, brandishing a knife, and crying : 
' If I am f^uilty, may the sun send sickness to rage in my bowels 
like this knife t* Klemm S, 68. Serv. ' tako mi suntza !' Ilaoke 
p. 59, We still say, when the sun shines warm, * he means well 

by us,* Felsenb. 4, 24L The Moon is called in Ssk. nisapati, 

noctis dominus, or naxh'esa, tdrdpati^ sfcellarum dominus; in Pol. 
ksieiycj lord of night, and he is shepherd of the stars (Suppl. to 
722). The moon is invoked against anger; 'heiptom seal mami 
kveÖ^ia, Seem, 27**; and is asked for riches. With the German's 
naive prayer to the moon to ' make his money more/ conf. a 
Swed. one in Wieselgr. 43 K Dyb. Runa '44, p. 125, and the 
' monjochtroger/ Wolfs Ztschr. 2, 60. To avert the moon's 
evil inflaence, the Bretons cry to her, *tu nous trouves bien, 
laisse-nous bien ! ' Wlien she rises, they kneel down and say a 
pater and ave, Cambry 3, 35. 

'p. 705.] The sun and moon have gods assigned them : Bac- 
chus is sol, Ceres luna, Macrob. Sat. 1, 18» Virg. Geo. I, 5. 
Ace. to P. Magnusen, Freyr is sol, Freyja luna; and four names 
of Freyja, ' Mardoll, Horn, Gefn, S^p,* or * Siofn, Lofo, Viir, 
Syn' are the moon's phases, Lex. myth. 357-9. Cbrist is often 

likened to the ann, Mary to the moon. Oar saying, that * die 

sonne scheint, der mond greint,' is old : M.Neth. * seder dat die 
maen grSn,' Potter 2, 104; MHG. *din sunne beschinet, diu 
maenin Imflimet/ V. Gelouben 118 (SuppL to 704). 

p. 707.] In Pohjola, sun and moon get stolen; the sun is 
delivered fr. capfivUij by Perkan'a hammer, N. Pr. prov. bl. 1, 
299, Kh echr. 2, 84. 98 ; conf. ' donee auferetur luna/ Ps. 72, 7. 
In eclipses the demon RÄhus threatens the sun and moon, Kuhn 
in Hofer 1, 149. Holtzm. Ind. s. 8, 151 ; a dragon tries to 
swallow the mooUj Cfjos. heisterb. 3, 35, yr 1225 (Kaufm. p. 55) ; 

the Swed. sol-ulf is Dan. sol-ulv, Molb* Dial, p. 533. But the 

sun may withdraw his light in grief or in anger : 




Sunna irhalg sih (was indignaiifc) thrfi^to 
ni liaz ßi seLan worolt-thiot (-people) 
hinierquam in tlir4ti (disgust) 

ioh bar to thaz irforahta. 

suslichero dät-o (deeds), 
thaz ira frdniäga liotitj 
tliera armalichun dati. 
Ofcfrbd iv. 33, 1. 
0. iv. 33j 14. 

The SUD hides hia face before a great aorroWj e.g. at the death of 
Christ, or that of Von Meran : ' ©z moht diu liehte sunne ir sch!a ^ 
da von verlorn h&n,^ WigaL 8068, Hrab. Matirus in Wh. Müller 
pp. 159, 16Ü, A fine descript. of a solar eclipae io Pindar, Frag. 
74 Boeckh, 84 Bergk. Oq superstit. practices at the echpse of 
989, Thietmar of Mersebg says 4, 10: ' sed cunctia persuadeo 
ChristicoliSj ut veraciter credant^, hoc non aliqua malarum üim/i- 
tatione mulwrum vel esu fieri, vel buic aliqno modo seculariter 
ddjuvarl poese/ 

The dcemon that dogs the moou is called by the Finns capeet; 
the capeen try to eat her up, Hirirn p. 37-9; Juslen baa ^ capel, 
eclipsis lunae.' Now Ren vail sub v. kavet, gen. kapeea, pL 
kapeet, gives only the meaoiDgs 'dcoQion, genius/ coof. Peterson 
p. 31 ; but sub V. kuumet be has ' moonlight, genius myth. Iuna0 
inimicus/ Compare that * deduc&re luoam et sidera ten tat * 
(Suppl. to 1089 end), to which is added i ' Et faceret si non aera 
repuha sonent,* TibuIL i. 8,21; aera 'uerfc^*e?ii. Martial 12,57; 
cum aei%s crepitu, qualia in defeciu lunae silenfci nocte cieri aolet, 
Livy 26, b; conf. Pintarcb 4, 1155. 

la lunar eclipses the Ossets shoot at the moon, belie vi og that a 
malignant monster flying in the air is the cause j and they go on 
firing till the eclipae is over, KohPs S. Russia 1, 305 ; conf. thö 
legend in Cass, beisterb. Horn. 3, 35 (Main^er^s Ztschr. 1, 233), 

p. 709.] Tim chanyt! of moon is called ^ des miltnen wandelkßre,' 
Parz. 470, 7, ' d. m. wandeltac' 483, 15, '^d, m. wandcP 491, 5» 
The period of her shining is expr. by : So dem mänen sin zit In 
der naht berfür git/ Er. 1773. By new moon we mean the trao 
conjunction of son and moon ; but the Crreeks reckoned the 
youfiTjvta from their first seeing the young moon at sunset, there- 
fore some time afcer conjunction, K. F. Hermann's Gottesd, 
altertb. p. 226, Full moon is reckoned in with the ^afbräken 
maan^ [i.e, bruch, wane], Goldschm* Oldenb. volksmed, 144. 
OUG, mänüt-fengida ^neomenia, calendae, Graff 3, 415, conf» 



fengari p. 701 n. ; anafan(f Manodhj N. 80, 5; MHG. eia niuwer 
ZDÄne hat oäch wünsche sich gestalte er häfc gf^vangen harte wer- 
decliche/ begun most worthily, MS. 2^ 99S Welsh bhien'iieivifdd, 
first of the new. The Esths hail the new moon with: 'Mooo, get 
old, let me keep young ! ' Böcler's Ehsten 143. Full moon : 
ein voller mäne, MS. 2, 83'; hölftjMß, Molb. Dial, lexic, 'Nova 
luna est cc)r^/*/tT, Tinde plena rotanda est/ N. Boifth. 171; from 
the moon's horns it was but a step to the fnoon^B com, Pott 2, 252, 
The oath of the Fehm-court (IIA. 51) has: ' helen und hoden 
(conceal) vor sunne, vor mane^ vor alle tüesietmane ' ; what means 
this last word ? The sun is imagined standing in the east, the 

1 moon in tlie west : ' Osten for sol, og vesten for maane,' Asb* og 
Moe 2, C seq. 

p. 711.] Taga blod emellan (let blood befcw.) ny och nedaHf 
Folks, 1, 111. Swed. nedmörk is the Gr. yif^ fXKQTo^i^vio<;, Od, 
14, 457* Superstitions about ned and ny, ned-axel and ny-tiiod- 
ning, Rätif 110-6. In Dalecarlia, new moon is called ävärand, 
Almqv, 262**; in the Edda, halfmoon is 'inn skarffi wuini"/ Saem. 
134^', as indeed Perktins rhojw the moon in two, Rhesa 92, 192* 
The Scand, ny is MUG. daz nitt ; thus Diemer 3 tl, 22 : ' also si 
an daz niu gftfc, und iewederen (each) halben ein horn hit'; then 
342, 27: ' diu m&ninne gdt niht ze sedele, an deme jtiu noch an 
deme tvedele*; but again 311, 21 : 'diu mäoiune chrainp wirt 
nude chleine/ A statute of Saalfeld, like that of Mülhausen, says 
(Walch 1, 14} : 'wer da mit uns hierinne in der stat sitzet nttwe 
ande ivedil ( — a month), u. kouft u. verkouffc/ ' Neu u. voile des 

IvDonds/ Ettn, Dnw. doctor 435 ; ' so bat Luna zwei angesicht, 
das ein gen New u, Äbnew gricht,' Thurneisser's Archidox. 147 j 

* Vollmond, brück oder vollachein,' Franz, Simpl. 2, 301, 

Waxing and waning are ' wahaeti unde swhien/ Bari. 241, 24; 
M. Neth. ' wasäen end© waneti/ Rose 4638, conf. p. 709 n. [and 
Eogl, wan, wane^ want, wanbope]. An Ind, myth of the waxing 

'und wauiDg moon iu Holtzni. I, 5 — 8. KM.' 3, 401. The moon 
changes about so, his mother ^anH cut out a coat to fit him, KM,^ 
.8, 347. Plut* in Conviv. sept. sap. Aesop. Fur, 396, Corais 
''825, Garg. 135^ 

p. 712.] Is ivedel akin to Ssk, t*id/iu = luna ? Bopp 32 P. 
.Passages quoted in preced. note contragt it with new moon; so 

* bolter im ivadel gehouweo,' Ilpt's Ztachr. 3, 90 ; but 'a bole in 



his gcliedel (skull) hewn ia had weM,' UhL p. 658. Ambras, 152, 
On wedelj good and bad wed el, and wedeln fco wag, see Liliencron 
in Hpt 6, 363-4-8. Kühnes Ztschr. 2, 131, IPtiJai = hyaopes, 
faaciculna hyaopi, Diut. 1, 494\ 

p* 715.] The reverse of whafc CßBsar sayfi about the Germans 
(de B. Gall. 1, 50) is told by Pausaniaa i. 28, 4 of the Laced»- 
moniansj who would only fight fit fulUmoon. Silver and gold are 
brought out at newen mon, Sup. G* 108. * Qnaedaoi faciunda m 
agris potiua crescente lüna quam aeneacente; quaedam contra, 
quae metas, nt frumeuta et caeduam silvam. Ego iata etiam, 
inquit Agrasiua, Bon solum in ovibua tondendia, aed in meo capillo 
a patre acceptnm servo, ne decrescente laua toudeus calvus tiam/ 
Varro RR. Ij 37. Moonlight makes rotten ^ and barrel hoops cut 
by it will rot aooner, Athen. 3, 7 | worms get into wood not 
rightly hewn : ' bolsier die man nit zu rechter zeit des raons und 
monat gehauen hat/ Petr. Mihi 103-'; *si howent raif {they cut 
hoops, the rascally coopers) an dem niwen man/ Teufelsaetz 
11127; elder to be cut by waxing or waning moon, Gottlielfa 
Schuldb. 14 J more food taken, or less, ace. to the moon, 
Bopp^s Gl. 122^. Without moonlight, herbs lack scent and 
Savour, Holtzm. Ind. s. 1, 6. 8; ^ tea manen ton ist anagenne, 
nnde s4mo saphes unde marges^ [Moon's dew is regeneration, 
the seed of sap and marrow ?J, N, Cap* 25. Drink out of a jug 
that the moon shines into, and you'll be moonstruck [lunatic, 
sleep-walker ? ], Stelzhamer 47. 

p. 720.] The moon's spots are also descr. as a dag, Hitzig's 
Philist. 283. In a Greenland story, while the Moon pursues his 
sister the Sun, she dabs her sooty hands over his face; hence the 
spots, Klemm 2, 314, The New Zealand view is, that they aro 
like a woman who sita plucking Gnatuh 4, 360. The Ranthum 
people think the man in the moon ia a giant, standtng upright at 
ebb-time, and stooping at flood, Miillenh, p. 360 ; but also in the 
same neighbonrhood he is a sheep-stealer or cabbage- thief, as in 
Holland, no. 483 ; conf. the Waüachian story in Friedr. Müller 
no. 229, and the Westphalian in Woeste 40. In the Ukermark 
he carries a bundle of pea-straw, Hpfc's Ztschr. 4, 390 ; ' und 
sprechend die laien, es sitz ain man mit ainer dorn-pilrd (thorn- 
load) in dem monen,' Megenb, 65, 22. Ettner's Med. maulaffe 
speaks of a bundle of wood to fire the moon with, ' Burno, oom 



d'un voleuFj que les gen3 de la campagne priätendent fitre dans la 
.lane/ Grandgagnage 1, 86. Ace. to Schott, the Old-Chines© 
r tradition makes a man in the moon continually drire his axe into 

the giant tree knei, but the rifts close op again directly; h© 
lanSers for the sins he committed while an anchoret. At Wallen* 
^liausen in Swabia they nsed to ride races for the dorn-biischele : 

three lads would start for the goal, the two foremost got prizes, 
rand the third had a bunch of thorns tied on his back. In Bavaria 

the reapers leave a few ears standing, and dance round them, 

singing : 

heiliga sanct Mäha, 

bescher (grant) ma a an nasch galir (year) meha 

so vil kürntla^ so vil horntlaj 

so vil ährla, so vil gute gährla, 

so vil köppla, so vil schockla; 

scliopp dich siädaliit schopp dich stadala ! 

heiliga sanct Maha i 

The stalks tied together represent St, Mäha's ßtätlala (stack), 
which they stuffed full of ears ; only we must observe^ that in 
Bavaria the moon is called md, not mahn, Panz. Beitr. 2, 217 
(SappL to 157). The Katar on p. 719 n. was a herdsman beloved 
by the goddess Triglava, %vho put him in the moon. Finn, 
kautur=:moou, Kalev. 22, 270* 26, 296 or moon-maiden, from 
kuu, moon, Est. hi, Morduin, to ; and kmimei is the pursuer of 
the moon, Peterson p. 31-3. la Brother Gheraert ed. Clarisse 
p, 1 32 the man in the moon is called ludergehr ; conf. the Saxon 
hero Liudeger in the Nibelungen, and Godeke^a Rein fried 90. 
p, 720.] TJie sun dances at Easter (p. 291). The Indians say 

[•the snn dances, and they in imitation salute him with dancing, 
Lucian. de Saltat, cap. 17, 

p. 722.] The stars are said to glister, twinkle, sparkle : 

I Sternen glast^ MS. 2, 6^; ein Sternen hlic, flash, Parz. 103, 28. 
The morning stars break out, like fire ; swenne der morgensterne 
ie friieje uf brast, MS. 2, 5^ ; an der sterren brunttte^ burning, 
Dint. 1, 352 ; sterre enbran u. schein, took fire and shone 1, 351 ; 
cont N» Cap* 97. The sinking, ' rushing down * of stars is io 

Grk atiraetv, Earip. Iph* Anl. 9. In Hungary 280 native 

nam^g of stars have been collected, Wolfs Ztschr. 2, 160. 



Magyar Myth* 582 ; several names occur in Ossian, Alilwartlt 2, 
2(]5, 277. 3, 257. Arfvklss. 1^ 149. 206; ArmeDiau uamea ia 

Dulaurier's Chroool. aroiuu. ^59, 1, 18Ü-1. Stars were in- 

Tokedj as Hesperus in Bion 1 1 ; tHey were messeugers of gods, 
as Arctürus iu the proL to Plaut. Rudeus ; tbey do erraods for 
lovers, Vuk do. 137* Stars are kind or hostile: quaeritis et caelo 
Piioeiiicum iuventa sereno, quae sit Stella homLui commoda, quae- 
que mala. Prop, iii, 21, 3; iuterpretiag the stars is spoken of 
iu MS. 1, 189**; Prov. astruoi (astrosus) meant lucky> and mal- 
aniruc^ dis-astrousj 'her star is at the heat (brunst). • . . 
till their stars have cooled down (versaust, done blustering)/ Ph. 
v, Sittew. p. 614. Stars take part iu a maa^s birth (p. 860) and 
death {p. 721). They have angels to wait on them, Tommaseo 
1 , 233. For the misdeed of Atreu^, God changed the courses of 
all the constellations, Phito's Polit, pp. 2G9. 271. 

The stars are the moon*s flock, she leads them to pasture, 
Spee p, m, 103, 210. 227, A Serv, song, Vuk no. 200, says ; 

od sestritze zvezde preodnitza, | 

shto preodi preko vedra neba 
kao pastir pred bei im outzama. 

What star is meant by jyreodnitza (percurrens), 'who walks 
athwart the sky, as a shepherd before his white lambs ' 7 conf. 
no. S62: 

osn se nebo zvezdama, 
i ravuo polye outzama ; 

i.e. heaven sows itself with stars, and the wide plain with Iambs. 
So iu Pentam. 3, 5 (p. 310) ; quauuo e:>co la luua a pascere d© 
rosata le ^almclle (Pleiades). 

On shooting siarSf see Humb. Kosmos 1^ 393; they are called 
itern-fürwe (-furbish)^ Mone 8, 497 ; Austr. stearn-rai^^^nj clear- 
ing the throat, ätearn-schnaitzn, snuffing, Stelzh. 135 — 144; 
Gael, drentj, dreag. A star falls from heaven into the maiden's 
lap, Mdllenh. p. 409 ; conf. ^ non cadere in terram Stellas et 
sidera cernisf' Lucr. 2, 209, They are harbingers of war, of 
dying, Klemm 2, 161 ; says the folksong : ' Over the Rhine three 
stars did fly. Three daughters of a widow die,' Simrock no. 63. 
A comet ia ON. hala-stiarna^ Ir, baid^reali, tail-star, Ssk* 



dhumahein, fumi vexillum. The Indians call the tail elephant's 
tooth, the Chinese a broom, Kosmos 1, 106. In Pi-ocopius 1, 167 
the star is ^npia^, sword- shaped^ or irtt^ymvia^t bearded. It fore- 
tells misfortune \ hence * we name it the dreadful scourge of God/ 
zom^rnte^ anger-rod, Lucae Cbron* 249; 'et nnnquam caelo 
speHatum impnne comefcen/ Cland. B. Get. 243, criue vago 2 47. 

p. 723,] Tho Greeks called Mercury SrLXßiüif^ Jupiter 0(i€0mv, 
Saturn ^alvwv, YenuH #öi<r-(^opo9 = Luci-fer, and Mars Ilvpoei^, 
£ve planets in all ; conf. Cic. de Nat, D. 2, 20 ; so the third day 

of the week wan Uy/joct^, the fourth SriXßmv, The evening 

star was also called iier-sternj ' darnmb daz die wilden tier dan 
her für gent (wild beasts then go forth) aux iren walden uod 
holern/ OberL 1639, Similar is tbe Lith. zwermns fr. zworis, 
\ feraj Boh, zuyjretnice^ wild star, evening »tar \ conf. AS* swana 
9t€orra, Another Boh, name te^nmce, dioi star, is like MH6. 
tankelsterne. Welsh gweno, evening star, Venus. The Lith. 
lias also waktminn^f evening star, auszrinne, morning star^ beside 

iwerinne mazoyl for Mars, and zi4}eriHne didt^^fji for Satorn. 

The day star, 'der Uckfe iage-üerre^ of Albr. v. Halb. (Haupt 
11, 366), is Serv., eicim^za, Boh, dennice^ Russ. denniiza ; 'der 
hringe-tag ' in Scherfer^s Grobian 75 is modelled on luci-fer. 
Der morgensterne, swenne er uf (jäi, und in des luftes triiebe lät, 
Iw. 627; der morgenstern frvlockl reht, ob er brinne, Hätzl.S*; 
ik forneme des morgenstemes slach^ Upstand. 750; 'some say 
the devil has taken the daystar capttüe, hence the cold and ill 

weather/ Gutslaf's Wohhanda p. 265. The polar star, ON. 

hiara-sHama ; OHG. leite-sierTB^ loadstar^ GraflF 6» 723; MHG, 
leife-aterne, Trist, 13660,* also ^ner-nfenie.^ stella maris, Griesh, 
2, 13 ; caihlinn der flui in Oisian 2, 334 ; in 0. v* 17, 31 * Polomin 
tben stetigen,' nom. PoUni? conf. polunoci [pure Slav, for mid- 
night 1] =sept^ntrione8j Graff 3, 334. The Lapp. (/■«o/(i = palu3 
and Stella polaris, because it stands firm as a stake; Americ, 
iehka chagatha, star that goes not. Klemm 2, 161. 

p. 724.] Ace. to Saöm. 76' it was Thorr, not OSinn, that threw 
Thiassi^s eyes into the sky, Theodoeina was changed into a star, 
Claud, de 3 cons. Hon. 172, de 4 cons. 428. John the Baptist^» 

* Leytgeffirn in the Wetterau (Höfer'a D. ark. 60, Schmidt's G©8ch. d. grOB«h. 
Hessen 1, 241} La spelt in tbe Cod. Laureah. 312S— 30. 2id, 250-2 Leit^keatie, 
Ltit^eMire, Leiz-oastro, and bas ihetefore oolhiag to do with star. 



head was placed in the sky (p. 284-5), so was that of Räha^ 
Holtzm. lod* s. 3, 151. 

p. 725.] Ssk* rxaH pL, the shiners (the 7 sages), rxas siag,, 
the 6,hiner — äpKTo<;. Indra's car ia made of the seven aages j 
the coDsfcell. may also be called* vahanam, waggon, Kuhn in 
Höfer 1, 159. löL Holtzm. Ind. s. 1, 30. The Grt Bear repres. 
the British Arthur (confounded with Arcturus), and the Lyre is 
his harpj Davies's MythoL p. 187, All the luminaries ride in 
cars : * luna rotigerae vugationis/ Kemble 5, 195 (yr. 931). 
Charles wa'ui is over the chimney, 1 Henry IV", 2, 1 ; der wägete 
ist ob dem hus, Keisersb. Brösamh 70^^ der hliihehma^e a schon 
die deichsel rückwärts drehet, Scherfer's Grobian ed. 1708^ p. 72* 
An O. Belg. riddle asks who it is that has to go round on the 
Roodeatraat ail night in a coach without borseSj and appears in 
the morning: ' Btuno heeft een' koets ghemaekt Up vier wielen, 
zonder peerden } Brmio heeft een' koeta ghemaekt. Die alleen 
naer Brüssel gaet;' meaning the coach in the sky, Ann» de la 
Soc, d'emuL da la Flandre occid. '^^i, 4, 368. Geticum plau' 
dirum, Claud, do B. Get. 247; and Alanua ab Insulis {d. 1202) 
in bis Anti-Claudian makes allegorical fec^ales construct a 
heavenltf car, Cramer's Gesch. d. erzieh, p. 204. Fest us sub v. 
septmUriones, septem boves juncti. Varro 7^ 74 : boves et temo, 
Ow. Met, 10, 447. Ex Ponto iv, 10, 39 : plauatrum. GL sletfcst, 
1, 2 : Virgilias, nibiuMiriie ; and t>, 392* 479 : Majae, Pliadaa, 

siblnMrueis, Ir, gr lag chan, a coostell, ; Gael, griglreati^ Charles 

wain, otherw. crann, crannarain {p, 729 n.) ; grigleaa^ grtgleari 
meanmnachf grioglachan^ Pleiades. Ir, caincheacJda, plough, 
ploughshare, seven stars of the wain. Finn, otava or otavaineUj 
ursa major, is distingu. fr. vähä otava, ursa minor ; yet otava can 
hardly belong to ohto (ursus)* In Kalev. 28, 393-4 otavahien and 
seUscntähtineri (seven stars) are used as if synonymous, and both 
have shoulders. The Lapp, sarto is both alces, elk, and nrsa 
major ; in Ostiak too the constelh is called los, elk (KLemm 3, 
128), and has a head and tail. In Greenl. it is tukto^ reindeer. 
Klemm 2,314. Fabriciys 504^. In American j tcA/ca. shachpo is 
supposed to be an ermine with its hole, its head, feet and tail. 
Klemm 2, 161. The Arabs call the two end stars of the bear's 
tail mizar and henetnashj and the third, which is the pole of the 
wain, alloth; the remaining four make the axles. 


p. 727.] Orion's belt, Lat. jugxila, jugiilae : 'nee Jugulae, 
neque Vesperugo, neqae Vergüiae occiJuat/ Plaut A. i. 1, 119; 
also ettaitf and eusi/ert ForcelL sub v. ensia : ' nitidumquQ Orionia 
ensetn, Ov. Met. 13, 294, In Westgotl, Frigge-rakkmi and 
Jacobs ataf; ON* fmkikaUar, F. Magn* Dag, tid, 105. ' Orion 
constell. a rusticis vocatur baculus S. Petri, a quibusdam vero 
ires Mariae/ Gl. Augieus. in Mone 8, <i97; iu tschleswig Mori-rok 
and Peri'pik, Mülleuh. no. 484. Finn. Kalevan miekka^ Kalevae 
ensis, also Väinämöisen mkkka or vikate (sithe), Schiefn. on Cas- 
tren p, 329 i Lapp, niall^ itialla^ which usuaUy means taberna, 
repositorium; iu Graeul. the belt id named siddut^ the bewildered, 
being seal-honters who lost tlieir way, and were caught up and 
set among the stars, Klemm 2^ 314; cuuf, the Lappish legend 
about the Pleiades, below. 

p. 729.] Of the 7 Pleiads only six are ever seen, Humb. 
Kosm. 3, 65 ; quae septem dici, sex tarnen esse solent, Ov* Fast. 
4, 171 (see p. 728 n.). AS. Gl. ^pliadas, aiftrnderrt/ Oehler 359. 
Fr. l'e»toille poussinieref Rabelais 1, 53 ; las couzigneiros, Diet. 
Lauguedoc. 127. The Hung., beside Hastik^ has hftevemj. In 
Serv^. march, pp. 15 and 87 appears a girl with the golden hen 
and chickens, conf. Vuk no. 10 ; the Wallaoh, story tells of a gold 
cluck'hen and five chickff, Schott p* 242.^ Syrian. vo}jkotl2tjunf 
lit* night-star. The Lith. and Finn, notion of the constellation 
being a sieve reminds me of Lucian's Timon 3, where the quak* 
' ing earth is compared to a shaken sieve. — The Pleiades are 
^called in Nor weg, Lapp, räeid-glerreg, fr. nieid — virgo, and 
gierreg = samling af en rets besiddere ; but in Swed. Lapp. 
»utijenets räuko (Lindahl 40ß. 443^], i.e* fur in frost : the sky, 
taking pity on a man whom his master had turned out of the 
house in the depth of wiater, covered him with this constellation 
(F, Magu. in Dag. tider p. 103 gives (/ofcl'te = heart, which Lin- 
dahl has not under tsakke). Greenl. keUuklurset, hounds baitiug 
a bear, Klemm 2,314. Fabriciua 188*; conf, Welsh y twr iewdw9, 
the close pack, i.e. Pleiades, and eburdrung (p» 727)* The Amer. 

Indians worship this constell.. Klemm 2, 112. 153, 173. 

Similar to the Lith, name for the Kids, viz, ' ploughman and 

* Tbe lost iamb is looked lor at the morniBgstar, eTcnrngBtiir, moon and sim, 
r Jiith* in Bh«M p. 2Ü04'2 ; cooi. p. 707-8, tiud * coming to the tun, and asking him»' 
[ fijnn. in Gerer. 64. 



oxen/ is the Serv. voluyara (fr. volj ox ?), a star that ploaghmen 
know, for when it rises thej look out for their oxen, Caaaiopeia 
is Lith. joslandis^ no doubt fr. josta^ girdle* The Hyades, AS* 
raedgastran. Lye: 'the fire in the head of Taurus'^ raedgaesnan, 
Gl, Epin., redgaesrum, GL OehL p. 336* The Lyre^ Boh. haus- 
hcky na oebi^ fiddle in the sky» 

p. 73 L] The constellation of the Bear is niade out from the 
animaPs head, back and tail. A star with the shape of a child, 
Pass. 24j 30 seq. ; coaf. the sun as a apindle (SuppL to 703 mid.). 
Most natural of all was the making of stars out of beaming eijea 
(p. 565-6-8), as in the story of Thiassi and the New Zealand one. 
Klemm 4, 354-5. 388. 

Tiie northern lights (aurora boreal is) are called heerhrand, heer* 
schein t Frommano 4, 114 (Suppi. to 703 beg.) ; Swed. norr-skeu, 
Dan. nord'lys; Gael, firchlh^ na fir c/*//^^, the merry dancers, 
Welsh -tf goleuny gogleddoL Finn, the fox's fire; conf. Gesta 
Rom. c. 78, and note to Keller's Sept sages ccxx. 

p. 734,] On names of the rainbow, see Pott in Aufr. and 
Kuhn'a Zta, 2, 414 seq. The ON. As-bril is OS, Osna-bntgga, 
Massm, Egsterst. 34. Zeusa p. 11; regenbogen-trwcfce, Firmeti, 
2, 45, Ir. and Gael, hlogha, braoin, Carraigth. 54. The ON* 
hiiiar-ApordTf bridge's tail, is further illustr. by a MH6. sporten, 
caudae vulpium, Griesh, 1, 125. 2, 42. The rainbow is called a 
messenger in Fornm. sog. 9, 518: grdrr regen-^o^t Hoikars stö5 
ä grimmum Göiidlar hiuni f?egna, Pliny 24, 13 (69) : ^ coeleatia 
arcus in frtiticem iniiixns*; more plaioly 12, 24 (52) : Hradunt, 
in quocunqoe frutice curvetur arcus coelestis, eandem quae sit 
aspalathi suainiatem odofis existere, sed si in aspalatho, inenar- 
rabilem quandam '; and 17, 5 (3) : * terrae odm* ... in quo loco 
arcus coel. dejecerit capita sua.' Another superstition is, that a 

treasure lies hidden at the foot of the rainbow, Panzer 1, 29. 

Duller p. 35 cites the name wetter-maal {county Guttenstein), 
which I find nowhere else; rege7ibonm = inSi Gl, Sletst, 39, 820. 
Finn., beside taivaan-kaari, heaven's bow, has vesi-kaart, water 
bow, Ukon-Jf,, sateeti'h., rain bow. To the Greenlander the rain- 
bow is the hem of a god's garment, Klemm 2, 327, The Poles 
have d^iga, bow, correap, to Buss. Serv. duga, but not in the 
sense of iris, which they call t^cza. The Lettic has also deeva 
yohstUf Bergm. p* 124j and the Lith. dangaus izhta, heaven'« 


broom. Scbmeller 2, 19ö has ^die hunel-blue, rainbow/ conf. 
Iris, wlio gives her name to both rainbow aod flower (Peniuika, 
SuppL to 1216 o.). Ssk. Indri ielam^ Bopp 43*. The Tartars 
make a feast whea the rainbow appears, Kurd Schliizer p. IL 

The Pohjan -daughter sits on the air- bow (ilraari wempele), the 
sky-bow (taiwon kaari), weaving, Kalev. raue 3 beg» There also 
sit the suu (Päivätär) and moon (Kuutar), to listen to the song 
of Wäiniimöinen 22, 17, spianiDg guld the while^ till the spindles 
drop out of their hands 26, 29ö* Am miau* Marcelh lib. xtl.^ end : 
' Et quoniam est signum permutation is anrae , . , igifcur apud 
poetas legimns saepe, Irlm de coelo miiti, cam praesenbium rerutn 
verti necease sit status/ 



p, 737.] On the origin of ^jfiap^ »/^e/^a, Bopp thinks differently, 
see Gn 505. With Dagr as a mythical person couf. Baldseg» 
Swefd«eg; of his son [or father] DeliJugr it is said in Fornald, 

l^ög. Ij 468 : 'üti fyri Dellaujs djrum/ under the open sky* The 
Bdda makes night precede and produce day, couf. ' nox ducere 
dUoi videtur/ Tac. Germ. 11. 

In spite of Benfey, the Ssk. niä and nakt seem to belong to 
one root. In GDS. 905 I have traced our nacht to nahan. The 
Ssk. rajani seems akin to Goth, riqis, Ir. reag, AS. racu (p. 813 
end). Other words for night : Ir. oidheJie^ aidche, Zeuss 257, 

tOae). oiche ; Finn, i/o, Est. ü, Hnug. ej, Lapp. N/a, ya ; Basq. 
jaüa, gaubdj arrtiUa, zaroa. The Greek language has a separate 
name, vvkto^ a^oXjoi^, for the last third of the night, when 
dreams are true (p* 1146 mid.); [but also the first third, when 
Hesperus shines, IL 22, 317]. 

p. 737.] Day and night are holy i Tjm^ Sta, Od. 9, 15L 306; 
mit Got und dem hetivjen tag, Hpt's Ztschr. 7, 53Ü-7; so mir der 
heilige' dach 1 107, 46. 109, 19; so mir Got n. dat hmlge licht! 
254, 19; so mir dat heilige licht! 57, L 105, 30; summer (so 
mir) der dach, der uns allen geve licht! 14, 50* 119, L 69, 21; 
God ind der gode dach 7, 4L 21, 40. 65, 55; so mir der gode 
dach, &o ucb der g* d. 1 33, 39. 21dj 62; durch den guden dach 



69, 21, 196, 3. 312, 63; b6 mir der guote tac ! Ges. Abent S, 
227 J aU mir helf der g; t, ! 3j 243 j dor dere van den goden dage. 
Lane. 44948; bi Gode ende bi den goeden dage» Walew. 155; 
Reinaert, coming out of bis hole, * quedde den schonen dcLch ', 
itc^io. 2382 ; ' Sainfc Jourdbuy/ Theatre Fran^. 2, 47; qui parati 
Bunt diei matedicere, MB. 26, 9 (n. 1256)^ conf. ' wfe geschehe dir 
(woe betide thee), Tac, daz do mich last bt liebe langer bliben 
niht! ^ Waltb. 88, 16. Of a piece with the above adjurations is 
our '^as sure as tbe datj stands in heaven^ ; OHG. theist giwis io 
80 diKjj O. V. 12, 33; MHG. ich weiz ez wärez als den tac, Trist. 
6646 ; ' daz ist war so der tac/ Diemer 78, 8* 

p. 738.] Day appears as a personality independent of the snn: 
' Awake the <jvd of day^^ Hanjl. 1, 1 ; ' boer tag, den nieman 
bergen kan,' Spiegel after Altsw. 191; qnasi senex tabescit dies, 
Plaut. Stich. V. 1, 8, conf, the Plautian phrase ' diem com- 
burere^; mit molten don tag audragerij Bure. Waldis 272^; eya, 
tach, weres du veilej Haupt 1, 27; herre, wä is (how goes) der 
tacb? En. 297, 18; ez was höhe uf der tach 300, 13 ; wnz wizei 
mir der tach (got to say against nie), daz er niene wil komen? 335, 
14; alt und junge w4nden, daz von im der ander tac erscbine, 
Parz, 228, 5. 

Ucbaisravas, the heavenly steed of day, emerges from the 
ocean, Holtzra. Ind. s. 3, 138 — 140. 

Hunc utinam nitidi Solis praenuntius or turn 

afferat admüso Lucifer albus equo. Ov. Trist* iii. 5, 55, 

jii'lfca wep T€ TTOT wpavov erpe^ov imroL 

^ctj rap poSoira^vp utt ^Hfceapoio tjiipoiaai, Theocr. 2, 174. 

The shining mane of day agrees with the ancient notion that 
rays of light were hairs; Ulaudian in Prob, et Olybr* 3 addresses 
the sun : 

Sparge diem melxore coma^ crhiemque repexi 
bland i us elato surgant temone jugales, 
efflantes roseum frenis spümantibus ignem ! 

Compare too the expression Donnerstags-pferd, Thursday's horse* 
p. 738.] The sun rises: er sol ranii up, Fornm. s. 8, 114* 
Sv. folks. 1, 154. 240. Vilk* s. 310; rinnet üfe der sunne, Diem. 
5, 28 ; errimiei 362, 26 ; der sunne von dir ist uz gerunnen, MS. 
1, 28\ Litb. utzteka saule, up äowa the sun, fr« tekt^ti; light 



also flows and melts asunderj conf. ' dea tages in zeran/ Wigam, 
3840. ' Mome, da diti aunne rlfgat, u. sich über alle berge lÄt,' 
Dietr. drach. 345''; swä si vor dem berge w/]?d/, MS, 1, lOS**, 
conf, M. Nett* baren, ontpluken (Suppl, to 743) ; 6 diu saone 
ü/ntige, climb up, Dietr. dr, 150*; dei suun© dicht hervor. Soester- 
fehde (in Eramingh.) 664; die sonne begonste rtserif Rein. 1323; 
li solauz est levez, et li jors essauciez, GuitecL 1, 241; 'des 
morgens, do de sunne wart/ came to be, Valent n, NameJ* 243**; 
'wan dei snnne cwig warn/ arrived, Soester- f* (in Em.) G7S, bricht 
an 627, 682; 'diu snnne nflrat/ sfcept up, Mar. leg. 175, 47. 60; 
de sonne haven de bane quam, Val. n. Nam, 257**; din sunne 
was üf ho, Frauend, 340, 29; bi wachender sunneo, Keyserrecht. 
Endeinann p. 26. 

p. 740,] Er sach die sonne sinken, Lanc. 16237; diu sunne 
nder ganc^ Pass* 36j 40; die sonne sanc, soe ghinc ojider, also 
\ dicke he vet ghedaen, Walew. 6110; s6 der sunne hinder gegät 
(LG. hintergegangen?), MS. 2, 192**; von der sunnen üßjange u. 
zuogange, Griesb. 2, 23; hinz diu sunne ztio gis (went-to) ]22; 
dö diu sunne Jiider gie {went down). Nib* 556, 1 ; diu sunne was 
ze tal gesigen (sunk), Wh. 447^ 9; ouch ngei diu sunne söre gegen 
der äbentzite (sinks low toward eventide), Trist. 2512; also die 
sonne dulen began, Lanc. 1 6506 ; alse hi di sonne dalen sach, 
Maerh 3, 197; c sich diu sun geneiget (stooped), MSH. 3, 212*; 
2a dnl di sunne was genigen, Diut. 1, 351 ; des abends dd sich 
nnderduoc din sunne mit ir glaste, Pass. 267, 51 ; diu sunne ie 
z& ze tale schSz (downward shot), Alb. v. Halb. (Haupt 11, 365); 
der sunne ze 4bent verßcein, Roi. 107, 23» Ksrchr. 7407 ; — die 
sunne iren schin verluiet (loses her sheen), Keysern Eodem. 

p. 210; metter sonnen-ficede (discessu), Limborch 8, 206. On 

coucher, colcar, collocare, sohatire, see RA. 817: einz vif soleil 
cochant, Aspr. 39^; * und solar »iot/ tili set of sun, Saöm. 179^; 
'ontaz sin sizzit/ until she sitteth, Fragm. 29, 14; e die sonne 
geBässe, Weisth. 2, 453 ; bis die sonne gesiizt 2, 490 ; in »edil gän 
= obire, Diut. 2, 319\ 

(Sunne) gewtted on wesi-rodor, Cod. Exon. 350, 23 ; west on- 
hylde swegelbeorht hinne setl-gonges fus 174, 32; bis die sonne 
wider der forste gibel schinet, Weistb. 3, 498, Norw, ' solen be- 
gyndte at beide mod aas-randen,' Asb. Huldr. 1,1, and ' solen stod 
i aas'kanien/ 1, 27, went towards, stood at, aa»'s edge; for this 



nnd for fjuihumarr, conf, F* Magn. Dagens tider p. 15 and Bopp'a 
GL 25^ r ' Asftty Bomen mo^iiis occiäcniaUs, ultra quem fiolem occi* 
dere credunt ; * it came to mean suDset, and at last any downfall : 
*Day sinks behind the best of mountai?i8, Ast,^ Kuruinge 563. 
1718.2393. Holtzm, Ind. s, a, 183-4. (Pott in bis Ziihlmeth. 
264 deri%^es asia, sanset, fr* as — dejicere, ponere); * din auDne an 
dnz gehirge gie/ Ecke 110; en elvai ^Xiop iirl Toi<!; op€(rt, fcal 
ovTTw BeSvfcivai^ Plato^s Phaedo 116; ichn geloube niemer me, daz 
suDDB von Mijcenö gfi, Trist. 8283 (Myceoas in Argolis, Sickler 
p, m. 283-4). In a rocky valley of Switzerland^ at a certain hour 
once a year, the sun shines through a h^le in the 7nountatn-waU, 
and illumines a church-steeple ; conf. the sun shining into Belsen 

church, Meier's Schwab, sag. 297. ^ D6 diu sunne ze gadeit 

solde gkn/ Morolt 1402 ; de sunne geit to gade, Brem. wtb. 1, 
474; ^\to9 fcoifiärai, Wieselgr. 414; de sunne woU to hedde, 
Firmen. 1, 329. M. Neth. "^die sonne vaerfc henen thaerre ernsten 
waert/ Maerh 3j 124; umb jede abendzeit, ehe die sonne zu hau»e 
kömpt, Brehme B, 1*; 'Moidla (girls), geifc hoim ! Die suil geii 

no ; Kriegt koene koen tanzer, Wos steit ihr den do ? ' ' Eh 

die aonne zu genaden get,' Wdsth. 1, 744. 2, 492 ; e die sanne 
under Ä« genadefi gienge 3, 510. Does the Goth, remi-sotj rimi" 
jsauil, mean the sun at rest ? Hpt^s Ztschr. 6, 540 ; quant H 
solans ganchi (tottered), Mort do Garin 144* Note the phrase in 
Walewein 8725 : ' Doe begonste die sonne gaen Te Gode van den 
avonde saen ; ' conf, Esth* * ptüiw lähhäb loya/ the sun goes to his 
3faÄ;er — sets. The light of sunset is thus expr. in MHG. : Min 
ßunne z^dbunde schein/ to evening shone, Karl 3525. 

p, 742.] ON, glaÖ'r — mtenQ and laetus, and we say 'beaming 
with joy ' ; so the beaming sun is called ' Glens beSja Guff^bUd'/ 
God-blithe, Edda Sn. Hafn. 1, 330. Smtiiejiffoh (or Sunnenfro^ 
Mohr'fi Reg. V. Fraubrunnen no. 381, yr 1429) may mean ^ glad 
as the son,' or ^ of the san/ as in Boner 66, 42. A maiden in a 
Swed. song is named Sol-fagr, var. Solfotj Arfv. 1, 177. 180 ; at 
glddja sig = to set, Sv, afvent. 342, At evening the sun's bow 
goes to joy : illalla ilohonf Kale v. 27, 277. Ace. to Hagen'a 
Germ. 2, 089 the sun has a golden bed, lies, sleeps on gold : als 
di sonne in goli //ei^, Arnsb. urk. no. 824, yr 1355; gimig die 
sonn im gold^ Günther 783 ; de sunne ging to golde, Ges. Abent* 
2, 319; singt als die sonne fast zu golde wolde gehii, Scherfer 




195, The aün in rising out of the sea, crackles, Ossian 3, 131 ; 

aud the image of the zolotli bdba (golden granny) utters tones, 
Hanusch p. 167; like Memnoo's statue^ Locian's Philops. 33, 

p* 743.] Oannes (the sun) dips in the sea every evening, 
Hitzig's PhiUst. 218. 

*Hfio<s S* i^eXiof: ^€r€vla-a€To ßauXurovSe, Od. 9, 53, IL 16, 779, 
'HeXtoY ^€V eireira v€ov TrpoaeßaWep apoupa^ 
€f aKaXappcirao ßaffupp6ov*S2Keapolo 
ovpavov eläaviuiv, IL 7, 421. Od, 19, 433. 
HiXio^ & av6pov<T€, Xtirmv irepifcdXXia Xi^jLiniVy 
ovpavov e<r iraXv-^aXtcov^ Od. 3, 1, 

Occiduo lota prof undo sidera mergif N. 221. 'Sage me, for 
kfawam seine seo sunne swd reade on eerne morgen? Ic lp& secge, 
for )mm }?e heo cym^ up ofptere sm,* Akd. bL 1^ 190 ^ nu gengr 
M t egi, Alex, saga p. 1G3. The sun bathes at night, Hpt's 
jZtschr, 4, 389. N. Pr. prov, bh 1, 298 ; M6 begund' ez werden 
iBaht^ und sleick diu sunne n4ch ir aht umbe daz iiorJen-inerey als 
I Ä,' crept round the northern sea, Geo. 6001 ; weil die sonne nie- 

dertunkt, Schmidt v. Wern. 184. But the sun also goes into 

the forest. Swed. ' solen gär i shogen ' : sol gätt i j<kog. Folks. 1, 
155 ; när sol gick i «kog, CavalL 1, 96; 'silvan sol är nndl vijfi* 
igot behind the trees, Oestg. 175 (F. Magn. Lex., sub v. landvidi, 
gives a differ, explan. of vide, vi}>i) ; nä nu ned, du sol, i gran- 
skog, Kalev. Castr. 2, 57. Finn, kale (kulki) päiwä kuusikolle I 
Kalev. 19, 386. 412; conf. *Not jet tim mountain, but only those 
hoases are hiding the sunshine,' Goethe's Eleg. What means 
•bis die sonne uf den peinapfel kommt/ (Weisth. 3^ 791) ? till he 
gilds the fir cone ? 

ÜD* sich der tac n/macfUe, Hageo*8 Ges. Abent. 2, 367 ; der 
tac der sleich in (crept to them) balde zuo^ MS. 1, 171'*; der tac 
der schhicht wie ein dieb, HätzL 23*; der tac nähen begunde 
nich sinem alten vunde, TürL W» 125»; die dach quam, die nitt 
onBiont, MaerL 2, 236, so that he never stands still. The day 
iajs ; ' I /are away, and leave thee here,^ UhL 169; der tac wil 
niht erwüiden (turn back, leave olf), Wolfr. 8, 18 ; der morgen 
niht erminden wil, den tac nieman erwenden (keep off) kan, MS. 1, 
DÜ^ ' D6 der tac erschein,* shone out, Parz, 428, 13, 129, 15 ; d* 
d. t. vol erschein^ Er. 623; der tac sich schonwen liez, LivL 8299; 



do der morgen sich üf-Uez, und si sm entsuoben, Pass* 30^ 79 ; aic 
der tac enUloz (unlocked), Ursteude 118, 61 ; der tac sich üz de 
walken bot, TürL Wh, 67*; dö si gesihen den morgen mit aime 
lichte ußtrfchenj die vinstre naht entwichen von des sannen 
morgenröt, Pass. 36, 51 ; der tac Mhte srhitere (thin)^ Serv. 3237. 
Dager var //u*, Sv, folks. 1, 129. La nnis sen va, et li jors e?s- 

elari, Garins 2, 203. 'Der tac sich anzündet,^ kindles, Hätzl. 

36* ; dftt hi den dach each hären, Walewein 384 ; die men scone 
baren BSLch, Karel 1,376. 2, 1306. 594; dat menne (den dach) 
baren sach 2, 3579, der tac sich hete erhärte EracL 4674 : sach 
verharen den sconen dach, Lnjic. 44532. 45350. Also ontpluken : 
' ofiiphk haer herte alse die dach/ her heart flew open like the 
day, Karel 1, 1166. Walew. 3320, 7762; conf. 'sin herte ver- 
lichte als die dach,' Walew* 9448; onhpranc die dach, Karel 2, 
593; die dach uteri hemele spranc, Walew. 6777. 4885; Fr, ' le 
jour jaillit ; ' mocht der tac herspries^en, Hofm. Gesellsch. 59 j 
Jjett. ' deendk plaukst/ sproats, buds. The day stirs: dag rtnit, 

0. i. 1 1, 49 ; naht riuif, O. iii, 20, 15 ; lioht rmit, 0. i, 15, 19. ii. 

1, 47* The day is rich, powerful : ' guotes ist er niht 7-^1 che (r) 
wan als des lichtes der tac/ than the day is of light. Cod. Vind. 

428, no. 212 ; reicher dan der tac, Uhl, 1, 196. Other expres- 

ßiona for daybreak : 'die Nacht die weicht/ gives way. Lb. 1582. 
42; Niht (or^ gewatf Cod* Exon. 412, 12; diu nacht geTtiachlich 
ende nam, Frauend. 485, 1 1 ; uns ist diu naht von hinnen, Wolfr. 
Lied. 8, 16; uoz uns din naht tjerihnet, Hahn'a Stricker 10, 35 ; 
Bo lange bis die schmiede pinken, u. der tag sich wieder vor^ 
zeiget, Ettner's Vade et oecide Cain, p. 9. It is fioely said in 
the Nib. 1564, 2: ' nnz daz (until) din sunne ir liehtez schinen 
hot (held out) dem morgen über berge ; ' als der morgenrÄt der 
vinstern erde lieht erbot, Mar. 169, 28 ; unz der ander morgenrut 
der werlde daz lieht hot, Serv. 1839; euch schein nn schiere der 
morgenrßt, den diu suone saute durch vreude vür (Dawn, whom 
the sun sent before him for joy) daz er vreudenrJche kiir vogeln 
o. bluomen brahte, Türh Wh. 69*. Simpler phrases are : dd 
begnndez liuhten vome tage, Parz, 588, 8; gein tage die vogelo 
sungen, Mai 46, 16. For descrying the dawn they said: 'nA 
kins ich den t4ic,* choose, pick out, espy, Walth, 89, 18; kös den 
morgen lieht 88, 12; den morgenblic e7'k6s, Wolfr. Lied. 3, 1; 
als man sich dea tages entste, Wigal, 5544. 



p* 744,] Day is like a neighing steed : 
Velox Aurorae imntius Aether 

qui fiigat hinnitu Stellas, Claudian^d 4 cons. Hon. 561. 
He cleaves the clouds : der tac die wölken spielt (split), MS. 2, 
167*. So the crow with flapping of her wings divides the night, 
lets in the light ; with her and the AS. Dieg-hre/n we may assoc. 
the ON. names Dag-hvelp (quasi young day) and Dag-ulf, For- 
stem. 1, 328. 

p. 744.] Day is beautiful ; beau comme le jouTf plus beau 
qoe le jour ; ils croissoient comme le jour, D'Aulnoi's Cab. des 
f. 243 J wahren als der tac, S. Uolr. 328, So der morgen e)istät, 
Herb. 8482; dö der tac werdm began, En. 11280; die naht let, 
ende het waeri dach, Karel 2, 1305 (cooL die nacht l£t, die hem 
verwies, Floris 1934) ; der fcac ist vorhanden (here, forthcom- 
ing), Simpl. 1, 528; d6 gmic 4f der tac {went up), Wh. 71, 20 
[Similar examples omitted] ; uuze iz beginne idfgän. Diem, 174, 
5 ; es giengen nicht 14 tage itis latidf Schelm ufaky, con f. p. 633* ; 
der tac got von Kriechen, MSH. 3, 426*. Diu naht gie hin, der 
tac herzuo (or, der morgen her, der morgen quam^ Pass. 47, 89. 

329, 53. 307, 68 [Similar ex. ora.],- -Day comes rapidly: 

comes upon the iteck of you, Döbel 1, 37*; an trat der ßstertac. 
Pass. 262, 16; als der suntac an gell*'/ 243, 1 ; dö der ander 
morgen üf ran, Serv* 3410 ; der tac geßozzmi kam, Troj. kr. 29651 ; 
der tac kommt stolkmif Hätzl. 26'' ; der tac kam einher walken 28' ; 
ßr die mane sinke neder, ende op weder rise die dach^ Karel 2, 
1 194. He pushes his way up : d6 tirade üf der tac, Rosen-g. 627 ; 
hegnnde äf dringen, etCs [Similar ex. om.] ; d6 siben tage vor- 
drangen f Kolocz 162; des iagas mize ostern durch diu wölken 
dranc, Wigai. 10861. He itf up: des morgens, dö der tac üf 
was, Fragm, 41*^; nu was wol üf der tac, En. 7252 ; ez was höhe 
üf den tac 11146 ; dö was ez verre üf den tac 10334. 

p. 745.] The day may be hindered from breaking : ' What 
have I done to the day ? \Vlio has led him astray ? * En. 1 384 ; 
H. Sachs iii. 3, 68* (ed, 1561), 48^ (ed. 1588) says of a 'day- 
stealer^ (idler) : 'wilt den tag in der multer umhtragen ? * carry 
him about in thy trough, OHG. mnoltra. There is a key to the 
day, Sv. vis. 2, 214. Vlaemsche lied, p* 173 ; the key of day is 
thrown into the river, UhL 171 ; ' Had I the day under lock and 
key. So close Vk prisoner he should be' 169 (conf, the day's 

VOL. IV. 1 



answer). The son is c&ugbt in a noose^ ho cannot continuo his 
journey, and has to be ranaomed, Klemm 2, 156, 

A phrase used in Wirzburg comes very near the Komance 
poi7idre : * der tag spitzt mch schon/ points, perks, pricks itself 
up, H. Müller's Griechenth.44 ; Illyr* zora ptica^ the dawn shoots. 
With ä la poinie du jour^ conf. ' matineret a punta rf' aJba,* Mil a 
y Funtala 159, OHG. stma^jubar {sub ortü)^ Graff 6,760; 
lucis diei spiculum in oriente conspiciens, Kemble no* 581 ^ p. 106; 
'der tac die wölken spielt/ split the clouds (Suppl. to 744). 

p. 747.] The dawn is accompanied by noise j esp. by agitation 
of the air : ich waen ez tagen well©, sich hebet ein küeler wint, 
Nib. 2059, 2 ; diu !nß sich gein dem tage zluhel {air is drawn 
towards day), diu naht im schier entfliehet, TürL Wh. 65*. We 
must conn, aurora and avpiov (morrow) with aara, avpa (breeze) ; 
and AS. roorgen-^u'ßf? may be akio to swegel {p* 746), *' Sol ek 
e& driiipa tliju-hemutm i/ solem vidi mergi in oceano ? mundo 
eonoro F Sasm. 125^. The Hatzlerin 30» speaks of the gewimmer 
(whine, moan, droning) of daybreak; * far an eirich gu ßiai mear 
a' grien o atuaidh nan ceann glas,^ ubi oritur sonm*e sol a fiuc- 
tibus capitum glaucorum, Tighmora 7, 422 ; Ssk» ravi means sol, 

rava sonusj rii son are. Alba is the lux prima that precedes 

the blush of dawn, Niebahr 2, 300 ; it is like Matuba, Leucothea. 
Burgny's Glossaire 350* explains ^ par aon^ before Taube' as 
*par dessus, tout k la pointe ' ; It, sulV alba. Our anbrechmi 
contains the idea of noise : daz dor tac it/ prach, Diemer 175, 7 ; 
de dach 7ip hrah^ Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 399. Detm, 1, 50 [Sim. examp. 
om.] ; day breaks in through the windows, Felsenb. 3, 458 ; ich 
ßihe den morgensteme il/ hreheii, MS. 1, 90**, conf. Lith. breJcszH^ 
to glimmer, dawn ; erupit eras, Walthar, 402; Paube crevaj M^on 
1, 29L The noise of daybreak is sometimes to be expL by the 
song of the wakening birds : * der tac wil uns erseheile7i,* ring 
out, Ges. Abent. 1, 305 ; der süeze schal kunt in den tac, Mai 
93, 33 ; biz sie erscbracte (startled them) der vogel-sane 93, 32. 
With the Span. * el alva se riß/ conf. Turn. v. Nantes 42, 4 ; 
'diu sunne in dem himel smieref* smiles. Crepuscuhim pre* 
snpposea a crepus, which must belong to crepare, as -^€(^09 murk 
18 akin to i^o<^o«r noise, see Benfey 1, 617 seq. Bopp*a Gl. 91, 

p, 748.] Bopp's Gt. 53^ connects uktvo with ushas, from ash 
to burn J as ah tau with asbtAn ; die ucht is still used in Germ* 


Bohemia. Uhti-btta^OTgm, Gl, slefcst. 6, 436, is explained by 
Wackernagel as dawn-petitioB, Haupt 5, 321 Diluculo is rend. 
ia OHG. by: lo demo unter! uch dinge, Windb. pa. 260; fruo 
unt&rluch^lingen 206; dagendemej Ps, Trev. 206 ; an demo dallthe 
260; pUiothe, Dint 1, 530\ Falowendi, /al^endt^crepuscalum, 
Graff 3, 496^7 (I\iln = fulvu9, pallidas) ; prima lace==iu der umich- 
den, Hor. Belg. 7, 36% for whicb AS. has wonia (p. 745), beside 
glommung, rfti?^rtm — crepuscalum (may we connect 'as de dach 
griemelde* ? Fromman 4,265), ON. htjrting ; and with dags- 
brun is conn, the Fr, female name ^rwn-mafm = Aurora, Diet* 
2, 825, misspelfc Brumatin, Meon 3^ 447. MLG. dageringe- 
dilucukm, Detm. 1, 178. 2, 546. 

The personific. of Tagarod is also indicated by the men's 
names Baghared, Trad Corb. 226, Dagrim 394, The word is 
fem, in Gotfr, Hagen 65 : an der dageroU ; bat the masc, pre- 
ponderates, both here and in morgenröt (see quotations from 
Mar, Servat, and TürL Wh. in SuppL to 743 end) ; yet ' die 
rotbrünstijre morgenröt,' H. Sachs's Wittenb. nachtigah * Der 
tag graut,' turns grey, dawns ; conf. ' es graut mir/ it frightens 
me ; des tages blic was dennoch grä, Parz, 800, 1, 'Hfiipa a/i0l 
TO Xvxavye^ avTo, dies circa ipsum diluculüm est, Lucian'a 
Somu. 33 ; Arab, dhßnebii'Ssirhanj wolfs tail, the first glimmer 
of dawn, that sweeps over the sky, then disappears, leaving a 
deeper gloom behind, Hiickert'a Hariri 1, 215. 

p. 748.] Does the obscure word morgen actually mean break- 
fast? Finn, murkioa=jentaculum, breakfast-time* Morning, 
like day, climbs up and is high, hence the name of Dietrich 
der Hochm&rgen, Rauch 1, 413. Greek avptop op0po^, to-morrow 
morning; ßaßi/^ opßpo<i, Arist Vesp. 216. Plato's Crito 43 and 
Prot. 310. Luke 24, 1. 

p. 748.] The sense of downward motion in abend is con. 
firmed by 'dia sunn© begunde senken u. aben (sinking and 
offing) tegelich,' Heinz v. K/s Kitt. u. pf. 5. AS. cwtld^ 
conticinium, ON. qveld ; conf. Goth. anaqal = ^mQ^, ON. hüm=- 
crepuscnlum, AS. glom. Tbe ON. röckur — crepusculum (p. 813) 
ta in Swed. shjmmmg ^ Dan. »kumrhtfj^ LG, schemmer, schummer- 
licht ; conf. Boh. and Russ. sumrak, and the name Simrock [sti- 
mrak, id''merki = half- mirk, subteoebrae, fr. mrak, m<5rok = 
mirk]. ON. shoera, twilight, Obf helg. s., ed. Christ. 47, 25. 




Diu tunMe, evening twiligtfc, Osw. 2013-71; OHG. imwltaU, 
Graff 5, 435. Swed, tijHmörh, Dan. tusmörke crepusculum (p. 
814 n.). Vesperzifc, so diu tfiimie sckate git (gives shadow), Mar, 
158, 7; coof* hvaero t* ^eXt09, a-fci6a>m6 re iraaai ayuiaif Od. 
11, 12. 15, 185. Twilight is also mden-Jluchi, or simply eule, 
owl, Firmeu. 1, 268. Si bran li/ schöne sam der äbentrot, MS. 1, 

is 4'. ON. qvöldrod^i, &aroTQ, vespertina. ^ Aben trot, der kündet 
Inter metre/ Walth. 30, 15, Modern: ^abendroth gut wetter 
bot/ or 'ab. bringt morgenbrot,* or ^ der morgen grau, der abend 
roth, ist ein guter wetterbot/ Simrock'a Spr. 20, 19. 7099. 
On the other hand : EvdyyeXo^ ^ev, muirep ff irapotßla^ "£0*9 
yevoiTo ßTjTpo^ €V(f>p6i'7j'? Trdpa, Aesch. Agara. 264. 

p. 749.] Ssk. WÄ«Ä aurora, dual usäsä, Bopp's GL 53**; Lat. 
aurora for ausosa; Att. la»?, Ian. ^m^ Dor. dm, ^ol. avm^ ; conf. 

.Ostarä (p. 290). The blush of dawn is expr. iu Ssk. by uarir, 

Hhe virgins, Gott. anz. '47, p. 1482. In Theocr. 2, 147 the 
goddess rosy-armed is drawn by steeds (Suppl. to 738) ; 'con- 
etiteram exorieidem auroram forte salutans/ Cic. de Nat. D, 1, 
28 (oonf. Crenzer p. 126). On the Slav, häri'hogh as god of 
morning, see Myth. ed. 1, p. 349 n, 

p. 750i] The origin of ' ffennil, Ilennilj wache ! ^ in the Mark 
is still unexplained. Observe, that tales are told of Strong 

^Hennel as of Strong Hans, and that honidlo, ace. to Wend. 
volksL 2, 270% actually means a shepherd^s st^ff. Like that 
sbepherd in Dietmar, the Roman fetialis, when about to declare 
war, entered the sanctuary, and waved the shields and lance of 
the god^B image, crying, ' Mars, vlgila ! * Härtung 2, 168. Serv, 

ad. Aen, 8, 3* Both in France and Germany the watchman, 

the vröne wehter (MSH. 3, 428'% blew the day in with his horn ; 
his songs were called tage-lieder^ auhades, ' La gaite corne, qui 
les chalemiaus tint,' Garin 1, 219; lea gaites cornent desor le 
mur anti 2, 117. 158 ; la guete cuida que laube fust crevee, il tret 
lejor, et huche et crie, Mfon 1, 195 ; et la guete ert desus la porte, 
devant lejor cmme etfretels 1, 200. 'Der wahiaere diu tage-liet 
(pK) BO löte erhaben h&t/ Walth. 89. 35 (seo Lachm. on W. p. 
202); den tac man kündet dur diu Itom (pi.), MS. 2, 190^; diu 
naht was ergangen, man seiiB ez wolde tagen, Nih, 980 
waht-er hüet höh enbor, MS. 1, 90^; er erschelt ein horn an der 
stunt^ d&mit tet er den liuteo kuot des tages kunft gewakiclich| 




La. 3, 311. He cries : 'ich sich in her gan (I see him come on), 
der mich wo! erfroowen mac, her gat der liehte sclioene tac/ 
ibid. ; smerghens alse die wackier blies, Florts 1935 ; der uds deo 
tag herblieSj Liederb, of 1582. 28, anblies 238; der wechber blost 
an, Keisersp, Brosaml. 25'^ ; ' the watchman blows the rest/ Eliz. of 
OrL 502 ; the warder or ' h ausmann ^ blows the day off, he comes 
of himself, Drei Erzn. p. 443; 'der wechter ob dem karten/ the 
goard over the coach -boot. Did watchmen carry a mace called 
morgenstern 7 see HoUberg^s Ellefte Juni 5, 9. Frisch 1, G70 says 
it was invented in 1347. 

p. 750.] Day is beaidifHl and jotjons : der tac schoea n, grSse 
stn lieht beginnet m^ren, Troj. kr. 9173 ; daz lieht nut vrendmi of 
trat. Pass. 329, 54. On the contrary, * das abendroth im westen 
welkt/ fades, pales, Schm* v. Wem. 253. The morning star is 
harbinger of day (p. 752 n.) : daz im der tage-sterre vruo kunte 
den tac, Ksrchr. 7885 ; aatfjp arffiXKtj:^^ ^ao^^ Od. 13, 94, 

Birds rejoice at hia coming: i^vUa opvtße^ aawtrt wprnToi, 
Charon. Fragm. 34^ ; o Spvt^ ttjp eta xaXc^v, Athen. 4, 36 : daz 
deine stieze vogeUtn kan dingen (reckon) of den morgenschin, u. 
sich des tages fröuwen muoz, Troj, kr. 20309 ; nam diu naht ein 
ende, die vogel des niht wolden durch iemans frenden s wen de 
verswlgen, wan sie sangen als sie solden (would for no man's 
pleasure hash, iintilj &c.), Tit. 5364; noch siiezer denne dem 
vogliu morgens vrune, Franenl, Ettm. p. 27 ; de voghel den dach 
smorghens groette, als bine sach, Rose 7832 (cont * den kleinen 
vogelUn troumet uf esten/ dream on the boughs, MS. 2, löö**). 
Oock-crow announces day : e^ipyeirßai ^St} aXexT pvovmv aSovrwv, 
Plato's Symp, 223 ; der ban hkt zwir (twice) gekraet, ez nähet 
gßn dem morgen, MS. 2, 152'; as de hanens den dag inkreggeden 
(crowed-in), Lyra p. 114. 

p. 752.] The swift approach of Night, its falling, sinking, is 
expr. iu many turns of speech ; ez taget lane (slowly), u. nahtet 
drat, Teichn. 70 ; als die nacht mit aller gewalt (all her might) 
herein brach, Drei klügste leute 14d, That night breaks in, 
whereas day breaks forth, has been remarked by Pott 1, 236; yet 
Goethe says ' die nacht bricht an/ Faust 12Ö ; cum nox irirueret, 
G^^eg. Tur. 10, 24; wie die nacht herbrach^ Katzip. ci^ ; biss das 
der abend herelndraj^g (pressed in), Fischart's Gl. schif 1131; 
forth of each nook and coraer crowdM the night, Goethe ; do viel 



eIo gaeher ftbent an, Trist • 314 ; diu nabt nn sßre zwo gähi, Türl. 
Wh. 2G*; die n, nüÄi Wiif gewalt ein, Maiilaflfe 669; die d< rauhe 
quam, Hpt^s Zischr. 5, 338; es schiesgt (et sehuttj it shoots) in 
den abend j Schütze 4, 33. Night cam© upon the upck of as,, 
Ungr. Simpl. ^b. Ettn. Apoth. 877; 'die n, doast an/ bamps^ 
against, Weistli. 1, 305; * it was avent, de n» anstoei/ Keineke 4, 
1. ^Niht iwcom/ supervenit, Beow. 230; conf* ck ox€v €\ßj^ i 
heieXo^ o^fre Biftay, fTKiaati K iplßtöXov apoupav, IL 21, 231 ; fßf§\ 
yap ^al iirtjXv&e BeCeXov ij/iöp. Od. 17, 600 ; as de aveut inH laut i 
kern, MüUenh, p. 201 ; trat dö n. an, Weisth. 3^ 87; die u, betriti 
ihn (tramples) 3j 457; conf. 'wan sie die n. betri/i/ hits 3, 785, 
and ' bis die durnmeruDg eintrat/ Felsenb. 4, G3. 2, 599, herein 
iriti/ steps in 4, 144 ; * die naht hinzuo gegchreit/ strude up to, 
Troj. kr, 10119; 'nähet in diu naht/ nears them. Nib. 1756, 1; 
* en hadd© die n. niet ane gegaen,^ not com© on, Karel 2, 934 ; da 
diu Höbt (der ibent) ane gie, Lanz, 3210. Flor© 3497. Diemer 
27, 4, Fraueud. 342, 30. Iw. 3904; gtewj der abend her, Götz 
T* BerL 82 ; hie mite gienc dor übent hin, u. din naht h^ran U*'/ 
(ran), Pass. 47, 84; din vinater© n. her ouch swane, als si in ir 
loufe Utif 36, 41 ; als din ru hin gelief 81, 86; diu n. kumt daher 
gerant, Dietr. drach* 336^*. 

Again, night sinks, bends, falls: der äbenfc was 2tio gesigen^ 
Diut. 1, 351 ; ist diu naht herzuo gesigen, Troj, kr, 11718; diu 
n. »iget zuo, Diotr. drach. 154^^; uns siget bald© zua diu n., Lans. 
709 ; din n. begunde sigen an, Morolt 1620. 3963 ; diu n. siget 
an, Dietn dr. 327^; diu n. vast M uns neiget (bends), Hät;&I. 

192, 112, Or day sinks, and night cUmbif : do der tac hin 

teir, diu n. herauo »teic, Dietr. 9695; biz der dach nider begunde 
ßigen, iode die nacht up-titigen, Karl mein et p. 18; li jours va a. 
decUn, si aprorhe la nuit, Berte 54; li jors sen I'n, et la nutd 
Oiserif Garins 2, 157; la niiiz va aprochani, si decHna 1© jor, 
Guitecl. 2j 169; on begund diu sunne sigen, u, der iLbentsteroo 
stigen, Zwei koufm, 180; ez begunde sigen der tac. Er, 221; 
iL la hrune, k la chute du jour. Similar are th© phrases; der tao 
was iezuo hin getreten, Pass. 27, 7; der tag gieng zu d©m abend, { 
Uhl* 1, 246; conf. * dtLgr var a smnum/ inclined to evenings 
Saem. 104^. In the same way : der ta€ hiemit ©in ende nam, 
din vinster naht mit trüebe kam, Pass* 19, 3; der tac sl^h 
hin, n. kam diu naht, Freib. Trist« 4705 ; ja swani (vanished) 



^er tac, u. witohs (grew) diu nalit^ Heinz v, Konst. Bitt. Qt pf. 
7; conf, Lat. adttUa nocte; do der tac verswant, G. frau 2013, 
2427; LG. 'he lett dagen u. swinen/ * sekemmern u. dagen/ 
Strodtm, 200. 238. Brem, wtb, 4, 634; 'do der tac zerstoeret 
wart von der vinsteroJsse groz, u. din n. kerziio gefloz/ came 
flowing op, Troj. kr. 10489 ; der tac qefiuze iiin 8519; do der t, 
was er^dn, Diemer 149, 25; 'als der t. was gelegen^' lain down, 
Ernst 4679 ; ' do der t, lie ainen schia/ let be, left off, Troj, kr. 
11095; * dec t, sm wuniie cerLU,^ his bliss forsakes, MS, 2, 192^; 
der t. ain lieht verldt 2, 496** ; der t. hit sinen gJast, Troj, kr. 

^jB480 ; do des tages lieht versweithy Bari. 368, 3 ; siSSan ce/eti* 
leold under heofenes h^or beholeH weorSe^, Beow, 821 ; der tac 
giettg mit freuden hiut do diu nalit ir triieben schin über al 
die werlt geepreite, Gerh. 4931; aefensci raa /ar^ gewägt, Csödm, 
147, 30; der tac begerte urloubes (took leave) mit liulite, Tit. 

Night catches^ grasps: din oabt begrifet, Tit. 3752* Dietr. 
dr. 97'. Heinr. Trist. 4650; die nacht lievet mi hier begrepen, 
Maerl. 3, 157 ; una si begreif diu naht, Wolfd* 302, 1 ; ooa daa 
si da din n. begreif, Mai 39, 5; die nacht kompt gediehen^ Ld, 
15Ö2, 53. Night covers, spreads her mantle: jiä com aafter 
niht on last dsege, lagn-streainas wreah, Ca^dtn. 147, 32; 'ja 
waene diu n. welle una nicht wem mir/ will not guard us more. 
Nib. 1787, 2; die nacht war /ar augen^ Drei kluge leute 147 ^ 
evening was at the door, Pol. maulaffe 171 ; der abend all bereit 
vor der hand, Schweinichen 1, 87; do man des Äbindis inisuohf 
Athis C*, 153. 

Night was deemed luLteftd, hostile, Benfey 2, 224 : Grk ScAij, 
Se/eXoc evening is akin to SetXo? timid, SciSat I fear; conf. vi/^ 
oXorj, Od- 11, 19, rtaht-eise horror noctis, and Shaksp/s ' grim- 

. looked night.' The Lith. 'naktis ne brolk, night is no man's 
friend' occurs already in Scherer's St, Gall. Mss, 34'; die 
jacht niemand ze freunde hat, and in H, Sachs 1, 233^. On 
the other hand : ' la nuit parte avis,' couf. to sleep upon a thing, 
p. 752,] 'Night has the viei&ry wou' is also iu Rosen-g. 
1119; der tac uertreip din vinster naht, Fratiend. 344, 31; per 
contra: diu n. den t. hefc verswant 271, 25. A full descr, of 
night's victory, with ' her duskg banner hung on all high towers/ 
in Lg. 3, 307, 



p. 753.] The notion of night's gloominesti prepooderatea r 

«XrV ^Oi VV¥ /i€K 7f€lOu3߀0a m/KTL /ieXatV//, OJ. 12^ 291. OS. 
ihiustri Daht, Hel. 13ii, 4, etc; de dmtere nacht, Hpt'a Zfcscbr. 5, 
893; in dero nahi-finsiri bechlepfefc, N, Cap. 13; dju vinster 
n., Frauend. 339, SO, etc.; diu iot-vinster n., Lanz. 6538; dia 
swarze n,, Herb. 7904. In thieves' liogo, schwarz = night ; 
diu tniebe n., Wh. 2, 10. Swiss ' kidige nacht/ pitch-dark. 
Staid. 2, 98 (kiden — ring out, pierce); bei eitler naht, Abele'a 
Gerichta-h.-l, 39] . Uhl. VolksL 683 (Ambras. Ldrb. 1582, 377), 
AS, 'on wanre niht/ pale, Beow. 1398; niht wan under wolc- 
Dum 1295; conf. OS. wanum undar wolcnum, Hel. 19, 20, morgan t 
wanum 21, 1 ; mlUJiehna geoipu, Cod. Exon* 160, 12 ; ifceadu* 
helma gesceapu scnÖ^an cwomon, Beow. 1293; ON. grimaj larva, 
means aläo conticiniüm, qnando omnia quasi obvelata caligine 
vidontur. — —In voUet' nacht (pleine nuit), Schweinich. 3, 59. 87, 
234; * die gf^Achl age ne n./ strickeu, hushed, Matth. Pred. v. Lath, 
p. 27. Phiknd. 2, 83; btioken n.. Rein, 2271 (illunis ?) ; nuit 
close, Babou 219; schon weicht die tiefe n., Goethe 12, 242 = 
saccincta nox, Sid. ApoU. Epist. 3, 8; oKX* ore Sj; i^plx^ vvkto^ 
ir^p, /ACTA S' aarpa ß^ßrfKU, Od, 12, 312. 14, 483, conf, the sereo 

parts of night, Fernowls Dauto 2, 229. ^Night is long, vv^ 

fiaKptj, Od. 11, 373; often called iniempesta nox^ unseasonable 
(for work); dum se iniempesta nox prc^dpUal, Cato de Mor, ; 
conf. the ON, adj. nlvl, Smm. 51* (AS. neol, neowol = prona ?). 
But also tv^povif, the kindly (eomfoi*ting?), Hes. Op. et D, 562 ; 
0H6. kistiUandi naht, Diut. J, 251; 'do was diu aüeze n* fiir/ 
gone by, Lanz. 1115. On modranect, see Hattemer 1, 334. Th# 
oiidnight hour is ßttest for deciding the fates of men (p. 858-9] 



p. 754J Winter is called bird-killer, olmvotcroyof;, Aeseh. 
Agara. 563, and *der vogeb ü6t,' MSH, 1, 53^ A M. Neth. 
poem (Kartl 2, 133) says : ' so dat si ten naesteo Meye metten 
vogelen gescreye porren raoghen,^ may march out mid the songs , 
of birds ; ' wie dar Maie vögelin vroene macht,' gladdens, elevatea^J 
MS. 1, 31^ 



p, 755.] SI, iar {»pring) =yer {year)^ sayaMiklos. 110; Zend» 
yare (year), Pofct 2, 557* Bopp, cont Gramm, p. 568. Kohn*3 
Ztschr. 2, 269 connects yer with mpa^ hora, Bekker in Monats- 
ber. ^60, p, 161 says lap for fiap = ver. Wo may also coon. 
cap with ^pt (early), as oar fnihling with früh, Kuhn thioks 
ver is for ves, Ssk. vasantas (spring); conf. vasas, v&sara (day), 
vasta (daylight), Ssk. vaisara (year), Bopp*s GL 306''. Finn. 
vuosi (year), Estb, aast, conf. Lat. aestas ; in Kalev. 1^ 24S 
vuoai year, and Icesa aammer, seem synonymous. Ssk. sama, 
annas, ia fem. of sama, similis, Bopp and GDS. 72 seq* Lanz 
(spring) is also langst, lanxl^ lamig, Staid. 2, 156; sonier ende 
leiilin, Rose 7326. 

p. 755.] Change of season, change of year is expr. by * din 
z!t h&t sich venvandelSi,' MS. 1, 78^*; conf. 'in der nie jdren/ 
years of time, Mai 107, 18. To the Egyptians the year sails 
round, whilst in German ' unz umh kam daz jur/ Otnit 899; ein 
umhe-gendez jar, Trist. Frib. 1079; ein mänd in (a month to 

them) des järes trii^ Pass. 162, 58; das rollende jähr, ^In gui' 

Van-neuf, gai is mistletoe (p. 1206); conf. our Germ, cries: 
' drei hiefen (3 blasts on the bogle) zum neuen jähr ! * Schm. 2, 
156; 'glückaeligs neues jähr, drei hiefen z, n. j.!' Frisch 1, 452*^ 
from Besold. New-year is expr. by ^s6 sich daz jär genimvet 
hÄt ' in springtime, Warnung 2291; or 'wann daz jär auz» 
ehvmpt/ out comes, Gesta Rom. Keller 99 ; do das jar auskam, 
Weiflth. 3, 650; but also by the simple ' New.* 

p. 756.] The idea of the whole year is now and then per- 
sonified, both in wishes and otherwise: Got gebe uns wunnecliche 
j&r, Reinh. ace. to var. 2248 (ms. P.K.) ; guot jar gauge si an 
(encounter them), Kistener 1188 ; conf. iibel-jar, mal-anno 
(p. 1160 end) ; do das jar auskam^ Weisth, 3, 650; ehe ein jähr 
in das land kommt, Drei Erzn. 266; ehe zwei jähre in*s land gehii, 
Pol. maul. 8; daz vünfte jÄr in gie. Trist. 151, 27; that jär 
futdor skrSd (strode), HeL 13,23 (coof, AS.farä^gewdt daeg-rtmes 
worn (nomeri dierum niultitudo), Csedm. 60, 1, see ' daeg-r, 
worn' 80, 20, 156, 51); le bonhommo Vuunee^ Möm. de Taead. 
oelt, 4, 429. In the Bacchica pompa ^Eviavro^ appears as a 
giomi with four elbows {Ttrpd-mj-^v^^ 4 cubits high ?), bearing 
Amalthea's horn, Athen. 5, 198 (Schw. 2, 263). 

p. 757.] Also in Hel. 14, 10; 'so 0lu winiro endi sumaro* 



mmm Am Miae m AS. fek missefm; but 5^ 1.2^ wbere Zadi&riftS 
«^ be was ' to£nttg winteo ' old when be mmmed Elisabeth^ 
•od Jmm lired with ber ^antsibuiita (70) vintro/ be is 90 years 
oUp mm] winiar stands for year, Tbe A3, mid^rinter^ ON. 
iBiSfdIr, appearB in M. Netk as medewinier, Lane. 13879, middß* 
winiar 23907* A compatatioii of mimar aod UnHm, Andr, & 
EL p. xwF. Leo's Bectitni 212^. The ON. d^^r is Swed. dy^n. 
Godran »ays in Saam. 232^ : ' f6r ek af fialli ßmm dmgr taltä/ 
fared I from the fell 5 days told ; coaf. F. Magn. Dagena tider^ 
p* 28« Tbe sacredness of Midsummer and Midwinter^ of St. 
John's day, snnnewende (p. 617) and ynle« faroars the dual 
diTtaion : on tbe night of St. John, rigils are kept in field and 
lawn under gold-apple tree, Molbecb no* 49. Norake eventyr 
no, 52. KM. no. 57. 

p, 758*J A» to a connexion between Tacitos^s three season» 
and Wodaa's three progresses, see Kuhd in Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 493, 
It seems to speak for the three seasons^ that often only three 
a$Hzes are recorded in a year j and still more, that thi-ee greak 
taerißces were offered, in autumn til {Ira, in winter til gröSrar, in 
summer til sigrs, Yngl. a. cap. 8; iribtis temporlbus anni, Lacomb. 
no. 186 (yr 1051). Gipsies divide the year into two and six 
•easous, »ays Pott 1, 66. The Persian, like the Spauiard^ had 
two springtimes, for FasH in the Gillistan speaks of the Shah 
Spring, *Shah Summer, Shah Autumo, Shah Winter, and Shah 
NeW'jjmr (newrue) = March, who reintroduces the spring. ON. 
hauiti, Swed. host, is an abbrev. of herbisb, hserfest [Scot hair'st], 
sro (jJramm, 2, '368, In Up- Hesse also they call spring auswärts, 
Vil mar's Hess. Ztschr, 4, 52* 

p, 76L] Spriog is expr, by the phrases : ez was in der zite 
aller bluümai nrftprltw, Flore 5529; so die bluomen enspringent 
153; von den bluomen wie sie sprangen 821 ; conC flos in vere 
Tiovoj Portz 5, 735, More vividly personal are the adja. in: ' der 
lang& friihling/ E. Meier's Schwab, march, p. 303; 'vil lieber 
Humer, dor liebe S,,' MS. 1, lö7\ MSH. 3, 212* ; din liebe 
Bumerztt, MS. 2, 108*j diu liebe aumer-wunne, Dietr. 381 ; 
saeliffe aumerzSt, MS. 2, 108*' (our 'die Hebe zeit'); and even 
' ihn* heilige Burner,* Myst, i* 312, 2. To which is opposed *der 
/rnV% winter,' MSH, 3, 215"*; ' die feile winter,' Rose 53, 62. 
Both seasons come and go ; * ira yvers^ si revetira estez/ Orange 



2, 75; OS- $Jcrid the wintar/onZ, Hei, 6, 13; tieme saeva iransiüf 
Carnia bur. 193 ; swanne der winter abe gienc^ tinde der sumer 
ane vienc, Alex. 5094; Neth. die winter ginc in haut, Maerl. 2, 8 
(like : binnen dien ginc die nacht in hant^ Laoc. 46927) ; als die 
winter inghiCy Lanc. S6044 ; geht der winter dalier, Götz v. BerL 
246; dar vorder Wüiierklaub herwider hat gehauset sich auf 
seinen allen sitz, Wolkenat. 67; nn ist der leide winter hie, Ben. 

h89G; der »nmer ist comen in din lant, MS. 2, 83*; pia ktnnt der 
enmer hers, Otnit (V* d. Ron) 29 ; nnz uffen S. Ürbana tac, danne 
gat der samer m, H. Martina bL 250; ai jehentj der sumer der 
si hie, MS. 1, 67^ ; es geeü ein frischer freier sominer da herein, 

Bergreien 71 ; ver redit optatucQj Carm, bur. 178. Or, instead 

lof Summer, it is Matf, as inai-gemsH means summer- pasture, 

Ißtalder 293; als der Mete in gäl. Warn. 1887; an S. Philippen- 

(.iage, so der Meie alrerst in gät^ Fraueod. 63, 13; alse die Mey 

m quam, enfcie April orlof nam, Lane. 23434 ; ' da hkt uns der 

Meie sinen kräni (wares) erloubet, ze auochen, swaz wir ßiner 

varwe geraochen,' to pick what we please^ MS. 2, 167*; des 

^Heien bile, Tit. 32, 2 ; do man dea liehtea Meigen spil mit 

siner bluete komen sach, Troj. 6889 ; Meie, die beide griieze I 

MS. 2^ 167^^; der Meie hilt die heide ^eere^ 2, 52*; 'der winder 

twanc die beide, uu gruenet si im ze leide/ to spite him, Ben. 

453; flower-leaves, whereon 'der May sein doMen (umbels) 

•Jienget,* Suchenw. 46, 28; des Hebten Meien schar (company) 

Btät bekleii in purpur-var (-hue), MSH. 3, 195^; flowers are 

'des Meien kiume/ MS. 2, 22*, and ^ sKmer-geraete' 1, 194**; 

uf Walpurgen tag xv. gebunfc Mei-gerten (-switches), Weisth. 

3, 497 ; * giezent nur den Meien under ougen ! ' sings a girl in 
MS. 2, 74** ; does it; mean * put the garland on me ' ? Mai, dein 

gezelt (pavilion) gefeilt mir wol, Wolkenst. 116, ^May has 

power: ich lobo dich, Meie, diner kraß, MS» 2, 57*; des Meies 
virtuit, ühU 1, 178 ; g^n wir zuo des Meien hoch-geztte (hightide)^ 
der ist mit aller siner krefte komen, Walth, 46, 22 (Lachm. is 

.wrong in note to NibeL p. 6). So: in der sumerlicben mahU 
'Pans. 493, 6; der sumer mit siner kraß, MS. 1, 37*; des Meien 

kraß sie bräbte dar, der was der mälaere (painter), BUcker 79 ; 
.der winter twinget mit einer kraß, MS, 1, 37'*; des Aberellon 
[icraft, Hpt'ö Ztjschr. 6, 353, and so of all the months. With 

power is blended goodness ; des Meien güete u. kraß, Muscatbl. 



in Altd. mns. 2, 189; ze veld u. M der heide lac der Mai mit 
slner güete, Hätzl. 131, 6. Soclienw. 46^ 15; des Meigen giwie^ 
HafczL 159, 584. Troj. 16213; conf, thera zlti gmiti {SuppL to 
791); der Meie hete i(} gevröut (gladdened) mit der liehteu 
küöfbe sin {his coming) diu wilden waltvogelm, Partenopier 45, 
18 ; siimer, du bast manege gtleie, Lachm. Walth. xvii. 7. Summer 
brings bliss : si jehent, der saraer der si hie, dia wunnö dia st 
komen, MS. 1, 67**; ' heia sumerwunnej swer niis dm erbaone ! ' 
grudge us the© 2, 63''; sit die sumerw, alrfirat begtinde nähen 2, 
74'' ; er ist komen wider mit gewalde, den der Meige bat verfcriben; 
Bumerw. ist im entrannen (fled before him) balde^ der ist vor im 
niht gebliben, Franend. 507 ; sumerw,, nig dem süezen Meigen, 
MS. 2, 22**; der ttumerw, gilete, Flore 165; zur somerw,, Baur 
no. 718.— — The Germ. Summer or May stands on a par with 
the Scand, god Freyr returning from exile (p. 212-3), as ind^d 
Mala, Florüj Aprüis were goddesses to the Romans. A tree 
breaks into blossom when a god settles upon it : 

seht ir den boum, der d& stsLt, 
der loubes vil n. blnomen liat, 
, ein got hat sich da nider geldu (let himseH down), 
an den (without him) möhte ez nlht ergän, 
ez ist hi namen Tervigant. Geo, 2162* 

The poet of the Warnung sings : 

nu minuet (ye adore) bluoraen unde gras, 

niht in der (not Him who) sin meister was; 

wip unt vogel-gesanc 

nnt die liehten tage lane, 

der Sache jegeliche (all auch things) 

nemt ze einem himelncke, Hpt's Ztschr. 1, 495. 

And still more distinctly : 

einer anhetet (one adores) daz vogel-sanc 

unb die liehten tage lane, 

darzuo blnomen unde gras, 

daz ie des vibes spise was (cattle^s food) ; 

din rinder vrezzent den got (oxen gobble your god); ibid. 1^ 500. 

Green foliage is the garment of May and Summer : qnoique le bois 
reprenne sa robe d'eie, Villem. Bardes Bret, 215; snmeT-kleit b&t 



er IT geaniten (cut out), MS. 2, 47^; der Sumer wil riehen 

|inaiiigen bourn mifc loubes wai (leafy dress) 2, 83*; beide u. anger 

äbent sich bereitet mit der schoeoaten waf^ die in der Meie h4t 

fesant (which May has seot them} 2, 83* ; herbest, der des Meiea 

pät vellet von den risen (cuts fr, the twigs) 2, 105'; vil richor 

l^ätf die Meie hat 1, 192*; sich liite geiHizzet (collected) der wait, 

tu. schoeniu Jdeit gein dem sumer an-geleit (put on), Maurit. 1084- ; 

in Meigeschem %valde, Tit. 143, 1 ; solutis Ver nivibus viridem 

monti reparairifc amidum, Claud. B. Get, 168. 

p, 762J Winter is a ruthless ruffiau warrior; 'spiteful Wi'a 

envy Ms complained of, MS. 1, 192*; Mer ar^je Winter twanc/ 

oppressed, ibid.; der W. hant (also twanc) die beide 2, 78*^; nu 

ist der bl lien den beide voget (tyrant) mit gewalt M uns geaoget| 

hoert wi*er mit winde hrogei (blusters) 1, 193*; dea leiden 

Winters überlast^ der si verwäzen (be cursed) u. sin roup / 2, 20*', 

Winter has an iugminde^ retinue, Hpt^s Ztschr. 4, 311; des 

Winters wä/efi tragen (weapons carry), MsH. 1, 328*. But May 

is armed too, and fights him : mein ros schrait (my steed strides) 

gen des Maien schilt^ Wolkensfc. 115; diu sunne dringet liehtem 

feien dur den grüenen achUtj der von loube scbaten birt (brings 

[leafy shade) den kleinen vogelliu, MsU. 1, 150^. His fight with 

' W- is descn in detail in the Song of battle betw, Summer and 

W., UhL Volksl. p. 23. The AS. arready has : pk w^s W. 

fsBger folden bearm, Beow. 2266 (yet see p. 779 n.) ; 

brumalis est feriia rabies» Ärchipoeta p. 76; Winder, wie ist nu 

'din kraft worden gar unsigehaß (unvictorious), sit der Meie 

Hnen schaß hat (Li dir verstochen, MSH. 3, 195*"; fuorfc mich 

durch dea Meien her (host), der mit ritterlicher wer den W. hat 

erdagen (slain), Hätzl. 131,51; winder ist nider vali (felled) , 

Wiggert 37; hin sont wir den W* jagen (chaae away), Conr. v» 

Ammenh. extr. W. p. 51 ; wol hin, her W., ir müeztie ze rüme in 

bergen, FrauenL 369, 16; der sumerwünne den slrit l&n (drop the 

strife with), Flore 150. Haupt on Neidh. 45, 12 takes Äucholf 

to be for oukolf in the sense of krotolf (p. 206) ; yet also Goth» 

atibj{>n = turaultQari might be brought in« The names Jfat&om, 

iMeienris (Closener 68) point back to old customa; the island 

tMdgen'Ouwe, now Meinau, perh. to an ancient site of the spring 


762 J A sweet May-song in Wolkenst no. 63, p. 173 ; lietj 



di Bi mite enpfdhen ^en Meigen. To welcom© the spring is in 
ON, ' ]fkfiigna )?eir sütnri/ Maurer 2, 232 ; alle die vogel froellche 
den Sumer siDgende enphnntj MS. 1, 2P; entpkdlien die wunig- 
lichen zit, Diut, 2j 92 ; onifaei den Mel met bloemen, hi is so 
schone ghedaen, ühl. Volkat 178; slenst uns auf (unlock) die tiir^ 
u. leH den Sumer herein^ Fastn* &p. p. 1103; ir suit den Sumer 
griiezeUf u. al sin ingesiode, MSH. 3, 202*; Meie, bis (be) uns 
mUlekomen^ MS, 1, 194**; wis (be) millekomen, wunnecliclier Meie 
1, 196** May and Sununer are distinguished: sint wi Uek omen /ra 
Sumerzit, sint will, der Meie 1, 59"; ich klage dir, Meie^ ich klage 
dir, Su7Ti€rwu7me 1, 3**. 

' In den Meien riden ' was a real custom, Soester f elide p, 660. 
The men of Mistelgan near Baireuth sent envoys to Niirnbg, to 
fetch Spring» Tliej were given a humblebee shut up in a box 
(Suppl. to 697) ; but curiositj led them to peep in, and the bee 
escaped. They shouted after it 'na Mistelgau I * and sure enoagh 
the long rain was followed by line weather, Panz, Beitr. 2, 173; 
conf. Herod* 7j 162, whero a country has the spring taken out of 
its year. 

p. 763.] The coming of Summer is known by the opening of 
flowers, the arrival of birds : der sumer ist komen schone nher mer 
\A% uns ze lande brüht ein xtmnniclichez her^ MSH* 3^ 226% as in 
Ssk. spring is called kusumäkara^ florum multitudinem habens ; 
do man die sumerwunne bt der vogel reise erkande, do löste der 
Mei die hluomen ftz den tiefen banden 3^ 229^ ; der sumer ist mit 
mezefn sänge schöne erwecket 3^ 24-1^ ; doch kam ich A! ein heide, 
diu was liehter bluoinen vol| d4ran möht man schon wen wol, ob 
der Mai zo velde lac,Ls, 1, 199. Nithart leads the Duchess, with 
pipers and fiddlers, to where ho has thrown his hat over the (first) 
triol ; kneels down and raises the hat, ^ ir lät den snmer schlnen/ 
MSH. 3, 202^ ; 's ersH veigerl brock i' dir zliab, Firmen. 2, 798, 
and Voss goes in search of the first flowers as spring- messengers, 
Goethe 33, 148 ; the first buttercup and hvUaippa used to be 
eaten, Dybeck ^45, 68-9, conf. the first 3 comMossoTns, Saperst. 
I, 695. 1018, Tussiiago, coltsfoot, is called sommer-f hurl ein 
(-doorlet) and Merzblume, because it springs up immed. after the 
8UOW has thawed ; also Alius ante patrem, filia ante matrem, 
Nemnich 1515; NethL zomer-zoetjes (-sweetie) ^galanthus nivalis. 
Clover too is called summerAower, visumarusj Kl. sehr. 2, 159. 



p. 763*] Ckelidoidnm^ ceUndiiie, so called because it cometi 
with the swallow and withers at hia going, Dioscor. 2, 211. A 
spring song in Locian^s Tragopod. 43—53 (ed. Bip. 10, 4) makes 
hlo88oni^ iswäUoWf and nightingale heralds of spring ; if jon see 
the first plonghman ply, the first swallow fly, &c., Sup. I, 1086 ; 
usque ad advefdum hirundineum vel clconinum, Sidon, Apoll. 2, 
14 ; ciconia redeuntls anni j «giber nuniiatrix, ejiciens triatitiam 
Memisj laetitiam verni temporis introducens, magno m pietatis 
fcradit exemplmn, Cassiod. Var. 2, 14; Maien-bule^ sonimergeck, 
Diet» 2j 506 sob v. buhl : conf. 'künden vogel rehte schouwen^ 
b6 lobten sie zefrottwen fiir die liehfen smyierzU, MS. 1, 84*. 

p. 769.] Schwartz de ApolL 33 compares ApoUo^s fight with 
the dragon to that betw. Summer and Winter. The song in 
Wiggert p. 37 says : 

Winder ist nider vali (felled). 

Winder, du bist swer sam ein bll {heavy as lead) , 

SameFj du kanst den Winder stillen (bring to reason). 

In the NethL song of battle betw. S, and W. (Hor, Belg, 6, 125 
— 146) Venus comes and reconciles the * brothers ' ; yet, at the 
rery end, it says Winter has had to be hilled — evidently the ending 
'of an older song. Other pop. songs of summer in Firmen. 2, 
15. 34. On the Eisenach sommer-gemnn, see Wolf's Ztschr. f. 
myth. 3, 157 and Hone's Daybk 1^ 339 (conf. the May fetched 
by May-boys in Lyncker p. 35-6) ; the straw Winter is nailed to 
a wheel, set on fire, and rolled downhill^ Daybk 1, 340. In Fran- 
conia the girls who carry Death oat are called death-maidens, 
Schm. 1, 464* In Jever they have the custom of ' meiboem 
setten,' Stracker jan p. 75.* 

p. 781.] By the side of May appears the Maij-bride, Kuhn's 
Sag. pp. 384. 513, otherw. called hühli^ fastenhühli, Staid. 1, 
240. The p% /if eti pair are sought for, Somm. p. 151, conf, 180; 

• Our people's h*v€ of a forett-life , which comes out esp. %X tho anmmer-hoüday, 
U fthown Id the following passages : te walde gie, Kiudh. Jesu 101, 13 ; (dancing on 
the meadow before the wood) reigen vilr den wait aq eine wise lange* MS. 2, 55*» ; 
te halte loofen, retgen 2, 56* ; daz dir te wakl^^ stilt der fnoz (for a dance), Wins- 
bekin 29, 4. Haupt p, 78. Massm. EracL p. 609 ; wir suln vor duem ffirhoh ligen 
dutch der bluomen smac u. der vogel gesane, Wigam. 2472 ; icb wil vor diiem 
watde ein häah'/Ai machen» u. herladen u> bitten fron wen u. ritter etolz an diz 
grüine fUtholt 2477 ; vor dem walde in eime tal da saoh man swense blicken, die 
megde würfen ouch den bal, MS. 2, 56*> ; TÜ BohOne ze walde, an dem werde, bebent 
aicb die tenze 2, 57^. 


ilk HwdsJ^ can Imt «s;(3U«Mmirf4T«J, Wieadgr. 410. Dk. Pot- 
k;f^« f>^ mitmeu loep 1^ 3(^1* Aotonins de Arenm (a Pioie pce 
fMri^ d. i^/ii) de Tilis de Soieriis (Sooiien), Loud« 17^8 infonns 
tm i * ijnm igiiar none we aflerai lubrutiiiiiis rnensis Maims^ quo 
Umtp^/r0f ißtnum pripali rolaptati et gaodio, laetitiae ei omni aolatäo 
inAu\^$ffH n^Amti, ot ioqoit gloM. et ibi doctores in L iinica, C. de 
mayfium^i, lib« x\, tunc eoim apparent berbae frondesqoe rirraites 
ei ffurriiun urium, corda bominam laeiificantes ; Boncniae, et in 
lUMira PtiAf^wM, BC hie Avenione, in Wi« reginas pro solatio 
faciurji^ //u/if t^ eoguniur oweulari» Item in dicto menae Ifoio 
amanii^ in »ignom amori« et solatii caasa amicaram, aUiuimas 
orbf/reM plantare »olent^ quae Mato$ appellant ' ; conf. Forcell. snb 
V« majiima.'-^At Lon» le Saanier and St Amoar tbe prettiest 
girl in choNon to be nymplie du priniemps, is adorned^ garlanded 
and carried round in triamph^ while some collect gifks^ and 

6trennez notre epousee ! 

voici lo mois^ le joli mots de Mai, 

^trennez notre Spouses 
en bonne ^trenne I 

voici le mois^ le^oJi mots de Mai, 
qu'on vous amene ! 

In Hrctnnn (now dopt. Ain) the May-queen or May-bride, decked 
with ribbonN and flowers, walks first, led by a yoang man, while 
n May-truo in bh)HM()m is carried in front. The words of the song 
arn I 

voici venir le^oK mois, 

I'alouette plante le Mai, 

voici venir le joli mois, 

I'alouette I'a plants. 

le coq prend sa volee 

et la volaille chante. 

8«<) Monnior'a Gulte des esprits dans la Seqnanie. In Lonain 
too ho is called jo/i Mi. 

The Italians danced at the spring holiday, Donnige's Hdnr. YII, 
101 ; conf* the May-feaat as descr. in Machiav. Stor. Fior. 1^ 109. 
lid. In ancieni Italy, under stress of war or pestilenoe» HJbef 
TOwed a iw Mcntia^ i.e« everything begotten and bom that sprang:. 



riebiihr 1, 102. The Servian Whitauti queen is called kraliizaj 
' Vok sub V. 

p, 782 D*] Y lev frone vasten, Meiuauer's Naturl, p. 8; in der 
fron/asten^ in den fronfasten, Keisersb. Om. 42-3. Did they have 
a inatron go about muffled at that season ? Er. Alberua in Fab. 
39 says of a diaorderly dressed female : ' sie gieng gleichwie ein 
fassefiacht' ; die liebe frau fastnacht u, den jtingherrri von fron* 
fasten, Bieneiik. 49**. 

p. 784.] Does an AS. riddle in Cod. Exon. 417-8 refer to the 
flying Bummer ? ' spinueweppe, dag sumers zifc im gras M griienen 
wisen lit/ Albn v. Halb. 124^. An ItaL proverb traces the 
spring gossamer to three Marys (see p. 41 6 n«): 've' quant' 
hjskuuo filato questa notte h ire Marie ! ' conf, Indiculiis ID: '^ de 
petendo {peudulo ?) quod boni vocant sanctae Mariae,* and 
Nemn. sub v. fila divae virginis. Mädchen- or Mättchen-sommer 
is snpp. to mean Matthias' summer, from its appearing on that 
saint's day. Yet we read : de metUn hebbt spunnenj Miillenh. 
p, 583. Now Met je is Matilda, Brem. wtb,, and we actually find 
a ' Gobelinus de Rodenberg dictus Mechiilde-sumer/ Saihartz 2, 
286 (yr 1338). Matthidia in Clemens' Eecogn, becomes Mehthild 
in Ksrchr. 1245, Flying gossamer is called in India marudd- 
hva^a, Marut's flag, Hpt'a Ztschr. 5, 490. 

p. 786.] In Eogland on May 1 the kohby-horse is led abont, 
and also a bear, Haupt 5, 474 ; conf. the erbes-bar, Somm. p. 
155-6. Ptngater'bloemen, Pinkster -hlmnen, Whitsnn-flowers, is 
the name given to the merry processionists at Jever, Strackerj. 
p. 76, and in Westphaliaj Firmen, 1, 859. The Whitsun sleeper 
is nicknamed pfinst-liimmel (-looby) also in Moue's Schausp, 2, 
371 \ in Silesia rauch-ßhs, Berl, jrb, 10, 224. In Russia the li^- 
abed on Palm Sunday is scourged with rods^ Kohl's lluss. 2, 186. 
On iaudragil see GDS. 509. 



p. 791.] Wile, stunde, Graff 4, 1224, zU, wile, stunde, Uolr. 
1554, and stund, weil, zeit, Wolkenst, 101 stand side by side; so 
onr 'zeit u, wtsile wird mir lang/ I feel dull. Wile occurs even 

VOL, IV. 8 


with a nameral : nnz (antil) drie mle körnen hin^ Senrat 2652. 
As Xpovo^ was a god, and Kaipo^ is called a graybeard^ Tom- 
maseo 3, 15. so is din wile personified^ conf. wiUscelde, pp. 857 n. 
863; ' der wile nigen/ bowing to w., MSH. 1, 358» ; undane der 
wHe sagen, KL 274; gört si (honoured be) diu wile unde dirre 
toe, Parz. 801, 10; saelic wile, saelic zib, MSBL 1, 296% conf. 
AS. 8ael=s {elicitas and tempns opportune m ; gistuant thera adti 
,gfi/a^t=instabat tempns, O. iv. 9, l,conf. des Snmers güete, p. 

760 n. Above all, there is ascribed to Time a coming, going, 

striding, advancing, drawing nigh, entering. Ssk. amasa time, 
from am to go, Bopp, see Gramm. 491-2 ; Lith. amiis, Armor. 
amzer, Kymr. amser, Jr. am. The Lat. seculum is fr. sec to go, Ssk. 
sac fr. sak = sequi (or secare? Pott, 2, 588). The OHG. dihsmo, 
conn, with Goth. ]^ihs, means processus, successus, advance, 
Graff 5, 111. M. Neth. ^uien = ire, Lekensp. 622. Gramm. 1, 
978; diu wile hete sich vergangen, Osw. 3443 ; die tit ghinc voH, 
Maerl. 2, 364 ; ]?4 seo tid gewat ofer tiber sceacan, Casdm. 9, 1 ; 
th6 ward thiu tid cuman, Hel. 3, 14. 23-4. 25, 22; ein paar 
stunden kommen in^s land. Weise's Lustsp. 3, 198 ; es gierigen 
nicht drei tage in's land, Jucundiss. 36 ; ehe zwei jähre in's land 
gehen,F6\. maulaffe 4; thiu tid was ginahit, Hel. 121, 21 ; nahtun 
sih thio hohun giziti, O. iv. 8, 1 ; zit wart gireisot, 0. i. 4, 1 1 ; 
' swie sich diu zit huop/ arose, Tit. 88, 4 ; die tit, die nooit noch 
ghelac, Kose 353; weil jetzt die zeit heigeneigt, Eichst, hexenpr. 
85 ; thio ziti sih hihrahtun, 0. iii. 4, 1 ; thö sih thiu zit bibrdhta, 
O. iv. 1, 7; dö sik de tid brächte, Sachsenchr. 205; d6 sik 
brächten dusent u. twehundert jär 226 ; forS baero (1. baeron) 
tid, CsBdm. 8. 31 ; nie sich diu zit also getruoc, Trist. 13, 34; sik 
hadde de tid gedragen, Sachsenchr. 213; our 'what future time 
might bring with it,' Irrg. d. liebe 248 ; ' die zeit bringVsJ 

p. 792.] Stunde, hour, often stands for time : 'ja gie in din 
stunde mit grözer kurz-wile hin,' their time went by with much 
pas-time. Nib. 740, 4; ndch des Merzen stunden, Gudr. 1217, 3. 
But the OS. werolt'Stunda = mundu8, Hel. 76, 5. 159, 11. The 
M.Neth. also expressed a moment by 'en stic,' Rose 1952, and 
by the phrases : ' biz man geruorte die brä,' while one moved the 
eyelid, Servat. 342 ; biz ein bra die andern ruorte 3459 ; also 
schiere (as fast as) diu ober brä die nideren gerüeret, Hpt's 
Ztschr. 2, 213. 



p, 793.] Voss in Luis© p, in. 220 ingeniously derives tt^erU, 
world J fr. werfen, to whirL The World is often apostroplazed 
by Walther 37, 2-i. 38, 13. 122, 7. In Ssk. the ages of the 
world are yu/ja, the two last and corrupt ones being Dvdpara^s 
and Kali'S, Bopp's Damay, p. 266. The men of the golden age 
are themselves called (johleUf Lucian's Saturn. 8. 20 (ed* Bip. 3, 
886); conf* our Schlaraflfenland, Cockaign, GDS. 1. 2. So in 
Ssk* the plur. of I6ka (mundus) = homines; and OHG. AS. ferahj 
feorh Lave ' mid * prefixed to them, answering to mitil-gart, mid- 
dan -geard : OHG* miilfiri, viiUlt'erihi, AS* mulfeonve. ManmePs 
seems to corresp. to the Eddie alda ve iarffar, Saam. 23**, popu- 
lorum habitaciilumj terra ab hominibus iuhabitata {F. Magu, p. 
255 n.}, to which is opposed nive — uUfaiiTar^ gigantnm habitacula, 
And the GaeL siolj seed, often stands for people, men, 

p. 704»] Ssk. loka^ mundus, fr, loc, lucere ? conf, Lat, locus, 
Litli. laukas = campus ; * disa sconun werlt' in Notk. Bth. 147 
transL pulcrnm mundura. The Hindus also held by three worlds: 
beaveuj earth and hell, Holtzra. lud, s, 3, 121; madhtiama loka 
= media terra, qutppe quae inter coelam ci iufernumf Bopp*3 GI. 
256^; or simply Madhifuma^ Pott 2, 354, The Greeks too divided 
the world into ovpavo^, 7^^^^ rdpTapo^;, Hes. Theog, 720 (see 
Snppl. to 806). ON, heimr terra, himinn coelum, heimir in- 
fernns ? Heimr is opposed to hel, S^em* 9V^ ; liggj?^ i milli heims 
ok hel jar, Fornm. 8. 3, 128 means to have lost consciousness, 
O. V* 2a, 95. 103 puts all three in one sentence; * in erdu job in 
himiley in ah^runde ouh hiar uidare.' Distinct fr, vUddjungards, 
earth, is Goth, mipgards = medmm in the compound mi|>garda- 
vaddjus, pi€fjQ'Totxop, Ephes. 2, 14. 'This itujadel-crde,* Ali- 
sannder p, 1 ; iz thisu ivorolt lerta in 7nUiemo iro ringe^ O. iv, 19, 
7; ert-rlnc, Diemer US, 23, 121, 1 ; der irdiitke ring, Mar, 191, 
IG. Earth is called diu grunfveste, Rüther 3051 ; OHG. cruut/mti 
fundamentum, Graff 3, 718. ^ Daz Ini vergieng/ the world 
perished, Wolkenst. 180. la the centre of the world lies an 
old donCj under it the measuriug chain, Temmo's Altmark p. 33 ; 
oonf« navel-stone (p, 8oG), Other names : der maere m^cgarie, 
Karajan 22, 15; der irdinke gthel, Mar, 156, 40; daz irdUke tal 

The toorld'snahe has itn bead knocked off by a throw of Thorns 
hammer, Sn. 63. Even Fischart in Gesch. kl. 31'* says : ' When 



Atlas wanted to shift the globe to his other shoulder, to see what 
the great fish was doing whereon the world is said to stand j^ 
conf* Leviathan (p, 998), 

p. 795.] The world is called ' der vrone sal/ lordly hall, Diemer 
297, 6, which usu. means heaven; but ^'der aal^ 326, 7 seems 
to be temple. On the other hand : * diz jamertal/ valo of sorrow, 
ReoD. 896 J diz amertal, Griesh. Pred. 2, 101 ; in ditze chlagelkhe 
ial. Mar. 148, 2, 198j33; d\ese^ jammern, Iciunmerlhal, Schwei- 
nicheii 1, 17; ' varee iiz disem ellemh/ misery, Griesh* 2, 15; 
ÜZ disera uhdtni loaj'iale^ Diem, 301, 2; in disem angsUhaiisei 
Drei erzn, 270 ; voo dirre mioeden uwrlt, Frik Trist. 33, 

p. 795.] There are several heavens : ace. to Dint. 3, 41 ien 
at first, but after Lucifer's fall only nine. The Finns too have 
?une heavens f taivahan yheksan an, Kal. 10, 190. 28, 308-9; vor 
froeide zuo dmi him ein (ad coelos) springen, MS, 2, 47** 

p. 800.] The World-tree is called ai^kr Yg*jdrastU in Saam. 3^ 
but YgffdrdsiUfi a»kr in S"** 44-5. 89*; conf. the Low Sax. legend 
of the ash (p. 900). Again: mioiv i&r kyniiz (is kindled), Siem. 
8^; 7^*tfi/i?icr maeran /t/rür mtdd neÜan 1*; which is rendered arbor 
centralis, for m/o^ — medium, saya Magnusen. But Rask reads 
myotviSrj and other expositors miatn^r. Is raiotuSr the tree the 
same as miotn^r, God (p. 22) ? Again : ' ifc nldna tre/ Smm. S" ; 
peril, also the word aldurnarif secuhim servans 9*" signifies the 
same world- tree. 

The snake gnawing at the roots of the ash ^H 

]ief to it: well, Germ, superstition likewise places ^^ 

must mean mischief 
enmity between snake and a^^h, Panz. Beitr, 1, 251-2. 351-2. A 
somewhat doubtfol legend tells of a world-old dntdtaJtaum on 
the top of the Harberg near Plankstellen in Franconia, that its 
leaves fr. time to time shed g olden drops, 7ndk oozed out of its 
roots, and under it lay a treasure guarded by a dragon ; on the 
tree sat a great black bird, who clashed his wings together and 

raised a storm when any one tried to lift the treasure (?) 

Similar to the passage quoted from Otfried is another in iv» 27, 

tho zeintnn (pointed to) ivoroU'enU sines selbes henti, 

thaz h&ubit himilisga mnnt» thief uazi ouh thesan erdgruni, 

tbaz was sin al in wära nmbikirg in fiara 

obana joh nidana. 
But 0* has nothing about, hirda. Neither has the legend on the 



Wood of the Oro88 ; but it mentions the Bpring and the serpent. 
It makes Seth look in at the door of Paradise and spy a spring, 
which parted into the four rivers Pi son, Gihon, Tigris and 
Euphrates ; at the source of the Euphr. stood a withered tree, 
rith a great serpent coiled about it ; its root ran deep down into 
bellj on its crown lay a newborn babe in swaddling-bandg. The 
gerpeni is he of the forbidden fruit-tree, but he answers to 
Ni^höggr, the four rivers or springs corresp. to the three of the 
Edda, the child on the tree-top to the eagle, and the roois of 
both trees reach down to hslL But the wood of the Cross only 
comes of three pips off this tree, which grow up into three other 
treee. Now where did this legend spring up ? and may some 
heathen features h&ve heen adopted into it? The Leg. Aurea c, 
64 is very brief. 

With the Oriental fable of the mouse gnawing at the root of 
the bush in the well, ought to be conn, the Indian myth of the 
thin stalk of gra^s banging over a prect'pice, and unca^singly 
gnawed by a mouse, HoUzm. 3, 114. The widely spread fable 

^abore has even been painted, Mone 8, 279 ; conf. Benfey's 
Pantsch. 1, 80, 2, 528. Liebr. on Barlaara p. 3:30-1. 
p, 80 L] Gehenna is supposed to mean vale of sorrow; pi, 

igehennaej Am ob. 2, J 4, Arab, lahennemj Pers. f^ehinnom ; the 
Turks, too, retain it in the Koran as jehenne, the abode of ebll^, 
dtabolus. '^S^?, atBfjv is expL as the invisible (god), fr. aiSij^, 
Hades is addressed as a person : «Jiaf ^AtSrj, Soph, Trach, 1085; 
so is the Hebrew Slieol, b)Hp, b^p Gesen. 73 P [see Hosea 13, 
14, and 1 Cor. 15, 55], Lucian de luctu 2, 3 descr. Hades as a 
vast and dark subterranean abyss, encircled by the fearful streams 
of Cocytus and Pyriphlegethoutes, and to be reached by sailing 

over the Acherusian bog. Dietrich in Hpt's Zfcschr. 7, 305, 

ays Niflhel is a place of torment too ; yet höll in Fischart's 
%Tg. 202*, is still a mere dwelling place: das (wie dort ge* 

ftchriben steht) 'ein so weite Lolle fitul man kaum, da all die todeii 
hetten raura/ Did he take that fr. the passage in Widukind f 
Simple dying is called faring to hell ; hence the Norse expres- 
sions heUreiÖ' {e.g. Bryuhildar), and /a r a fit Ileljar (p. 313). It 
sotmds purely local in *si ist m der fielle begraben/ buried in 
hell, Kschr. 2530, 

p, 801.] Leonidaa at Thermopylae bids his men break their 



fast, for they will sup iti the realm of the dead ; hodie apud 
inferos coeoabimiis. ' ThorgerSr segir hitt : eugan hefi ec iiatt- 
veriS haft, ok engan man ek fy rr enn at Frejjjtt^* not sup till I 
sup with F, (yr 1)45), Egilss. p. 003 ; ' lrfi5 heilir herra, ek man 
hid O^ai ffisia/ to*day guest with 0<Sin, Fornald* a. 2, 366 > conf. 
the passage fr. Saxo in Suppl. to 818 (Kl. sehr. 5^ 354? seq.). 

p. 802.] ÜÖ olde helwefj, Urk. of 1518 in Wigand'a Corv. 
giiterb. 229; hell^wege, hellehnochen 241. Brückner derives the 
Henneberg 'hälweg, Lälwehr/ bonndary, fr. häl (for hagel). 
Herweg means also tho Milky Way, Woeste 41 ; Haus Udwmjen^ 
MB. 25, 314 (yr 1469). 316. 384. 

p. 803.] Hellia lies low. Beside the root of a tree of para- 
dise Seth looks into helly and sees his brother AbeUs souL It is 
curious that Brynhild on her hel-reid' drives through the hails 
of a giant es», Seem. 227. Diu tiefe helle, MS. 2, 184»*, Hpt's 
Ztschr. 2, 79. In tho same sense death is called deep : an then© 
(Hfipnn tloJ, Hel. 136j 1, and conversely *in der biUeron hella,* 
Grieshaber 2, 33. 44. 65. 76. 97. 108, 122; and 'diu belt© dingst 
ein bitter hol/ äISH. 3, 468% when usn. it is death that is bitter. 

The Greek uoderworld had an oponiog, through which Pluto 

descends when he has carried off Proserpine, Pans, ii. 36, 7, 
while Dionysus leads Semele out of hadea across the Alcyonian 
lake ii, 37, 5, The Tent, hell has likewise a gateway (mouth), 
which is closed up with a grating : fyr nd-grhidr neSaUj Sasm. 
68*. 80" J hnigin er hel-tp-ind, when the grave-mound opens, 
Hervarars, p, 347, OS. helll-porta, Hel. 97, 17; thiu heUiporia, 
0. iii. 12, 35; antheftid fan heU-doroii, HeL 71, 9; de doir 
vanner hdfen mot aupen wesen, Slennerhinke, beginn. There is 
a Hallthor'Hpilze in Salzburg, M. Koch's Reise 315. Der helle 
invart is a hole at which all the dead went in. En, 2906 — 15 ; 
dringet in daz helldor^ Hpt 2, 69 ; diu riuwe (rath) stfifc fur der 
hMe io}% Waimuug 316. 

p. 804,] OHG. helU'slroum — Tudens, torrena inferni, Graff 6, 
754 ; Eölt-haken, hell-hook, was the name of a whirlpool in the 
Rhine; Fischart's Glückh. schif 429, 

p. 805.] Plainly Christian are the following notions : * minne 
hÄt üf erde hüs, ze him el ist reine für Got ir geleite, minne ist 
allenthalben waii ze hrlle/ lovo is everywhere but in hell, Tit. 51 ; 
helle-viur, -fire, Kehr. 1138; daz vnmtei* viur, MSH, 1, 293^; 



' ich hän fiwer u. vinster ze der zeswen unfc ze der winster* to 
right and left, Todes gehugede G61j der ImW^ fiwerstdiy Warn. 
72; in der helle hnnnen n, braten, Griesh. 2, 76. 108, 123. Yet 
the heathen fauej o£ fireä dartiag out of opened grave-monndsj 
and of haufja-eUlr in geoeral (Fornald, a. 1, 437), seems conn, 
with hellfire. On the other hand we hear of helle-tTöwi, Tod. 
geh* 902. In pop» speech, heli is any dark hole or corner : tho 
tailor throws pieces of cloth * in die holte/ the prentice jumps up 
_^aiia der höUe' (fr. behind the chest), and makes for the door, 
?ol. maolaäe 4; kroch nach der köUe 6 ; geh hinter^ n ofen in die 

itell, H. Sachs i. 5, 495^.^ The Christian hell haa a pool of 

pitch and brimstone : hech unde swebelj Diemer 3 13, 9 ; von deme 
bechen 303, 22; beh-ivelle 298, 29, 303, 27; die swarzen peck- 
velle (1. *welle), Tod. geh. 686 ; die b&chwelUtjen backe 899 ; mit 
bechwellitjer hitze 929, In the marchen of Dame Hollo the fjold- 
gaie and pitch- gate stand opposed, like heaven and helL Again : 

dem swebelf Warn. 260; in den sivebeU^^^Qn (-lakes) baden, 
Servat, 3541 ; din helle siinchd wirs danne der füle hunt, Kara- 
jan 31, 8; infer le puant. Thib. de Nav. 150; puaßtie, Gaufrey 
p. XXX. The stench of hell may have been suggested by the 
Qoxiona fumes that rise out of clefts in the earth, 

p. 806.] Greek opinion placed Tartarus not inside the earth, 
but an immense way off it. A brass anvil (^oKKeo'i äfcf^wv) falls 
nine days and nvjhts fr. heaven, and touches earth on the tenth; 
it takes nine more to reach Tartaros, Hes. Theog. 722^ — 5 ; but 
Homer makes Uephaestas fall fr, heaven in otte daij, II, 1, 592. 
The Lat* Avemus is 6r* a-opvo^, bird-less, 'quia sunt avibus 
contraria cunctia,^ Lucr, 6, 742. An AS. word for hell is scnef, 
cavern, Csedm. 212, 10. MHG. abis, Roth's Dicht, pp. 10. 23; 
r^daz abgrundo' also occurs in Rother 4434; 'in der helle grttnde 
verbruune 6 ich/ I'd sooner burn, MS. 1, 56"; an grand grim- 
inaro helliun, Hel. 164,5; der fiirste uz helle abgrilnde, Walth. 
3, 12; de hellegrunt^ MB. 5, 138; der hodengruni (bottom) der 
helle, MS. 2, 147^. In Kuss. however [beside the more usual ad 
it. ahj}^'] it is called bez-dnd, bottom-less, like ä-ßvaco^, Conf, 
der erde vohmliide (fullamunt), Gute frau 2022 ; der erden bimder 
(ON, pundari), Hpt's Ztschr, 2, 131. 

p, 806.] On the Delphian navel as earth's centre, see Pott's 
Zlihlmeth, 267; Zeus ascertains it by sending out eagles or 



ravens. To the Insh too earth's navel was a stonej Lappeob, in 
Allg. encyd. d, wiss., art. Irlaüd 49^ A stone in helles-gmnt 
occurs in UIiL YolksL 1, 8 ; the dille-atmn is the stooe ' den kein 
Imnd überbal, kein wind überwehte^ kein regen übersprehte/ p. 
7 ; über d*heUpfata springen, Vonbnn p. 65, Dillestein means 
bottom -stone. 

p. 807 ♦] The underworld has its waters j streams : sa hon ynr 
vad^a l^raunga stramna menu me ins vara, Sa^m. 7'' ; Va^T^jdmi va^a 
181*; in der helle dailen, Engelh. 6050; ze helle Imden, MSH. 2, 
259'. 260**; in den awebel-sfiwen (brirastooe lakes) baden, Servat. 
3541 ; sole hesonfel (drenched) in bellepiae, MS. 2, 150\ Hell 
is a well, a helle-pnzze (-pit), obene enge (narrow at top), nidene 
witj Wernh. v. N. 41, 5 ; dti diu unerfalte hniz** des ahgraiides üz 
diezen, Todes geh. 896; heUe-soi, MSH. 3, 463^ answers to the 
AS* sedÖ' in the text ; HelUdcesself -kettle, a family name at Bonn. 
Snsl in ewisstisle is appar. the ON. syi^la, negotium, cura, labor, 
passing over into supplicium, as verk into verkr, dolor; conf. 
8uslbo7iaf hell-foei Caedm. 305, 1. 

p, 807.] Hell is said in AS. to be imjrmsele and wy7*mum be- 
wunden, Judith 134, 49. 57 ; f^aer biS ffr and wyrm, Csedm. 212, 
9 ; fiz diseme umrmgarfenj Dietner 295, 25. There also dwells 
the hell'homnl (p. 996-7, Suppl. to 815) There were punish- 
ments in hell for heathen heroes too : SigurSr Fafnisbani has 
to heal an oimi, and StarkaSr 'hefi okla-eld/ Forum, s. 3, 200; 
conf. St. Patrick's Purgatory by Th. Wright xi. and 192. 

p* 809.] Leo in Hpt^s Ztschr. 3, 226 has a Gael, mudspuil, 
mutatioj which I have not found in any dictionary. He only 
gets it out of muih, mutare, and (iptiil, spolium; but the OS. 
vindspelles megin (like iarSar megin) requires a material sense. 
That of wood, tree, is supported by Sa3m. 9^: 'geisar eimi vi^ 
ahlnrnara,' the fire rages against aldurnari, t.e. Yggdraaill ? 
(Suppl. to 800 beg.). Lapp, mnora, mnorra [Mong. mödo\^ 
arbor; but Syriäuic and Permic mw, Totiak »n?i£ierfi. = land, 
Rask's Afh. 1, 39. Finnic, beside maa, seems to have moa, mua^ 
Castren's Syrian* Gr. p. 149. 

p. 810.] Surir is a giant, nob a god ; S. oc in svdso goSt^ 
SaBm. 33*; S. ok afsir 188"; Surta sefi S" is supp. to mean fire, 
Domesday-bk has a man's name Soriebrand. With Surtr conf. 
Slav, tchortj cert, czari — devil [tchorny, czerny — black] , p. 993. 




■ Maspellz synir hafa einir ser fjlking, er sft biari miöc, Sq. 72 ; tlie 
field on which they encounter the gods is called Vigridr, Seem, 

^ 33*, Sn, 75, and also Oakopntr, S^ni, 188\ 
I p. 810.] The world is destroyed by fire. The Indians Bpoke 
I of 'the penal fire of the Last Day/ Holtzm, Ind. a. 2, 90: ^ de- 
n sirtidive as the L. D/ 2, 86. 99* An Ionic dance was called 
I xotTßiov itarvpwfTK;, Athen. 5, 283. At Rorae one foretold 

■ * igneni de coelo lapsurum finemque mmidi affore/ Capitolini M, 
Anton. 13* The Celts believed the end of the world would be 
by fire and water : iiriKparriauv he wore Kal wvp Kai vSotp, 

IStrabo 4, 45. 198: Gnel. hrath, ultimum orbis incendium; gu la 
hhrath, in aetemum, nnquam ; conf. Ossian 3, 433» AS. o^ baeles 


cyine, till fire's coming = end of the world, Cod. Exon, 200, 28 : 

unz an die stunde do allez sol verh^lnnen, Karajan 50, 15 ; grözer 
schal, als al diu wer It da hnimie, Wigai 7262 : dtn phnedac wil 
Bchiere komen, n. brennt dich darnmbe iedoch, Walth. 07, 19. 

p. 812.] On AntichrUt, conf. Griesh. Pred. p* 1504 ; ich wene 
na ist antürist den beiden curaen ze helfe, Gr. Rud. 14, 9; 
deable antecrhj Meon 3, 250; Pame emporteireiit Pilate et 
anikris, Aspr. 9^ Miillenhoff ia Hpt^s Ztachr. 11, 391 does not 
866 ßO much affinity betw. the Muspilli and the Edda. 

p. 814.] Beeide aldar roh, ragna roh, we have Jno^a rök, Saem. 
28\ iiva TÖlcSß'^^jß/'a rök 49% fom rök 63\ AS. racu is Ssk 
rajani, night (Suppl to 737). To this Twilight of the gods 0. 
Schade in his sixth thesis refers the saying : 'it ia not yet the 
evening of all the dai/n/ 

p. 815.] The stars fall from heaven (Suppl. to 817), the 
rainbow breaks down. Atlas holds the vault of heaven on his 
shonlders, it must fall when he removes them : quid si nunc 
coelum rnai ? Ter, Heant, iv. 2, The Celts Itpaaav SeStemt 
/iifirore o ovpavb^ avroi^ f^Treaot^ feared the sky would full on 
them, Arrian's Auab. 1, 4. GDS. 459. 460. Germ, superstition 
tells of a little bird (tomtit) that holds his little claw over his 
bead when he sleeps, to shield it in case the sky fell in the 

night. The ship Na^^(/ur is conn, with Naglfari, the hnsband 

of N6tt, Bn. 1 1 ) it takes as long to build as the Irofi-roek to wear 
away, which the woman grazes with her veil once in 100 years; 
conf. the cow^s hide being picked clean by the giant (SuppL to 
544). ^It was an AS. belief also that the hellhound was fought 



with : ' si be toren of hellehnndes t65um/ teeth, Kemble no. 715, 
jT lOOG; hMthunf, MS, 2, 147^ (SuppL to 807. p. 996-7). The 
Last JuthjttitJtd is like fche tribunal of Muios in the underworld, 
Lucianos Jup, confiifc. 18^ and the juJgrnent of souls of the 
Mongols, Bergm. 3, 35; conf. Michael's balance (p. 859). AS- 
notions about the end of the world are preserved ie Cod. Exon. 

p. 817,] The Archipoeta's poem on theßßeen signsh in Hpt'a 
Ztschr* 3, 523 — 5, The sigus vary in the different accounts, see 
Sommer in Hpt 3, 525 — 530, Wiedeburg p. 139. Lekeusp. 
Deckers 2, 264. Diemerp. 283 — 7. Grieshaber p. 152. Moue's 
Schausp. 1, 315 seq. MSH. 3, 96\ The 12th siga iu the Latia 
poem above is : fixae coeli penitus de line sunt casurae (the same 
in Griesh.) ; in the Asega-book the 13th ; sa fallath alle tba 
Htera fou tha him nie ; conf. S^Bm. 9^ : hverfa af himni heiSur 
8tiörnur^ The common folk held by other prognostics besides :^^ 
when it strikes thirteen and the heua take to crowing, the Judg-^H 

ment-day will come^ Hpt 3, 307.^ The earth quaked, OX. iorS 

dusad^i. Stem* 241'\ The Greeks ascr. the pfjenomenou to Posei- 
don, Herod, 7, 129, or some other god : ri}v TroXiP tov deov ael» 
aavTo^, Paus, i 29, 7, elsewh. to Typhöeua, Ov. Met. 5, 356 ; its 
cause is discussed by Agathias 5, 8. The Lith. god of earth- 
quake is Drehkulhjiii Nessehn. pp. 154, 208, fr, drebeti, quake, 
and kulti, strike. A New Zeal, story of earthquake in Klemm 4, 
359 ; tlie earth is carried by a tortoise 2, 164. 

p. 818.] The valhtjrs conduct to heaven, as the Hours opened 
the cloud-gate to Olympus, So too the angels fetch away dying 
heroes : la voa atendeut li anges en chantant, contre voa ames 
vont grant joie menant, Asprem. 22^; lame emporterent li ange 
eu chantant 28\ A cliff in Blekingen is called Valhall, and at 
two places iu Westgotland are yalball, Vahlehall : they are the 
hills fr. which old meti iveanj of life threw themselves into the 
lake or brook running below, in which they were washed. Such 
water bears the name of Odens-kdUa : in taking possession of 
them, the god first washed or bathed them; conf. Geyer 1, 115 

(SoppL to 832). Brave men goto Valholl; sil var ^fcrfinaSr 

heiSiuna manna, at allir l^eir er af sdrum andadisk, skyldu fara 
til ValhaUar, Fagrsk, p. 27. A servant goes not to V. except in 
atteadauce on his lordj Fornald. s. 3, 8. Vapna-pitig goes ou ia 



v., for which a son fits out his father by buryiog his weapons 
with htm, Nials3, c* 80; ']?ft varb valkyrja at AlföSur, mimdo 
elnherjar alhv beriaz urn saJcar }>inar* were glad to be struck down 
for thy sake^ Seem. 154^* When Hakoo died a heafcheu and was 
baried, his friends gathered round his grave, and in heathen 
fashion saw hitn off to Valholl : maeiio |7eir sva fyrir grepti 
haus^ aem hei?iiuna manna var siSr til, oc vUo&o honom ill Val» 
hollar, H^konars. c. 32» Indo vota nnncupai (Ringo), adjicUqu& 
precem uti Haraldus, go vecfcore (equo sno) usus, fati conaortes ad 
Tartara antecederet, atque apud praestiteoi Orci riafonefti sociis 
hosti basque pladdas expeteret $edeg, Saxo Gr. 147; conf. the 
prayer of Walthariiis 1167: hos in coelesti mihi pmestet sedo 
videri, Valhull is also called htl holl, high liall (though only 
the dat, occurs : hdva hollo, S«Bm. 24''. 30'** Sn, 3) ; and Hropts 
sigtoptir, Ssera. 10*. 

p, 819*] The souls of kshatnyas slain in battle arrive at 
ladra^s heaven, and are his guestSj Hoppes Nalas2l34; to warriors 
fallen in fight the gate of heaven is open, Holtzm. Ind. s. 2, 65; 
eonf, ' en infer vont !i bet cevaller qai sont inorts as tornois et as 
ric€3 guerres/ Aucassin in Meon 1, 355, Both AS*, OHG. and 
MHG, phrases point to a heavenly castle : Ootles ealdorburg, Dei 
palatiunij Cod. Exon, 4J-1, 8r rodcra ceaater, coelorum urbs 441, 
10, A minute description of tlie himtliitije Qodes burg (Hpt's 
Ztschr. 3, 443-4) says : diu burg ist gestiftet mit aller tiuride 
meist tdil&r geht gimmon, der himel meregriezon, der bürge funda- 
menta, die porte ioli die mure daz sint die tiuren sleina der Gotea 
ftirst Mido, A similar house, glittering with gold and light, 
occurs in a vision, Greg. Tur. 7, 1 ; ir erbe aolde sin der himel* 
h4tf, Ludw. d, fromme 2478. 

p. 820.] Heaven is ' der himeliscke sal/ Todes gehug. 942 ; 
der vröne gal, Diemer 301, 3 ; der freuden sal besitzen (possess), 
Tit, 5788 ; conf. freuden^hd besitzen, in contrast with riuwen'tal 
3773-4; it is true a castle is also called freuden zil, goal of joy, 
WigaL 9238. 11615; hverfa kmun-vega (pleasure's path) =to die, 
Egilflfl. 622. The Mecklenburg noble, who reckons on a merry 
drinking-bout with Christ in heaven, is, by another account, fr. 
Pomerania, N. Pr. prov. bh 3, 477; conf. 'm samtnt in (along 
with them) drlnchit er den wtn,^ Diemer 103, 5 ; s'aurai mon 
chief em paradis ßori, ou toz jors a joie, feste e deli, Aspr. 18*; 



fjL&vt^ fcaTaK€Lft€ito^, Lucianos Jap. confut. 17. 

p. 820 n.] Tlie reading I proposed in Parz. 56, 18 is now 
verified by MS. d; conf. here ze Faniorgdn 496, 8, ze FdmurgdnB 
S8o, 14, and ' Famorgän hiez daz knt/ Türl Wh, 24% se© 37', 

De (jLutubarg upriden, UhL Volksl. p. 16. The glass moitfikiln 
turns up in many legends and miirchen : Müllenh. p* 386-7, 
Ehrentraut's Pries, arch. 2, 162. Sommer'a March. 99 seq» 
Bechstein's Sag. p. 67. Akin to the glass castle is the cloud- 
castle : mons Wolkhiburg^ Cms, Heisterb. 2, 318; conf. Böhm. 
Cod. Francof. 247 (jr, 1290). Lacomblet'a Arch. 2, IL 19* 
Weisth. 2, 713. The Vila builds a castle tm the eland with three 
gates, Yukj nov. ed. p* 151. It says iu Kalev, 2, 25: tmtlchsnko 
teen tupani, boild rooms in the air; couf. the air-castle on the 
rainbow (p. 732*3). 

p. 821.] Ssk. deJa^f hmd^ Zend, paradaeshas, fairest land, 
Benfey 1, 438 j rov frapdBetaop — hortmrif Lucian's Somn. 21 ; 
the garden of the Vandal king is called TrapaSeto-o^, Procop. 1, 
382, conf, 434. Ir. j^arraihas, O.SL poroda. The earthly para- 
dise is the Rose-garden, conf. its descript. in a Pommeraf. MS, 
(Hpt 5, 369). Roseng. 1028. Tit. 6044. Another t^rm is 
'ealtus wminllOf^ Lacombl. no. 65 (855); conf, 'Inst-wald/ pleasure- 
park. Weinhold, in Hpt 6, 461 after all connects iieorxena with 
norna.*^ — The Slav, rai, paradise, Miklosich 73 would derive fr. 
rad^^, gl^d, as nai fr, nad*'. Boh, raghi^ad or rat-gradj paradise- 
garden, later hradiste (castle), a plot encircled by a round wall, 
in which the Slavs held feasts and games, and sang songs; so 
the gral-höfe^ grale, Herod. 3, 26 calls "Oatrt? a pLaKuprnv vqao^^ 
a green island in the sea of sand. *A land flowing with milk 
and honey ^^ Exod, 3, 8. Mar. 160, 17, like Cockaign, Lnbber- 
land^ which even the Greeks know of, Athen. 2, 526 — 533 [Hon 
Od. ii. 19, 10: vim fontem, laciU rivos, lapaa mellii\, Conf, 
milk, honey and blood as food for gods and drink for poets (pp, 
317. 415 n.}; meUts lacus et Sumina lactis erupisse solo, Claud. 
Stil, 1, 85. 

p, 823.] *HXvaia are places which lightning (the sun) has 
struck, Benfey 1, 457 ^ eV rm ^HXuerm Xei/tÄn, Jup, confut. 17; 
conf. Plubirch 4, 1151, OHG. sunna-felt, elysium, Graif 3, 510 ; 
sufmo'feld, helisios carapoa^ 61, Sletst 6, 271. AS, lieofen-feld^ 



coelestia campus {p. 234) ; Hefenfehlj locus ia agro Northum- 
brensi. On do-fpoBeXo^, Rom, albucttSf see Dioacor. 2, 199, with 
whom Theophrasius agrees, while Galen descr, the plant very 
diöTerently, see Sprengel ou Diosc, 2, 481» 

Like the children in our miirchen, who fall through the well 
on Dame Holla's meadow^ Psyche having jumped oS* the high 
rock, 'paiilatim per devexa excelsao vallia siibJitaey^ort'/t//^- cespiils 
gremio leniter delabitur/ aud then finds herself in a Jteavenbj 
grove, Apnleins lib. 4 in fine. Like the gardens of the Ilesperldes 
19 the * inmda jmmorufA, quae fortunata vocatnr/ v, Merlini p, 
393; conf. the sacred appls-woodj Barzas breiz Ij 50-7. 90, and 
* foriimatoruni in.^uhtR, quo cuucti, qui aetateni egerunt caste 
suam, mnveniant/ Plaut. Trin, ii. 4, 148 ; iv pLatcaprnv VT}<joi<f 
fjpdtav, Lucianos Demosth. enc. 50, Jap. conf, 17. Champ 
ßor^^ la tanra Diex son jugement, quand il viandra jugier la 
gent, O.Fr. life of Mary in Lassberg*s Zoller p. 74; an der 
mat en (prato beatorum), Flore 232 ö, AS. grene wongas, Cod. 
Exon. 482, 21 ; J?e3 wang grena 42Ö, 34 ; }K>ue grenau wong 
ofgifan 130, 34. H. »Sachs iii, 3, S¥ still speaks of paradise as 
ifie green valleg* WeUh gwgnfa, paradise, strictly white happy 
land. The dead shall go to Helgafell, Eyrb. c. 4; conf. the 
earthly paradise closed in by high mountains, Tod. gohug. 970 — 6. 
The 'gu5-boriun Goßnaindr' in the far off reahn of paradise, 
SfiBm. 153^, is Graniiiar in the Vols, saga^ conf. Oranmara synir^ 
Saem. 155^ 

p. 823.] Vmarr would in OHG. be WUheri, Graff 4, 986 j 
but Vi^arr, Wiiheri is more correct, conf. Stem, 42*: hris, gras, 
vitS. There is a saying about him : ViSan\ er guS enn i GörSum^ 
hann er lika i GriudarskürSam, 



p. 82G.] '¥vx^} auima and voO? mens are distinct, Plutarch 4, 
1154. Beside the fern, seele, we find a neut» ferah with much 
the saraa meaning: OHG./i?mA^anima, Graff 3, 682 (but s mala 
^n7ii = vulgu3 683); that /eraA was af them folke, Hel. 169, 
28, i.e. departed fr. among men, Pers. ferver, spirits, souls, 

1546 SOULS. 

Zend, fravasliayo, BeDfey's Monatsn. 63-4. 151. To the feiii. 
soul stand opp. the masc. ahma, alum, ^ei«/ = spiritcs (p. 461^ 
1. 7). At the same time the animae as well as animi are winds, 
avefioi, as the SI. dukh and dushd are fr. dykh-^, dd-nuti^ 
spirare. Hence : animam exhabire^ O^. Met. 6^ 247, animam 
eballire, Petron. 62. 42 ; den geist aufgeben, gi^e up the ghost, 
Albr. Y. Halb. 128^; der ädern (breath) zao den loften faore, 
Ksrchr. 13400. It was feared that a soul passing away in a storm 

would be blown to pieces by the wind, Plato's Phsedr. p. 77. 

The soul fares, slips out: stirb lib, sele var I Herb. 14040; din 
nel waer im entsUfftn, Tundal. 44, 31 ; din sei sich fiz den liden 
(limbs) zöch, als der sliufet üz dem gwande (garment), Servat. 
3464 ; sd sih diu sele enhindet von mennesklicher zarge. Mar. 
153, 5 (Fundgr. 2, 153) ; *nu breche Got ir seien bant !* is inscr. 
on a tombstone. Wackern. W. v. Klingen p. 22 ; wenn mir die 
selfieuszt (flows) von des leibes drauch, Wolkenst. 263; von mir 
wolde diu sele sin endrunnen (run away), MS. 2, 52* ; dren (fr. 
three) genh dei seile ut den munt (mouth), Soest, fehde p. 625. 
The soul escapes through the gaping wound: Kai^ ovrafiivr^v 
wT€L\f]y, II. 14, 518, conf. 17, 86; yjrvxv XeXotTre, Od. 14, 134; 
is seola was gisendid an suothan weg, Hel. 169, 27, and what is 
more striking : than im that lif serial (abiret), thiu seola hisunki 
(mergeretur, elaberetur), 169, 21; conf. Karajan 32, 15 of the 
eagle: im sunkit sm gevidere (plumage, to renew itself?). Souls, 
like elves, sail over the water ; and the Indian elves are dead 
men, Ssk. marut, Kuhn in Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 488-9 ; conf. N&inn, 
Däinn (p. 453). The Lith. we I es f. are manes, and welukas 
spectres, Nessel m. 61-2 (Suppl. to 913 end, 968). 

p. 828.] Souls are of three kinds, those of angels, of men, of 
beasts, says Dietm. of Mersebg (Pertz 5, 739). Curiously, how- 
ever, each man is credited with three souls, two of which perish 
with the body, but the third survives : hustoque superstes evolat, 
Claud, de 4 cons. Honor. 228 — 235. Men's souls (^v^^O g^ 
the underworld, their bodies {avjov^, like selb = min lip) 
16 the prey of dogs and birds, II. 1, 4. Of lovers it is 
&t» that ilieir souls intermarry ; the notion must be old, 
i find it in H. v. Veldeke : wir sin ein lip und ein geist, 
088, »nd still more clearly in H. v. Morungen : iuwer sele 
jner Bile frowe, MS. 1, 57** ; conf. ^ ich wolte nit, daz wii/i 



sSJe uz des besten menschen munde füerej' ue. pass out of his 

tnootb, Berth, 298, Ou tbe -wofship of sofds, see p. 913. It 

is said of the soul : von im fnor ein ghisi (flash) aani ein briöEen- 
der louCj RoL 228^ 21 ; the soqI of Mary shines in passing out 
of her bodjj Haupt 5, 545 ; souls in parting are sevnn times 
whiter iJian snow, Myst. i. 13<>, 21 ; ez miiegon wol zwo sole stuj 
den ist ir wize her geleit, und klagent ein ander ir arbeit, Ls. 2, 
270. In a Lett* soDg the dead call theraselves rashanif beautiful, 
Büttner no. 89 ; conf. the meaning of selig j blessed. When the 
soul parts fr. the body, a sweet scent is perceived, Wh. G9, 12 — 15. 
Flowers grow on a virgin^s grave, Athen, 5, 495, Ulles out of 
dead men, Zappert pp. 29. 31. On lovers^ graves two trees spring 
up : det växte tvenne trad uppa deras graf^ det eua tager det 
andra i famn, Arvidss. 2, 11. Vines grow out of the mouths of 
the dead^ Tit. 6790; ßce roses bloom out of a dead man^s head, 
Maerl 2, 308, 

sin tiost doch valte (felled) den edeln M6r, 

daz er die bluomen mit bluot begöz (bedewed) : 

die gofe des vail es sere verdroz (vexed the gods), 

daz der minnaere bus belac (lover so ill bestead) ; 

und waen daz vür (I ween that from) den selben tac 

nach der Hventiure sage 

daz selbe velt niht wao (nothing but) rosen trage, 

ßfi gröz wart al der goie klage, Türl. Wh. 36*, 

I Drops of blood torn into yellow flowers, as a herb grew out of 
Ajax's blood, Konst en letterb. '43, p. 76'* j mannabod (sambucua 
ebulus) near Kalmar sprang fr. the blood of slain heroes, Fries 
Bot. udfl, 1, 110. The ivegewarie is also called wegetriii, Hansel 
am weg, feldblume auf der wegscfieide, Meinert's Kuhl. p. 6 ; 
ufej€/MC>f;e = heliotropiuTD, Mono 8, 40L 

p, 829.] Poles with pigtums on tbem were set up over Lom- 
bard graves, Paul. Diac. 5, 34 (Kl. sehr, 5, 447) ; sCle alsam ein 
(übe gestalt, Pass. 391, 37. Souls fly away in the shape of doveSj 
Schön werth 3, 37. Zappert p. 83. St Louis 60, 25. Baader 
ir. 32 [* When the Persian fleet was wrecked off Mt Athos, white 
pigeons were seen for the first time in Greece,' Charon of Lamps, 
- in Athen. 9, 394 ; see Victor Hehn's Wanderings of Plants and 
I Animals p, 258-9]. 'Det komtno tva dufvar af himmelen ned 



(down) J nur de faro upp, sä voro de fre/ when tliey flew up 

again, they were three, Sv. vis. 1, 312-5. 373. A seunrin bleib 

ich ewiglich, und wann ich stirb, wird ich a fickwalbn, Almer 1, 
S8. Souls fly about aa ravens, Michelet 2^ 15; they swarm 
aa little Jucks, Klemm 2, 1G5; 7wjhl-owh rise from the brain of 
a murdered man 4, 220. The story of Madej is giFeu more cor- 
rectly in Weud. volksl. 2, 319^ conf. Walach. march* no. 15, In 
Egypt, hierog-lyphg the sparrowhawk with a human head is aj 
picture of the soul, Bunsen-a Dingbilder 126, Every soul, after' 
parting from the body, hovers for a time heiwUt the earth and 
the moon, Piut. 4, 1151, 

p. 829.] The soul is wingtHl, Plato's Pha3dr. 246-7-8 ; it loses 
and then recovers its wiugs 248-9, conf. Gerhardts Eros, tab. l| 
and 5 J "^^X^ ^' ^k p€Öimv irra^iviq "Älho^he ßeß^Kct^ IL 16,:] 
856. 22, 361 ; "^^X^^ ^' ^^'^^ ov^ipo^ awoirrapiivr} TreTTOTi/rat, Od, 
11, 222. Luciau^s Encom. Demosth. c. 50 says of the dying, 
orator: aTrcTrri?, evolavit. 

The larva, the butterfly is called o v€fcvZaXo'i. Swed. känng- 
$jäl, old woman's soul — butterfly, Ihre 2, 529. Ir. anamaiide, 
anima dei = butterfly ; conC the Faun as night- butterfly (Snppl. 
to 483 mid,). When a moth flutters round the caudle, the Litliu, 
women say somebody's di/ittfj, and the BOut is going hence, N. Pr. 
prov, bl. 5j 160. 

p. 829.] The soul runs out of the sleeper as a mouse , cat, 
weasel f ntnake, buUerJhj. Yama draws the soul out of a dying man 
in the shape of a tiuy manntkuij the man turos pale and sinks, 
and when the manuikin comes back^ he thinks he has been asleep, 
Hollzm. Ind. sag. 1, 65. The soul slips out of the mouth as a 
little child, Gefken's Beil, pp. 6. 15 and plates 11. 12. It was 
believed iu Germany as wellj that a dying nmn^s heart, could 
pass into a living man, who would then show twice as much 
pluck : so Egge 'a heart seems to have passed into Fasolt, 
Diether's into Dietrich (Ecke 197-8), each time into a brother^ tt 
body; conf. the &^change of hearts betw. lovers, Wigal. 4439. 
8813, MS. 1, 166^ and the mamage of souls (SuppL to 828)- 
The exchange of figures, the sklpta litum, oe Mnium (Suppl. to 

1098 end) is another thing. On tho similar doctrine of 

ira7ismigratio7i taught by Pythagoras, see Plato's Plijedr. 248-9. 
Phmdo p. 82. Ov. Met. 15, 156 seq, O'Kearney 133* 160. 



iy by way of punisbmenti, are born again as rnen (SappL to 
3S8), men are changed into beasts corresp. to their character, 
e,g, by the wand of Circe, RA. p* xiv, Claud, in Ruf. 2, 482 seq. 
Thorir hjorfcr is pursued by a hunter and his hound ; struck by 
a javelin, he falls to the ground^ but out of his hodij springs a 
Mtwj, which again is hiuited down by the dog, and killed after 
hard struggle, Maorer's Bekehr, 1, 295-6. Animals too havo 
iad many souls, like Lucian's cook. 

p. 830.] Good souls for a time hover on Hades* verdant mead^ 
Plut 4, 1154. The soul feeds on the field or rnead^w of truth, 
oKfjOela^ TT^Sioif, \€i^mv\ Plat. Phsedr* 248 (in the train of God, 
a'Ufnrop€v0€i(Ta OerZ, it looks upon truth, ibid,). On the p-een 
gra»» the soul sits down, Feifalik Masp< p. 5. ' He is going to 
die' is expr. by 'he is just fluttering away.' Souls of the dead 
hang over & preeipic£ by a tdender stalk, HoUzra. lud, sag. 3, 174, 
' A medicine that sent her soul up to the tip of her tongue,* 
Rommel 4, 771, Vulgo dicitur, quod (r'ujinta animae super 
aciivieri acus possunt sede^re, ChmeFa Notizenbl. 6, 380, fr. NicoK 
V. Siegen'» Chron. yr 1489, ed, Wegele '55, p. 344. How many 

I'Souls can sit 07i a natl^ Wi gaud's Arch. 4, 321. 

p. 832.] Souls are recmved^ drawn on, by Wuotan^ Frouwa, 
E&n and Hel, by the watersprites, by angels and elves, by the 
devil (pp. 1001 beg. 1017). Near the places named Valhull there 
ia often an Odens-käUa (Suppl. to 818 beg.), as if Oden, before 
admitting souls, should bathe them in the clear stream, as the 
Greeks thought souls were cleansed in the rivers of Hades, and 
took the draught of oblivion in Lethe. ' Oden som kom upp ur 

i0den9'}cammare eller Asne-kafve, som ligger in Asne-ejo (fordom 

fOden^BJo), at vülja de slagne pä Bravallahed, och föra dem pä eti 
gulUkepp ' (Räüf) ; conf. the story of Haki, Ynglioga-s. c. 27. 
Old sea- kings were supp. to be bnried in a golden shipf Miitlenh. 

BO. 501, A funeral pile is built up in a ifhip, Saxo Gr. (ed. 

Müller) p. 235 ; conf. the shlp-Tuomuh thi-owu up over the dead, 
Worsaae's Vorzeit p. 81-7. A death-ship in Beow. 34; a swan- 
ship carrying a corpse, Keller's Rom v. 670. Jacob's body crosses 
the sea in a ship without sail or rudder, Pass, 220, 41 seq. 
Maerl. 2, 341-2, where note the phrase : si bevalen Oode te sine 
$tiennan. In Friealand souls are supp. to sail over in eggshell»; 

^people break their emptg sJielh, for witches get into them and 




plague tlie soul on Iier passage» Halbertsma remiods me verbally 
of the naiUpariags (pp. 814, 1138-9 n,) and slioelace cattiugs^ Sq, 
73 ; the breakiog of eggshells is still enjoined by superstitioD. 
An angel leads a shipfal of souls, Dante's Piirg, 2, 40 aeq. The 
boatman Tempulagy ferries souls over the lake. Klemm 2, 165. 
On the Etruscan Charmi (Gerh, p. 17) and the passage- 
money, see Lucian's De luctu 10, Boeckh^s Inscr. 2, 103-4. 
GDS» 68L Moneij is placed under tho iünfiues of the dead, three 
grains of corn uuder the dead Adam's iongite^ In Germ, skele- 
tons, coins are actually found in the mouth, Mainzer Ztschr. 1, 
342-3. Lindenschmitt's Todtenlager pp. 16. 51. Hiiec Stygias 
referant munera ad und as, et call Jos nnmerent igne trientea, 
Lindpr. Antop. 2, 26. Green apples were also put in the bands 
of the dead, Vuk no. 137. 

p, 834.] On Procopius's account of the passage of souls to 
Brittia, see Werlauff's Procop, p. 7, who himself on p. 10 seq, 
takes ' Bribtia ' to be Jutland, ' Britannia ' Gt. Britain, and 

'Thule' Scandinavia. En passant le lac de Vanfjoisadf eile vit 

une bände de morts, v^tus de blanc, dans de petites barques, 
Villenmrque's Barz. breiz. 1, 169. 

p. 833.] A sharp bridije leading across the Purgatorial fire, 
and the souls flying into it black and coming out white, are 
mentioned io Walewein 4958. 5825. 5840 (V. d. Bergh 102-8). 
Over de htnk'hrugffe fard = he dies, Narragonia 123'^; conf. the 
sword'hridijfi (p. 1082). Angels conduct over the rainbow-brid^je. 
The Arabian bridge of scnls is named Sirdt, Rück. Hariri 1, 
229 ; the Chinese too have a bridge of souls, Maltebrnn'a Pr&is 
3, 527. Old- Irish legends about it in O' Donovan p. 4404. The 
cow driven across the bridge by the soul iu the Tundalus-legend 
reminds of the red cow being led over a certain bridge before the 
great battle by the Nortorf elder-tree, Miillenh. no. 509, The 
Greeulanders believe the soul has to cross an abjss, where Inriu 
a narrow wlisel as smooth as ice. Klemm 2, 317 j this is like the 
wheel in Wigalois p. 250 seq. 

p. 836.] On the daaih-shoe, see Müller's Sagabibl. 2, 171. 
Mannhardt's Ztachr. 4, 421 ; conf. Vi«ar's shoe, Sn. 31. 73 1 'ö&l 
ä den, i denne he'\men f alike (jjeve sho, ban tar inkje (he need not) 
barf oil gauge in Jcva^se ti/nnermo (aL paa kvasse keklebro)/ Nor- 
weg. draumkväe 36. A dead woman * walks,' until her shoe« 



which they had forgotten to burHj is foEud and thrown in the 
fire, Lucianos Philops. 27 ; conT. IndicnL sup. ' tie ligneis pedibns 
vel manibus, pagano ritn.^ The Blackfoob InclianSj like Lithu- 
anians and Poles, believe the soul has to climb a steep mountain, 
Klemm 2, 166-7. 

p. 838 J Anima de corpore exivit, et paradhi jannam introivifc. 
Vita Mathild. c, 16, 18, Prayers to St. Michael are said over the 
corpse : di reinen guzzen ir gebet Sente Mir.hahele zu dnhh stnre 
fiele, Dbt. 1, 426 ; Michael is ' trost allir sfelen/ Roth. 4438 : he 
brings the soul 'in Abraham^s barm/ Hpt's Ztschr. 3, 522, conf. 
Pfeiffer'a WigaL p. 3i0- Other angels may come instead of 
Michael : venerunt duo jumneSj cnndldis circumamicti sfolig, ani- 
mam a corpore segregantes, vacuum ferentes per aerem, Jonas 
Bobb, in Vita Bargundofarae (Mabillon 2, 421) ; conf. the Gemini 
(p. 366). 

Got sante eine engellhche sthar (angelic band)^ 
die nam en do der seien war (care, charge) ; 
si empficngen (received) an dor selben stunde 
iegeliches (each one's) sole von sniem jnunde (mouth), 
nnde vuorten wirdecliche (worshipfullj) 
si in daz Swige himelriche. 

Oswalt 3097, 3455. 

Oat of an old man that is dying the migeJs take the soul as a 
^onng child (SuppL to 870 end) ; ir emjel vi\ wol wisten, war 
(well knew where) ir sele solten komeD, Klage 922. Angels 
rejoice over Christians falling in fight, and devils over heathens, 
because they get their souls, Tiirh Wh. 22-3 ; two yoitths (angels) 
and two black devils sit by the bedside of the dead, Griesh. 1, 93 ; 
angels and devils take the souls of Schacher (assassins?), Moneys 
Schausp. 2, 321-2. The sool first lodges with SL öerdrud, then 
sails over the hher-meer (liver sea), Gryse Ee lllP; conf, Gef- 
ken's Catal. p. 54. 



<;hapter xxvil 


p. 840,] Death as messeuger of Deity is called der heilig iod, 
H. Sachs i. 5, 528**. 1^ 447^. Death receives, fetches, escorts : 
sän in der tot entphienc, Uolr. 1253 ; er hat den tot an der hant 
(p. 848); her moste havea den tot, Hpt'a Ztschr. 2, 183, We 
still say 'da kannst dir den tod davon holen/ it may be the death 
of you, and * mit dem tade abgehen,' but more commonly without 
the article : ' mit lode abgegangen ist/ Mohr^s Reg. ii* no. 284 (yr 
1365). MB. 25, 802. 458 (yr 1480); conf. mit tod verscheiden, 
H, Sachs (Goz 2, 16. 19), mit t6de vallen. Nib. 2219, 8. Yet 
again ; si belihen mit dem grimmen töde 1555, 3. Er braht ir (of 
them) vil manegen dahin, da er ieraer wesen solde, Gudr. 889, 
4; conf. ' si-ne kumt niht her-widere^ 928, 2j ^ der tot der bat 
die nnznht, daz er niemao deheine äuht zuo sinen fritinden haben 
lät/ has the ill manners to allow no flight, Klage 158L — —Death 
is a departing; the dead is in OS. called gifaran, HeL 169, 27, 
in ON.Jntifh-genginn^ Ssem, 83*; AS. 'he gewdi/ died, Homil* 1, 
330, ' haaf de Jhr^-siö'od^* bad gone off, Beow. 3105 ; than im that 
lif serial, HeL 1(j9, 20. Gr. oix^^^^^ ^^ ^^ gone, Qixofieyo^ — 
ßavctiv. Gl. filetst. 8, 35 renders moriebatur by * towita, vel Äuta* 
zoh/ Ssk. preta, gone = dead, Bopp 37K Dying is called u§ 
varn, faring oat, Wels, gast 543ß ; (he is dausty drauzen, out = 
dead, Stelzhamer 166. 175); vervarn, Walth. 23, 23. MS, 2, 
138'^; 'forÖfSrde, obiit/ AS. chronol.; er ist an die vart (journey), 
dill uns nach in allen ist vil unverspart, Walth. 108, 6. lu the 
Ludwigsliod ' hina-vart,^ hence-faring, is opp. to ' bier- wist,* 
here-being; ich red daz nf mm hin-vart, MSH. 3, 298^; e^ 
swuor ftf sin hinvart 301*; bis aaf mein hine/art, Bergreieo 127 ) 
die leste fart firv, Suchenw. xxxiv. 1 05 ; zuo der langen vart^ 
Lanz. 1949; up mine langhe vaeri^ Heinh. 2213; ON. long gänga, 
Ssem. 222^; on longne vjeg, Cod. Exon. 173, 24; zao der langen 

hcrvart, Ksrchr. G3Ü4 ; des todes hervart, Mar. leg. 54, 14.^ To 

join the great host (p. 847); conf. oi ifkeiove^j plures = mortui^ 
' quia ii majore nnmero sunt quam vi vi ^; qui abienint in com-* 
munefn lue urn, PL Casina, proL 19; verscheiden, depart, Renn. 
21093; our * drauf gehen ^; freiuh Idn, leave joy, Parz. 119, 15 ; 
awenn er dise freude Idij Wels, gast 4908 ; Idiaz^ Islend. sog. 2, 



166. 174; af geben gadolingo gimang, Hel. 17, 17; manno<lr6m 
agehen 103, 4; forlet manno drotn 23, 7 (conf, svhte im erlo 
g-imang endi maDno dr6m 23, 33); die werit er hegabj Diut. 3, 89. 
67 I daz leben begibt den lip, Maria 23; von zits gdn, Stanfenh* 
661 1 aer he on-weg kwurfe gamol of geardum, Beow, 52t> ; hwearf 
mon- dream urn from 3433 ; geendod© eorSan dreaoias, AS, 

chrono!.; lif-wr/ntia hrecarij Beow* 157. ^Dyiog is also called 

stayingi being left: hlivet doot, Maerl. 3, 325; '6i7ti>an, mortuus/ 
T. 135, 24. 0. iii. 23, 55. Graff 2, 47; OQr ' gehUehen/ left 
(dead on the field). Or it is descr, as perishing, ot oXa)XoTe<r, as 
going down to the dust, xQopa Svvai, II, 6, 411 ; vareii onder 
inoude (mould), Maerl. 3, 61 ; voer ter jnoude 3, 152; ft7 tartar 
hniga (bend), Alfskongs-s. cap* 13; coni, het' ier fnoude/ Lane. 
44032 ; manger la terre, mordre la poussiere. The Greeks called 
the dead STj/jLTjTpetou^, gone home to Demeter (earth) ^ Plut. 4, 
1154; heinuvarnf W. gast 5440; went, was gathered^ unto his 

fathers* Fam til heljar — mori (p. 802) ; gen Töienhelm fahren. 

Braut 55, 6; fara i diHar ml, Fornald. sog. 1, 527 (conf. heiogja 
sik I dtsar sal 1, 454); fara t lios annat, to other light, Saem. 
262»; sdkien lioht odar, HeL 17, 17; ds hac luce transire. Lex 
Bttrg, 14, 3; Esth. Uma miimeina, go to the other world; conf. 
^fjKirt Spra iv <f>det, Soph. Philoct. 415. An fridu faran (go to 
peace), thar er mina fordron dfidun, HeL 14, 22. For dying is a 
going to sleep: den hmgeii ddf $läfen^ Kolocz 285; daz in (him) 
der lange sldf gevie (caught), Ring 246 ; conf. vf einem stro 

I igen, MS. 1, 25*. The dead go to God : Dryhten secean, 

Beow, 373; si sin vor Gates ougen (eyes). Trist 18668; f&re 
Meviudes cneowum (knees), Cod* Exon. 164, 19; 'beholding 
God's month and beard,^ Kalev. p, 34; Gote hele gebott'u über 
in, Ges. Abent. 1, 298 ; wenn der grim tot über in gehiid, La. 3, 
124| 'God came with his mercy,' Schwein* 2, 167. 184. 252. 
Various peculiar expressions: 'er hat iin den namen beno- 
men/ taken the name (life) fr. him, Nib. 1507, 4 : vinvandelen 
(change) dtsen Itp, Ksrchr. 6318; des lebenes ferwandelen, Dint. 
2, 290; den Itp, daz leben, verwandeln. Cod. Vind. 428, no, 154; 
'igelach moeien hHalen^ have to pay the piper, Maerl. 2, 238 ; er 
ist verschlwenj slit up, Vict* Jacobi 88; Esth, 'lay down the 
breath.' Life is expr, by ' der sele waldeii/ Ben* Beitr* 80, and 
death by ' he is tor seien gedegen/ Michelseu Lub* oberh, 42 j 



seeUagen, Haupt 3, 91 ; our Hodes verbleichen/ tarn pale of 
death. The word spalfeiij split, ia often used in conn* with death: 
sJn hoobet ime endrin spieli (split in 3), enniunm (iotc* 9) sich sin 
zunge vielt, Reiuh* 2243; sin houbet gar zespieU, Lampr. Alex. 
6922 ; dnz herze ir in dem lihe spidtj Herzmaer© 520 ; bans hoved 
hrast ndi 7u sitjlcheVj DV. Ij 157; we say the heart breaks in 
death, hnrsti^ with grief. 

p* 841.] The Ind. Yama is god of justice, of death and of the 
underworld, Bopp's Nalas pp. 201. 2ö4; in this last capacity 
he is named KdlHf the black, Bopp's GL 74^'; he answers to the 
Pers. J&inshitj Zend. Yuito, Yama sends his messenger»^ who 
conduct to bis dreary dwelling, Kuniinge 1296. 1360. 1643. 
HoUzm. Ind. s. 2, 101 ; conf, the death-angelsj Eoseuul 1, 56-7, i 
the angel of death and destroying angel (p. 1182), How the! 
Tartars keep off the ungel of death is told by K. Schlozer p. 32-3. 
Hermes with his wand drives the souls of the suitors to the 
asphodel mead, OJ. 24, 1 — 14. 99—101. As Hermes is sent to 
men, so is Irw to women.— Death drags men away from their 
hoiises, tbeir biuldhigs : thus ProfcesiJaos leaves his widow a half- 
finished house, B&fio^ ///itreXtJ?, XL 2, 701, Apollo and Artemis 
eom© regularly and kill oö" the old people with painless darts, 
ayavoh ß^keeaa-i. Od. 15, 410-1 ; t^v ßdXev lApr^fii^ lO'^iatpa 
15, 478 ; atSe pot &<? paXaKov ßdvarov iropoi jipr€pt<i ayvij 10, 
202. 20, GO-L 80. Ghnron ferries over the water j so the devil 
is repres, with an oar in his band, Woeste p. 49. ^ Valien in dea 
Todes tvdge,^ balance, Warn. 1650; * of des Todes wage sweben/ 

be poised 3318. Death ia sent by God : Got der sende aa 

minen leiden man den 7'6t I MS, 1,81*; 'sin wip diu schriet 
wafen uf den Tot^ er si entsldfen daz er'n niht welle bestän,' cries 
üe upon D., he must have gone to sleep, that bo won^t tackle the 
man, Teiclmer 75 ; do ergreif in der Tot, do er im sin zuokitnjt 
eiihCi (while he to him bis arrival made known), so daz er in 
geleite, Greg, 20. He knocks at the door : bereite ze üftuonne 
deme klopphae^-e^ Uolr. 1329; so in Berno, ^ut pulsanti posset 
aperire/ He comes as a j'ouug man : {[er j nngeUnc, der geheizen 
ist T6t, Ls. 2j 373. The Lap laud Yabmeti aklaij uxor vel avia 
mortis, sits in a suhten\ mve^ and was worshipped as a divine 
*?, Lindahrs Lex. 82^ ; ich selbe sol hio in daz hoi, Fraueul. 
8; des todes hole (p. 853, Gossip Death's cavern). 



p. 842.] With mors conL Zend, mereihyu, Bopp's Comp. Gr, 
46; itchynerz, smart is expl, ditfereutlj by Benfey 2, 39. A Norso 
word for dead is dduin (p. 453 end); coaf. Finn. r«ö^u = mors, 
Plato; Tuonen koira, death's dog = dragonfly ; Tuonela — ovens. 
PniBB. gallas, mors (the Lith. galas, finb ?), Esth. surm — mors, 
Fma* surma. Hung, hahlli Fiiin. kuolemaf Votiak kulemj Lapp. 
ijabmen. Death is the brother of Sleep, who is also persoaified : 
the dead sleep. It is said of the dead vala : sefraiiu fyrri, Saem. 
95^; KOVßri<TaTo ')(ti\K€op virvov^ II, 11 ^^ 24 L As sleep ia called 
the sandman f death is in Esth, called earth man, sandman^ Uwa 
annu9, Sand- Jack, Uwa peter, Sand-peter ; conf. Alf, Maury's Da 
peFBonnage de la mort, llevue Arch, 4th year, pp, 305 — 339. 

p. 844*] Death comes creeping ; mora ohrepit, PL Pseud, ii. 
3, 20 J mors imraioet, et tacifco clain venit ilia pede^ Tib. i, 10, 
34 J d& kam der Tdt als ein dlep, u. stal dem reinen wtbe daz 
leben üz ir übe, Wigal 8032 ; der TAt kumfc gedtdien als eia diep, 
Cato 397 (matspelli also ihiof ferit, Hel 133, 4); der T6t 
ersltchet, wins by stealth. Warn. 3109 j der tot hflt mich ersUcheit, 
Hugdietr. Frooim. 5; er ist mir na^ geslicken (crept after), der 
mich kail inachen hin (blue), MuskatbL 18, 36; der T. Blkht 
Taste herein, Stepb, Stofl. 174; daz euch nicht nbersleiche der T. 
mit seim gereiisch, Wolkenst. 31. M. Netbl, : firt die Dot helope, 
Maerl. 3, 19L Dir ist vil nahe der TÖt, Ksrchr. 5084. 11298; 
oonf. AS. nea-laecau (SappL to 846 end) ; swi© mir der T. 4/' 

dem rücken waere, on my back, MS. 2, 46^, Death ia invoked 

by men weary of life : er rief (cried) nach dem tMe, Ksr<.'hr, 
1724; Tot, kum u, toete mich! Dioclet. 4732; nun kum Tut! 
Hartm. 1, biichl. 292; hum Dot! Mar, kl., after Arnold 28. 440 ; 
conf, €\d€Tm fjLQpo^, Aesch, Sappl* 804; Yama, come, release 
me, Holtzm. Kur. 723 ; kom T,, brich mir daz herz enzwei, 
Hagen'a Ges. Abent. ], 301 ; wS dir T., kmn h^r, u, nim uns alle 
hin, Mai 150, 12, 155, 4. 162, 4, 164, 13. 178, 27; recipe mead 
te, mors, amicum et bene vol um, Plaut. Cistell. iii. 9 ; nn kum, 
grimmecllcher T., u, ribte Goto von uns beiden, MS. 1,17^; kum 
ein kleines iothleln, u. für mich balde von binnen, Bergreien 
84; wo bist so lang, du grimmer T. ? komb 1 H. Sachs iii, 1, 
227*^; mors, cur mihi sera vetiis ? Prop, iii. 4, 34, conf. Soph. 
Philoct, 796; riep om die dot, dat si quame, Lane. 35711 ; dat so 
den dod beide schulden unde badeu, dat he niht ensuinede (delay), 




wen dat he quime, nude on (fr. them) dat lerend to hand neme, 
Ererh. Gandersh. 487» ; weiz Got, her Tut, ir mmz^t fwr, ApoUon. 
235 ; nim mich T,, brich T. mm herae ! Altd. bL 1, 288-9 ; 6w^ 
T., wes m%deit (shnniiest) da ? Ls. 1 , 99 j w^ T., zwin sparst da 
mich ? Mai 43, 10- W. v. Rfaeinan 190*; eia T., mohtes du mich 
getoeten I Staph. Stofl. 181 ; wallan Dae^, wela Dae^^ I'afc }?a 
roe n'elt fordemen. Kg Leir 160, 20; he dex, la mort m^eneoie! 

GaitecK 2, 148; T., nu ouge dich ! Hag. Ges. Ab. 300. 

üeath cornea to give warning ; he may conts to terms or he put 
off the first two times, bnt not the third. Similar to the tale in 
Straparola 4, 5 is that of PikoUoSf Hannsch p. 218. Death Hht 
an, looks at a man. Warn. 28 ; he beckoiis or points^ RqFb Adam, 

Death takes men away, like Hild and Gund (p. 422) : din kint 
füeret hin des Todes wint, Warn. 1648; daz in der T. hÄt hin 
genomen, Ulr. Trist. 20. Frib. Trist. 32 ; Secundillen het der T. 
genomen, Parz. 822, 20; der T, hat mich begriffen (gripped), 
Hngdietr. Oechsle 10; 6 iz der T. hegrife. Diemer 348, 9; dö 
ergreif den vater onch der T., Gregor. 1 9 ; begrift ioch d4 der 
T. 413 ; Den hat der T. verzimmert, boxed up, Suchenw, 16, 
167; des Todes zimmer 19, 17; conf. diap dödes d^ilu (Suppl. to 
803) ; tödes muor, TiirL Wh. 16*. Death, like the devil, has jaws, 
a throat, to devour with ; vallen in des Todes giel (gullet) , Karl 
72*; si liefen dem Tod in den rächen {ran into the jaws, Theiln, 
der Serben (?) p, 23 (jr. 1685) ; conf. 'ir welt in gewissen tot/ 
certain death, Wigal, 6061 ; in den t6t riten 6153; we say 'den 
in den tod gehn/ 

p. 845.] Death rides, as the dead lover fetches his bride away 
on horseback, Hpt's Altd, bL 1, 177. Miillenh. no. 224; and so 
far back as SsBm* \68^ : mal er mer at riäa ro^nar hrautir, d'Sr 
salgofnir sigrjno^ veki (ere the cock crows) ; conf. des Todes wip, 
Engelh. 3402 n. ; ich geztme dir (I suit thee) wol ze wibe^ Er. 
5806. Like the Schleswig Hel (Müllenh. no. 335), Wode also and 
the wild liuuter ride on a three- legged h or fie ; Wode catches the 
subterraneans, ties them together by their hairs, and lets them 
hang on each side of his horse, Miillenh. p. 373, On Boeotian 
tombstones the dead maü stands beside the horse, with the in- 
scription : ijpm^ X^¥^3 ^' ^" Hermanu^s Gottesd. alterth. § 16, 
20. Charos ranges the babes on his saddle, see GDS. 140-1, 



p» 846.] Doafch takes prisoners. Yatna leads away the man-^ 
niktn he has pulled out o£ the dyiog maiij tied to a rope which he 
carries about, Holtzm. Ind. s. 1^ 64-5. Rochholz 1, 89 ; ob mich 
der Tot enhxndei, Wh. 68, 22. Death throws his riet over us, 
Steph, Stofl. 174; in des TMes vallen (snares) bekleramet, 
Mart. 11^J kämen zuo des Todes valle, LivL 1806; in des Todes 
JA^ß (arabush), Kl. 1356; der Tot im daz leben stal^ Otfcoc, 86"; 
die in {fr. them) het der T, versloletif Wigal 9213; in het vil 
nach (well-nigh) der bitter T. mit slaer kraft gezücket Jnn (tugged 
away) 5956; stn leben het gezücket der T. 5129; der T. zücket 
{rhy. niderbücket), Wolkenst. 31; unz si der T. ersnellet (tili 
d, snaps her up), Hpt^s Ztschr, 7, 831 ; der T. hat mich 
ergangen^ Ecke 58 ; do nu der T. her drangt St* Louis 60, 1 7 ; 
thaz töd uns ßas guangti^ sns niher uns gifiangi^ 0. iii. 24^ 14, 
i.e, brought us to such straits, so nearly caught us; der Tod 
rauscht her behend, r, durch die hecken her, B. Waldis 149*. 163*. 
Death as conqueror stands over the prostrate dying man : des 
Tot gestet über in selben^ Pfaffenleben 33; conf. Dietr. 1669: die 
Bine (his men) stuonden über in. The dying have fallen due to 
Death, become his 7mn ; hence we say ' ein mann (ein kind) des 
Todes': sonst war er ein maim des Todes, Zehn eben p* 226; 
conf. Dödis vtmier (food) werden, Fundgr. 2, 108; des Todes 
spil (sport), Wigal. 10743, den Tot laben (with fortifications), 
ibid- The dying man wrestles with D., Sanders p. 44; mit 

m grimmen TAde ranc^ Servat, 1771 ; niit dem T. hilt sinen 
peranc, Warn, 174 (the devil wrestles too: mit wem die tievel 
haben gerungen, Renn* 10727) ; überwunden (vanquished) sich 
dem Tßde ergeben (surrender), Wigal 7662. Death is armed: 
A,S< wiga wa)lgifre, Cod. Exon, 231, 8; wiga uealaeceS 164,4; 
deaff nealaecte, stop stalgoiigum strong and hreSe 170, 17; wir 
ligend auf des Todes spiez (spear), Ring 253. Hb shoots arrows, 
like Charos (Kindt 1849 p. 17) : w(d-pihtm, Cod. Exon, 171, 15, 
%V(JBl*8traelnm 179, 11 ; üf in sleif des T6des hagel (hail), G. schm. 
158; in hat benomen des Todes schür, Wh. 256, 6. He is a 
hunter, MSH. 3, 177*. He is likened to a thorn : darinne der tot 
als ein dorn in de7n Meten blüete, Wigal, 7628, He has a legal 
claim upon man : galt der dot haer scout (solvit morti debitum), 
Maerl. 1, 430 ; we say * to pay the debt of nature/ 

p, 847,] Death has an army : ' der Tot fuort in die getneinen 



vaH/ the common jourtieyj Ottoc. 80*; 'der T. gebiutefcstne her- 
vart/ army^s marcli, BarL 397, 32. His badgej his iiicen (Suppl. 
to 200), is the pallid hue: des Todes zeichen io liehter varme^ 
Nib. 928, 3, 2006, 1 j des T. z. wirt schin (is displayed) ia 
swarz-gelher varwe, Warn. 128; des T, gilim (yellow), MS. 2, 
166'', Those who are veig, fey, may thua be known, Belg. miis, 
5, 113. On the ooofcrary, in Wigal. 6151, a red cloth tied to a 
spear betokens that a man shall ride to his death that day : 

An ein sper man ira do bant 
einen samet der was rot ; 
daz hezeicJimit daa er in den tot 
des tages rtten solde, 

Proserpine devotes the dying to Orcus by catting a lock of hair 
off them ; 

Nondnm illi Eavum Proserpina vertice crinem 
abßtulerat, Sfcygioqiie caput damnaverat Oreo. 

Iris is sent down to Dido : 

JEu. 4, 698, 

Devolat, et supra caput astitit; ^ Hnnc [crinem] ego Dili 

sacrum jussa ferOj teqae isto corpore solvo.'* 

Sic ait, et dextra t'rtnejn secatj omiiis et ana 

dilapsus calor, atqoe in veetos vita recessit. JEn. 4, 702. 

p. 8i8,] Death viowHf Lett, nah we pluvj, Bergm. 69 ; des 
Todes Sichel, Wolkeust. 278. He is a sUhiman, Shah-nameh, 
V. Gorres 1, 105-6; conf. the 3 maidens that mow the people 
down with their sithes, Kulda in D'Elv. 110, 

p. 849.] Death is commonly called the grim, Diemer 87, 9» 
14, Servat, 177U92. Hahn's Strieker 11; der Tut in mit 
grimme snochte, Dint, 1, 407; 'der grimme tot,' the name of a 
Bword, MSH, 3, 236*; der griiumidlche tot, Hagen's Ges. Abeut 
1, 300; der arge tot, Ernst 1954; der übel tod, der hitter. Ring 
6*^,12. 51^,26. Fr, 'male mort;' ez ist niht winters danne der 
tot. Er. 7935 ; der hide dot, Hpt's Ztschr, 2, 197 (like the devil) ; 
die feile Dot, Maerl. 2, 133; der geiei^sB Tot, HolbL 1, 109. 
Wigal. 6061. 6132 ; er was des gewissen Todes, Diemer 218, 14; 
' geivin sam der Tot,' sure as d., Lanz, 5881 ; jt\ weistu rehte aham 
den T*, Flore 3756 ; ich weiz ez wdrez (true) als den T,, Triste« 



119. 17751, 19147, Hin Trist. 1964; der gemeine T., Hahu 78, 
20. 91, 48. Greg. 3769, Schwabensp. p, 179; der gemeinliche 
T., Klage 534 ; Bdvaro^ 6fiolo<;, Od. 3, 236 ; qui omnes manef, 
conf. Etr. Mantus fr. mauere^ Gerli. pp. 17. 56. 

p. 850.] Dominiits Blicero is called Bleker in Coremans 109; 
dass euch der hlickars reut [ Garg. 131-^'; der blasse meiuchen- 
Jrass {pale man-raancher), Fleming p. 142 ; our knöchler, knocli- 
enmaaDj Bony. Death was depicted with frightful aspect : an 
sinein schilde was der Tot gemalt vil grüsenliche, WigaL 2998 ; 
conf. des Todes schild-gemaehj Tit, 2689^ the Harii (p. 950)^ and 
the death^s-head hussars. On the tomb near Camae the 
skeletons are put iu a dancing posture, 01 fers in Abb. der Acad. 
'30, pp. 15. 19—22. 

p. 852.] ^Friend Hain is not eo easy to buy off/ Hans Wurst 
doktor nolens volens, Frankf. and Leipz, 1779, p. 39- 'and there 
Friend Hmfu did the sexton a kindness/ viz. bis wife dies in 
childbed, Kiudlebeti, Wilib. Schluterius, Halle 1779, p. 114. 
Jean Paul uses the word in Q* Fixlein p. 170, and Lessiug 12, 
505 (yr. 1778). But I now find in Egenolfs Sprichw. bl. 321'» 
(under ^ sawr sehen ') : * be looks sour, he looks like Renn the 
devil.^ The other phrases are all borr. fr. Seb. Frank ; this one 
is peculiar to Egeuolfs collection, Conf, * Heinize Pik, de dood/ 

V. d. Bergh 155. Death stretches the limbs: als sie der Tot 

gestracte, Ernst 3011 ; ddparo^ rupijXeyi}^, laying out at lengtb, 
Od. 3, 238, 11, 171 seq.; 'an deme Slrecke-fousze,' a place, 
Arnsb. ürk. no. 493, yr. 1319. Bieckezahn is also in Fleming 
p. 424. 

p. 85 i.] Similar to the expression in H* Sachs, but not so 
figurative, is the phmse : 'der töfc uns zueke daz leben/ jerks the 
life fr. us, Kenn. 20389. Hagen's Ges. Ab. 1, 299. On the life- 
\eandle, see Wackernagel in Haopt 6, 280 — 4; daz leben ist 
tiTistaete, wan ez erleschet der Tot als ein lieht, Altd. bl. 2, 122; 
the devil (here meaning death) is to come for a man when a 
wax-taper fias bunit down, Mullenh. p. 180. On the torch of Eros 
(whose other attribute, like Death's, is the bow), and on his 
relation to Psyche, see Gerhard's Eros pp. 5. 15. 32, KM.' 3, 

70. Death is a godfather ; see also Phil. v. Sittew. 2, 673-4. 

In the same way the hoberges-fjubhej the man of the moiint'tin 
(miner?) is asked to be godfather (p. I89)| Miillenh. p. 289 [In 



Shaksp. the jury who convict are godfathers] . As a godfather, 
it Blatters much whether yoa stand at the head or foot : kopp- 
vadder, stert-vadder, Schütze 4, 194-5. The Slav, story of 
Godmother SmH in WolPs Ztschr. 1^ 262-3 may be conf. with 
our marchen of Gevatter Tody KM, no. 44? and note. On the 
life-or-death-giviog look of the bird ckairadrius, see Pint, Sympos, 
V, 7j 2. Physiol- in Karajao p. 104. 

p. 855.] On the marchen of Death and Jack Player, see Pref. 
xvi, xli. The Lith. Welnas is called in Lasicz 48 vielonat dens 
aniraarnm. Beside the Finn. Tuoni^ there is mentioned a death- 
gcd Kalma, Schott's Kullervo pp. 218. 235, 


p. 856 n.] The Gothic ior feige, fey, is dauß-tiblu (iwidavdrto^), 
conf. ON. daud' yfli, morticiniam. Fa^^es for^siS^ moribund! 
decessus. Cod. Exon. 182, 34; wyrd ne meahte in faeguni leng 
feor gehealdan 165, 18. Die vege ddt, Karel 2, 733; verge eben 
todt, Klage 536-9. 1304 ; sit lie man bi den vetgen vil der pfaSen 
fif dem Saude (left with the dying many priests), Gudr. 915, 4; 
si was ze friieje leider veigf^, Flore 2163 ; da vielen (fell) die 
veigen, Ksrchr, 4909. 7076; d&, gelUgen die veigen, 5247, 7803; 
' die veghe es, hie moot tar moude,^ who fey is, must to mould, 
Walew. 387G ; ni si man nihein s6 feigl (no mortal), 0. i. 11, 10; 
da was der veige vunden (found, bit), Trist 403, 8; conf. der 
veige rise 401, 18; ir sit veige gewesen, Wien, merfart 410. 438 ; 
unz der man niht veige en-ist, s6 erneret in vil kleiner list (so 
long as he is not fey, a little skill will set him up), Iw. 1299. 

p. 857.] Destiny rales over the highest of gods ; virkp Si r^^ 
K€<f>aXy}i; Tou Aioq elaiv ^Upat, Kal MoZpa/, Pans. i. 40, 3. It is 
expr, by the following terms : ON. sköp IH hon vaxa, Ssem, 
249^., OS. giscapu mahtig gimanodun, Hel. 10, 18; thin bej-htun 
gUcitpu gimamHhm 11, 17; regano-gwcapu gimaModun 103, 3; 
conf, torhtlico tidi gimauodou 3, 11. Dan. den kranke skjebne, 

BY. 1, 123; conf. den kranke lykke 1, 193. ON. örlög, OHG. 

vrlac, MHG. ur-liuge, iirlonc, Gramm. 2, 790; vom no endut J^au 
dlögt Hervarars. p. 488; and the Sax, compds orlag-hidla, orleg- 



hwii, ^MHG. toil-saelde : diu wilsadde ie muoz ivgin^ Kfirehr. 

3493. 3535; conf. 3122-5. 3130. Lanz. 1602. Fundgr. 1, 398; 
ein abel •mUsaeldej Ksrcbr* 1757. Also the un com pounded wile: 
so hab diu ivile undanc [ Biter, 11933; stn wile und sin tac, 
Ksrchr, 3557; * iciJe u, stunde walzeut al-umbe/ fate and the 
hour roll rounds 3600. 3587. We say ^hi3 hour has striick.' 

p. 858,] The hour of birth and destiny is determined on by 
night : noli var i boe, nornir qvämo, \^t er auMngi aldr umsk6pOj 
Sebdi. 149*; diu mir wart bescheiden {she was destined for me) 
von den nahtweiden j do si erste wart geboruj Krone 4840. 

Even in early times destiny is placed in the hands of gods : 

Zci/^ S* airb'i ve/j^ei oXßov ^OXufLTrto^ dvBpioTrotaiv 

cVÖXot*? iJSe Katcolmv^ ottw^ ißiXrjdtpf ixdanp. Od* 6, 188* 

xofcr] Aw alaa. Od* 9. 55. 

dv€po^ Qj T6 KpQvlmv 

oXßov iwiKXcuar} yafieoi^Ti re ytyvofjtevtp re. Od. 4, 207. 

ov fiot TotovTOP iwifcXtütrav 0€öl SXßop, Od, 3. 208. 

2)9 yap Ol eVeVXcücrci/ rd ye, Od, 16^ 64, 

The last three passages have iniMXjcüßü} (I spin for), the term 
gener* used of the Fates. 

p. 859.] The weighing of destinies, performed by Zeus in the 
Iliad^ is called 'weighing of souls' by Welcker, Cycl, 2j 189j just 
what Christian legend ascribes to St, Michael : 

Sant Michel richtet uf am wäge (holds up his balance), 

und henket sich der valant dran (though the devil hangs on), 

doch schaflet er niht, der swarze man, 

wan Bin sleeken ist umbaua (his trickery is in vaio). 

Conr. V. Dankrotsch* Namenb. 118. Berthold p. 17. 

p, 860.] The stars have iutluence esp. on birth : tarn grave 
tndus habenti, Ov- Trist, v. 10, 45; vonar-stiarna Üaug. pk var 
6C foeddr, burt frä briosti mer, hütt at huu flö, hvergi settiz, svä 
hon maetti hvild hafa, Ssam. 126^; 'because their star is at lieaty 
or it has cooled down (versauaet)/ Phil, v, Sittew. SoldatenL p,m* 
149. Other omens attending the conception and birth of a child 
are mentioned in Pref, xliv* xlv. 

p. 862,] In the uuavoidableness of fate there is something 
eruel and gnaJgimj, The luckiest and best men perish at last : 



stfc stürben s jamerliche von zweier edel en fro a wen nJfc (w 
jealousy). Nib. 6, 4; wi© liebe mit leide ze jungest lönen hau (lov^i 
may reward witb woe at last) 1 7, 3 ; als ie diu liebe leide ze alle^^i 
juntfisfe gtt (turn to woe) 23t r5 ; ae koma m^ni eptirmunuS, Ssem. ' 
129*; conf. these views of the world^s rewards*, and Lehrs^ Vom 

neide p. 149. To the possession of codlt^ things m attached 

misfiniiiue and ruin. In the tale of Tyrfiog it is the splendid 
sword that kills; conf. the fatal sword {p. 205), So the hoi-se of 
Sejanus proved a fatal steed, Gellius 3j 9, Lehrs' Vom neide 
p. 154. To the same category belong the Nlbelung's hoard, the 
alrattn and ijallows-man (p. 513 n.). And a union with goddesses 
and fays makes men unhappy (p, 393} • 

The Norse fataltmn comes out in ; ^ ingen man är starkar© an 
sift öde/ no man is stronger than hia fate, Sv. folks. 1^ 228. In 
Vestergtitland and Schonen they s«y : det var hanora ddi^ GDS. 
125-6, M. Neth. dat sm »aJ, dat mod^ atn, Karel 2, 1561. MHG. 
poets have: daz geschach u. mnose stn, Turk Wh. 29*; wan ez 
noli el shij Parz. 42, 6 ; ez rnuoz also tuesen. Nib. 1482, 1 ; swaz 
geschehen sol, daz geschihi, Uratende 104, 48. Helmbr, 1683. 
OS. that it scolda glwe^'lhati so, bethiu ni mahtun si is bemithan 
(avoid), Hek 150, 19. 152, 4. Fr. tot avenra ce quen doit avem 

Garin 2, 20L AS. n'ees ic faege ];ä gifc (I was not fey yet)j 

Beow. 4289 ; conf . ' ez sterbent wan {none but) die veigen die 
doch vil 1th te heime da muosen sterben. Tit. 1799; niema 
sterben 7)iac (can die), unz ira kurnt sin tester tac^ KL 103 ; niema 

ersterben mac, 6 im kamt sin endes-taCf Lanz. 1613.^ Ego vero 

nihil impossibile arbitror, sed utcunque fata decrevernufc ita cuncta 
raortalibus evenire, Apul. p. m. 87; mir geschiht niht, wan mir 
geschaffen ist, ez muoz n& stn, MSH. 3, 80; ist ez dir beschafft 
Helmbr. 1297 ; muoz ez wesen, n, ist dir heschuffen, Laber p. 20( 
sei es uns mit heil beschaffen^ Wolkenst. 178; heschaffens glücl 

Ambras, lied. p. 224-5-7. Mir ist niht heaU, Flore 1184; dia 

ist dir erahiot (intended), Griesh, 2, 18; dem si rehte erahtot 

2, 19. -Ih ward giboran zi thiu, 0. iv. 21, 30; wer zuo dr 

helhUng ist geborn, Diut. 1, 325 ; ze dnn scherpJten geborn, Reu 
15886; dar aanc (for aong) bin ich geborn, MS* 1, 53* ; er wa 
zer fluht nie geborn, Wh. 463, 19; ich wart in dine helfe erbe 
Tit. 72, 4 ; Christiancheu ist nicht für mich geboren, Geliert 
168. We say : es ist mir angeboren. Til lykke lagt, DV, 8^ J 

lan I 




Dan. ^er dei saa läget ^ saa faaer det saa blire'; ez gH keinem 
coders dao im win n/(jehnt, Mich. Bellamys Vom anglauben 4 

[necessity is laid upon me, 1 Cor. 9, 16].^ *Swaz dir enteile is 

gelAo, des enwirt dir nilit benoinen/ you can^t fail to have, En, 
82, 6. 87, 21. 117, 1 ; dome si beschert wasj e si wurde gebora, 
En. 3993 : nie man gelooben sol an daz wort ' ez ist ime beachert,^ 
Germania 3, 233*; dem galgen beschertj Eenn. 1681 o; fist iu 
beschert, u. en-mac nihfc anders sin, Flore 4588; nus wirdet 
cnuogiz hespirre ioh peskerit N. Arist,, beskerit undo bci^kibet 94 ; 
waz ist uns beiden beschert u. bescheiden^ Herb, 14054. We say: 

es ist mir beschieden, verhängt ^ bestimmt, geschickt, Lith. 

emtas, ordained; was einem geordnet sei, dem eotrinne man 
lieht, Gotthelf s Erz. 1, 292; es sei so geordnet, u. was sein muss, 
muss sein 1, 284; zugeschrempt, Keisersb. Von koufleuten 89^, 

GeistL lüwe 50*=; ez ist mir sua gewattt, P&rz, 11, 8. More 

antique are the phrases : 

oif yap TTw? fcaraSvaofied* a^^vvfievoi wep 

el^ ÄiSao Bofiov^, irptv p^opaip^ov ^fxap iireXdj}, Od. 10, 174. 

fiolpav S* ovTipd ^f^fii 'n'€<f)vyfiivop e/jL/ievai äv8p&v, II, 6, 488, 

AS. gsB pa toijrd swa hio scel^ Beow* 905 ; so habed im wnrd* 
giscapu Metod gimaixnd^ llel. 4, 13, conf. 18, 10, 4*5, 14. 

p. 863.] Weal and luck are all but personified in the phrases: 
knra, gliick, vu schlagt vut hanfeti drein, Docen^a Misc. 1, 279; 
ein garten, den gliick u. heil buwet^ Mohr reg. v. Frauenbr. no, 
386, yr, 1434; heii, wähle vi \ Diut» 1, 853 ; des helfe mir gelücke I 
Nib, 1094, 4; mine lielpe God ende goei geval ! Walew. 286; 
an^s mi God ende goed geval ! Karel 2, 3609; roto heil, nn Unge 
(prosper) ! Altsw, 14, 31. 00, 4; Silvio volgete gvoz heil, En, 
13138; die wile {meanwhile) sin heil vor gienc, 7251 ; to snatch 
the luck that was going to another, Uuw. dokt. 858; those that 
luck pipes to may dance, Docen's Misc. 1, 282 ; when God and 

^ood luck greet him, Simpl. 1, 536; daz in daz heil verfluochei 

(curses hini), Hartm. 1, biichl 782* Without personification; 

si Uezen die vart an ein heil, 3297; waere daz an mioem heitei 
MS, 1, 193^ ; vart iuwer str&ze (go your way) mil gnotem heile, 
Iw* 832; ze heile komen, MS. 1, 75'; heile» vuri waten (wade 
the ford of), Sucheuw, xxxiii. 35; guotes mannes heil, Hpt^s 

Stschr. 2, 179; ich trowe mime heile^ Nib, 2102, 4; mime heile 



ich gar verfeile, MS, Ij 83*; du mahfc min heil er wenden {canst 
thwart), Walth. 60, 18; ich danke 's rntme heile. Nib, 1938, 4j, 
conf. min saelde si venmzen {cursed be), Mai 174, 4; min saeldel 
ich verßuoche, Flore 1182; ich zmhe ez üf (I lay it all upon)! 
die 5. min, Lanz. 3162 ; doch zürn ich an die s, min 4300.^ — 
Moi*e peculiar are : ' wünschet daz mir ein heil gevalh/ befall, 
Walth* 115, 5; conf, M^Neth, ghevalf lack, Hujd. sub» v-, and 
OUT Veldeke's ' daz si mere (increase) min geval* 1, 21*; des 
heiles slüzzel (key) in verspart frende, Altd, bL2, 236; verlorn 
het er daz heil, Alex. 3oS9. ^ Wiiuschen helles vunt/ a find of 
luck, AUd. bl 1, 339. MS, 2, 190\ MSH. 1, 857\ Mai 64, 10. 
Haupt 7, 117; hiuh bruoder, frölden vnnfj Dietr. drach, 303**; 

der Saelde ti vunt, MSH, 1, SoO**; glückes inmt 351**, Gluck, 

heil and saelde are named side by side : doch so was gelücke u. 
Sifrides heil, Nib. 569, 2 ; heili job saUda, O. Ludw* 5 ; man 
saget von glucke a. von sdlden, Herb, 6770 ; s6 möhfc ime gelücke 
u. heil u. saelde u. ere üfrisen, Walth. 29, 31 ; gelücke inch miieze 
saelde7i wern (may fortune grant), Parz. 431, 15. Gelücke isJ 
distinguished fr. heil, Herb. 3238. 15465; couf. TU)(r}, fioipaA 
eifiapft.ivt}, Lucian 3, 276; dea Forhma, PL Pseud, ii, 3, 13. 

There is a white fortune and a black, a h right and a dark : thiu 
berldun gi^capu, Hel. 11, 16, 23, 17; pk beorhtan gescceft^ Caadm. 
273, 20. 

Kia, glücke ! eia, heil 1 

nu hast du mir daz swarze teil [black side) 

allenthalben zuo gekart (toward me tnmed) ; 

mir sint die wizen wege verspart (barred), 

da ich wilen ane giac (whereon I whilom went) . 

Herb. 15465—69, 

Frommann p. 321 understands this of the moon's light or dark 
disc, and seems to derive the ' wheel of fortune ' altogether fr. 
the lunar orb. Conf. Lett, 'ak mannu baltu deeiiul* my white 
day, Bergm. 76 (see p. 1138). 

p. 864,] Of Saelde' 8 vigilance I have some more examples 
[Omitted] : min S, erwachet, Ls. 2, 50Ö ; swer si nu solde schou- 
wen, des S. was niht enislafen^ Ttirl. Wh. 46'. And the same of 
Luck and Unluck : hadde mi mm gheluc gkewaect^ Marg. v. 
Limbg 1| 1226; our mduch tvakes, Günther 1014; my luck ia 



fast asleep 212 (conf. Dan. 'den kranke li/kke,' DV- 1, 195 ; dea 
kranke akjebne. 1, 123). M. Netb* die Aventure wacht (p* 911) j 
erwachet sin planet, Chron, in Senkeub, 3, 459 ; fortanam ejus 
in malis tanfcuni ci?ilibiis vigilasse, Amin. Marc, 14, JO, conL 'at 
vos Salus servassU, Plant. Cist. iv. 2, 7ö. The Latvia (SuppL to 
_877) also sleeps and tmkes up, Büttner no» 761. Lnck is coaxed; 
i, ifelücke, ü^j Waltli, 90j 18. Similar phrases; nitn weinen- 
der schade (hurt) wachet, MSH. 1, 102*; shade vaker, Aasen^s 
Ordspr. 210; 'to wake a sleeping sorrow / Owdip. Colao* 510, 
ON. vekja NanÖ', Smm. 194 '^ (var,), like utkja vitj 105*. Vrtiule 
dia ist erwachet, din ie verborgen lac (lay hid), MS. 2, 99*; conf. 
wach auf, fried, Fastn. 39, 1 ; bi werden man {to nobJe- minded 
men) so wucheni wihes gäete, MS. 1;, 190"*; ir giiete n. bescheiden- 
Leit iBt g6n mir enislafen 1, 26** j ir genade (favour) mir muoz 
machen I, 33*; wil ir diu (mlnne) ze herben nähen wachen, MSH. 
1, 816**. Nemesis, vengeance, sleeps and wakes. 'A place where 
Wb certain danger loaked,' Serb, u, Kroat. 10. 

p. 866.] Fortuna, like Ver Stelde (Hagen's Ges. Ab. 1, 409), 
waits long at the door, and is not admitted, Dio Cass, 64, 1 ; mir 
iBt verspart (barred) der Saelden tor, Walth. 20, 31 ; der S. tur 
entsUezen (unlock), Diefcr. drach. 179*; conf, Hpt's Ztachr. 2, 
535 and dream-gate (Soppl. to 1146 beg.). In the same way: 
* e\mz mir Öi der trrouden lor/ unlock me the gates of joy, MSH. 
1, 356*; gein dera siiezen Meien st^nt offen fröiden tor, MS. 2, 
108*; der fröulen tor ist zuo getÄu (shut) 2, 198^: thro' portaU 
wide poured joy into her house, Gotthelf 2, 203 ; thy luck comes 
in ai every gate, Fabricius's Hanstafel (V* f. Hatnb. geach. 4, 

486) ; der gendden tor, Hpt 4, 526. Exulatum aMit sains, 

Plant. Merc. iii. 4, 6; 'des solt in Saelde wichen/ quit them, 
Albr. Tit. 2344 ; diu 6\ mir entwiche, MS. 2, 20*; conf. 'da unse 
heil von uns trat/ Pass. 40, 80 ; ' heill er horfin/ gone. Vols, c, 
11 ; 'la Fortune passa, ello part a ces mots,' Lafont. 5, 11 j con- 
versely : * zuo ijienc daz unhell,^ on came mischief (SuppL to 879). 
Saelde von uns vonii, A this F, 20 ; S. wont im h\, q. vont, Heinr. 
Krone 56*^; dar Saelden ane gt^nge, Hpt 4, 525; daz dich daz 
gelÜcke ange, Diocl. 4376. 8759 ; alles glück weheie (blew) dich 

an, Unw. doct, 617. Luck approaches one who sleeps at the 

well-side, Babr. 49, 2 ; predestined luck comes overnight, Am- 
bras* 247 ; conf. ' falling asleep betw, two lucksj Altd. hi. 2, 175; 




an Saelden wnnscbes arm enUJafen, Tit. 1248. Ipsa, si vellet. 
Solus liis circumfiisa, at vulgo loqidmur, eos salvare noo posset, 
Liatpr, Legatio 13, Er was ftf der Saeldeti wer^e, Ernst 1843; ^ 
conf. 'so versfc of gehlcJces ban/ MS. 1, 88'*; hohe getrat ze SaeU^H 
den. Mar. 164^ 30; ich kan si wol erjageyi (hunt her down) : si-ne^^ 
welle sich mir ni6 versagmi {refuse me more) dan si sich deheime 
(any one) versagte, der si ze rehte jagte^ Greg. 1529. ' Ir Saelde 
din mrh sie an/ looked on her, Mar. 187, 20; we say 'smiled 
upon/ conf. t^i^ tv)(7}V Trpoo-fLetSima-ap, Lucianos Asin, 47, Fortnna 
arridet. ' Ich miioz ir gmoz verdienen,' earn Fortnne^s greeting, I 
Greg. 1527; Got n. das glück gHlszei^ Simpl. 1, 536; daz mich 
vr6 Saelde ei'kanfie (recognised), MS. 2, 99^; so volgt dir S. nachf 
MSH. 3, 224^ ; min fro S., wie sie min vergäz (forgot rae), Walth, 
43, 5. ' Einer geliicke ersUehef^ daz der ander niht wol kaii|H 
erlovfen/ one creeps up to her, another can't nni her down, MSH»'" 
3, 297"; das glück erschleKhen, Fiachart's Gesch. kh 95^ Uhl. 
VolksL 584. Ambras. 102; ^ luck wants to be boldly galloped 

up to,' Polit. stockf. p. 240.^ 'Gelücke ist una rersumndcn/ 

vanished, Altd. bl. 2, 150; 'wie in geliicke flöch/ fled, Ottoc. 
713*; 'yrou Saelde keret mir den nnc/ turns her nock (back), 
Franenl. 447, 22; fortuna malefidaj Rudi. 1, 11 ; fortuna vetuMg^ 
1, 66 ; vrou S. ist wilder dan ein rech (roe), MSH. 2. 315*, confj 
* gelücke lief eniwerhes/ ran athwart, Troj. 1 2598 ; S* wird pflücJce, 
Kolocz 100 ; daz imltwilde gelücke springt^ MS. 2, 147^* ' In der 
Saelden knote vara,* travel in her keeping 1, 88*; wisen fiz vrou 
S, hwtej MSH, 1, 339'; conf. ^cum fortuna ludere,' be her play- 

mate, favourite, Pertz 2, 79. ^ Der Saelden sfahe, dd suit ir 

inch an stktren/ staff whereon ye shall lean, MSH. 3, 462'; sitzen 
üf der S. Mr 1, 93* (MS. 1, 36*) ; daz inch vrö Saelde laze toider- 
hiren (send you back), Troj. 9359 ; wie dich diu S, fuorie (led), 
Hpt 4, 524. 'Diu S. mich an sich nam, si riet mir,' advised me, 
Wigara, 4119; 'den ir S. daz geriet/ for so her luck advised, 
Wh. 451, 4; 'daz sie diu S. tnon Jiiez,' what S. bade her do, 
Eracl, 54; 'dar sin S. hat erdaht,* wherever his luck thought 
good, Farz. 827, 17. 'Diu S. ir mit fllze pflac/ carefully tende 
her, Wigah 8950; vrou S. ir sthtre gap stner ammeu (bestowe 
her gifts on his nurse), diu sm phlac, do er in der wiegen (cradle 
lac,' Er. 9898 ; von der Saelden gdm, AUd. bl. 2, 218; nü het Hii 
vrowe Saelikheii alien- wts an in geleit (on him set) tV vil staeiigeM 



mare, Greg. 1063 ; der Saelden tjundes feil, Krone 4833. Er 

sitzet in S. vogel-kiUef Renn. 10512; kaeme ich ilf der S. sinol, 
Partenop. 93 ; der. S. dach (roof), MS, 1, 191''^ daz uns decke 
diner S. van {flag}, MSH. 1, 339^; eutsliezen flf (unlock) der S. 
Mchrin, Dietr. drach* 94^' ; aller S. (intnt iOb\ 303'^; der S. seil 
(rope) 239^ 257*; der S. vaz (cask), Hag. Ges. Ab. 1, 461 ; sich 
daz (beware lest) din muot iht tranken gß von des geliickes stoufe 
(bowl)^ Frauenl. 116, 19; von gold ein S. viugerlin (ring), Lanz. 
4940; daz goU der S., Tit. 4914. 5028; Saeldenberc, Mone 1, 

S46- 7, 319. Der S, zwic (twig, Siippl. to 077) ; ein zwi daran 

^ditt Saelde hJiifijd, Hpb 4, 527; stn S. bfib^U, Wh. 463, 9; ez 
grüenet miner Snelden rts (twig), Winsbekin 6, 4; wo sein glm^kn- 
grasl graltä, Stelzhamer 36 ; geliicke ist unten hie gemt (widely 
Bown), Dietr. drach. 187", It 13 prettily said : das glück ahhlti' 
ten (disleaf), Fasfcn. »p. 1143, as if to pluck off the flower of luck ; 
'lack brings roses/ Ldrb. of 1582, 225; gmzmechtig l-rut-kitrh 
t?o/( glück (huge hamperfuls), Fastn. sp. 884, 24, conf» 'geliick 
in einem krehen (korb, basket) finden/ Hätzl. 85^' ; der Saeldon 
stücke (pieces, items?), Parz. 734, 24; liät-er darzuo der S, swert, 
Altd. bl. 2, 229; der S. slac (blow), Iw. 4141, conf. ' ne noä 
Fortuna sijustro cum peJe prosternat,^ Gesta Witigowonia 477; 
'at first she can't take in her luck, by and by sbe^ll snap at its 
fi$U/ Schoch^s Stud, D 3'*; der S. simnz (tail) bat dich umbe- 
vangen, Hpt 4, 520. ' Der S, ton sin herze bäfc genetzet/ S.^s 
dew has drenched his heart, MSH. 3, Wu""; ' bliss comes dennng 
dowB,^ Goethe 14, 74, conf. 'alles heib ein Inter bach/ limpid 
stream, Altsw. 98, 23; 'luck gjwws upon us in largo flakes,' 

Phil. V. Sittew. 2, 665. Observe the plar. saelden, like ' heillir 

horfnar* (p. 864-5 n.) ; then sdUdon intfallan, 0. ii. 4, 89; er 
tnohte mi neu saelden immer sagen danc, Nib. 300, 2 ; waere ^z an 
den 8, min, Reinh. 436. In Tyrol (J 5th cent.) a/mn Sefga rides 
at the head of the nightly host, Germania 2, 438, bub she may 
be the selige, blissful, not our Saelde. Conf* the Indian goddess 
of prosperity Sri, Holtzm. 3, 150, the ayaffij Tvxv* the bona 
Fart una J Gerh. in Acad, ber, '47, p, 203-4. 

p. 869.] Oü fortune's xtheel see Wackernagel in Hpt 6, 134 
aeq. Cupid also has a wheel : vorsor in Amoris rota raiser, 
Plant. Cist. ii. 1, 4. Fortunae siniitrorsum sibi rotam volvere 
sentit^ Pertz 8^ 235, conf. the image in Carra, burana p. 1 ; 



volublUs rota transeiintis mündig Kemble no. 761 (yr 1038) ; rdto 
faialls in Hemmerlin, Reber p. 2'6^ ; videna fortunam, ub solefc, 
hiiUcra rota reciprocare, Eckeliardi casus S. Galli (Fertz 2, 88). 
The mere turning of the wheel denotes the mutability of fate, 
FnuriePs Poesie Fror. 3, 509. Serb, march, no. 42, p. 198* 
Meghadiita ed. Schütz p. 41 str. 107, and the passage ft. Plu- 
tarch, ibid. p. 109. 

Geliicke ist sinewel {spherical), Wh. 246, 28 ; der liute heil ist 
nntjewegen u. sinwel, Bit. 1244Q, Fortune rises and falls, like a 
wheel in motion, Meghad. 108; daz rai der fro Fortune, Turlin's 
Krone 7 ; Marie, da heiles u. gdäckeit rat, Hpt 4, 523 ; dat rat 
van avoninreUf Rein, ed. Will 6183; mir get der Saeklen schtbe 
(wheel), Engelh. 4400 ; do unser schibe ensamt gie (together went). 
Warn. 3048; wil mir der S* schibe gin, als si dicke (oft) h&t 
get£Ln, Dietr. drach, 12 ; geliickes rat uoibe tribeu, Troj. 13322 ; 
ala sich kf^ret (turns) des geliickes rat, Pass. 32, 62 ; in bezöch 
der werlde geliickes rat 356, 15; ai vuoren (rode) üf gelückes 
rade, Flore 845, couf. ' auf gehtkes choken varen,* Sucheuw, 27, 
115 J ich lige ieraer linder gliickes raJe, MS. 2, 194'^; ic was te 
hoghe gheseten (sat too high) op dat rat der aventuren, Marg, v. 
Limb. 1, 185; Wo Id em a res schive in grot en lakken had de lopen 
(run), Detm. 1,99; gelückes balle, Tit, 23<38 ; uDgliicke daz ge 
si an (befall them), darzuo der lazier (iDfamy's) schibe müeze in 
alien gen in hant ! Dietr, dr. 143 ^. 

Saelde is sometimes called blind : sprich uihfc ' Saelde si hlini* 
des si uiht ist, Cato 442 ; sia maletua (her they painted) pUnda^ 
Notk, Boeth, 42 ; and avonture is blind, Rose 5067, or blind- 
folded 5858. Notker iu Büeth. 43 translates ' deprehendisti coeci 
numinis ambiguos vultus' by * nil becheuneöt tu daz auaiutte des 
sich j)erge7iten (skulking) trüge- tie veles.^ To Gotfrid's ' glesin 
glücke ^ add the ^fortuna rltrea ^ of the Archipoeta p* m. 237. 

p. 6G9.] Der Saeklen khit, Freid. 134, 2; Gabriel salutes 
Mary as such, MSH. 3, 18*; frou Saelde und Hnl^ ir kint. Krone 
15827. 23094, conf. 'sit in the middle of God's lap/ Drei kL 
leute 159; mujuon, Lafont. 5, h-, frou S* ir stiure gap sioer 
ammen, diu sm phlac, d6 ei* in der wiegen lac (in his cnidle lay). 
Er. 9898. * Der Saeldea bote/ messenger, PantaL 172; Seiden- 
hut, Urk. of Hanover; des si min Saeldti gein im bote, Parz. 416, 
4. Like Saelden bote are also: Trluweu bote^ Engelli. 6332 j 




Brfin bote, hononr's m,, Franend. 487, 13. 479, 28; der E. ÄoWe, 
Athis C 82, Er. 9962; der E. kneht, Eogelh, 4162; der S. 
holds, Laoz. 1996; der 8, hm-gBuoz^ houBemate, Wh. 3, 125*; 
der S. »choly Er. 2401; der ünsaeld^n hneht^ Hartm, 2, büchL 
626; der fürate seiden Iterre, Heldenb. (1590), 110\ et passim* 

p* 873.] Of/mw Fortuna, a kind of Veous, there is a lege öd 
in Altd. bl. 1, 297. With Fortunatas conf. Faust ns. The 
imnhing-hui carved ont of a finger-nail, Schiefner on Kalewipoeg 
pp. 146. 154, resembles Nagl-far {p. 814). On the miraculous 
making of cloths^ see Rommel 2, 342 fr. the Ann. Erf. in Menken 
3* There is frequent mention of a girdle that gives strength 
(SuppL to 182), the strength of 12 men, Laurin 1966. 2441, or 
allays hunger, Ferabr, 2752. 2800 ; ON, hüngurhandj onr »chmacht^ 
rieme. SaVo ed. Müller 114 mentions an * armiUa possessoris 
opes augere solita/ a * tunica fp.rrum spernenä ' 118, an ' insecahilift 
vestis* 122; conf. the grotving mantle in Lanz. 5812, the seamless 
coat, the tcprjSeßuov of luo, Od. 5, tho hreost-iul hroden^ Beow. 

3095, the hread-pocl'ei in Wigal. 4469. 58i3. Discordia makes 

herself invisible by a W«^, Troj. 1303-24, and the like magic lies 
in the ring with a nightingale in it, Morolt 1305; conf. the 
ring of Gyges, Plato's Rep. 859, 360. Seveii-hague i^oois, bottes 
de sept lienes, Perrault 167. Aulnoy 367, St, Coliimban has a 

wisking-staff (p, 976). If Amaltbea (Athen. 4, 345. 371) and 

Fortuna have a horn-of- plenty, ' Fortuna cum eornu pomis, ficis 
ant fragibus pleno/ Arnob. 6, 25 (conf. ' nam haec allata carnu- 
copiae est» ubi inest quicquid volo/ Plaut* Psoud* ii, 3j 5) ; so has 
onrold Ofcfrid i. 10, 5 a horn heiles, and Wolkeust. p. 61 a Saelden- 
iwm^ conf. Gif-hora. It is an odd thing to speak of sitting down 
on the buWs horns ^ i.e. pillars, of wealth, Pen tarn. Liebr. 2, 112. 

To make a wUhing-net, you born a small boat, and sow flax 

in the ashes, which shoots up in two days, is picked, baked and 
braked in two days more, and spnn, knitted and stitched in 
another two days, Kalev. 26, 188 ; conf. Schröter p. 19. Wishing- 
dice in H, Sachs ii* 4, 114^ On the stone of victory, see p. 1220. 
Indra*s spear that never ini^ses, that of itself comes back to the 
hand, and even when lie lends it to others, returns to his hand 
(Qoltzm. Ind. s. 2, 137-8. 155), and the javelin that ßies hack of 
its own accord (Ov, Met» 7, 68 i), are like Thor's hammer, like 
the sword that gives victory in Saxo ed. Müll. 115, like the one 



DESTnrr and well-beiko. 

that brandishes itself ia Djbeck li 28j and Vare qui ne fant 

in the O. Fr. Trist, 171Ö-45. The Ssk. manoraiha, wheel of 

thought^ may be the same as the wheel in Wigaloisj conf. Saelde'a 
wheel and her glove, Krone 22855. 230D3. Similar to SkiSblaSnir, 
the navis plicatilis (p. 216), ia a tent in Lanz. 4898 seq., which 
folds upj and can with ease be carried by a maiden. In the land 
of the ^thiops ' est locus apparatis epalia semper refertns, et 
quia ut libel veici volenttbus licet^ ^\Cou rpdwe^au appellantj et 
quae passim apposita sunt affirmant innasci subinde diviuttus^' 
Pomp. Mela 3, 9j see Herod. 3, 17-8, where the earth itself 
covers the table with meats overnight; conf, the city wherein 
the ble^sinfj should abide, Geliert 1, 194; before the Gral all 
manner of meats and drinks stood ready, Parz. 238, 10. 239, 1 
(the Gml suffers no vermin in Salvaterra, Tit, 5198; the name 

Graalanz as e^rly as 10th cent., Irmino 49^). A witdiing-tree 

that bears clothes, trinkets, etc., and wine, Meghadhüta ed. Schutz 
p. 25-7 ; like the tree in our fairy-tale, fr. which the child shakes 
dresses down. The wishing-cow Kama^duh means ' milkable at 
will/ Bopp'a GL 70^ Weber 5, 442 ; ace. to Hirzel's Sakant. 
I b3 Nan Jini ia the lucky cow that gmuls all wishes; add thö 
a&s that ut£ers goldj peau d'Ane^ and the hen that lays golden 
eggs. On the contest fur wishinfj-*j€a)\ see Pref« p. xxxiii. 

p. 874n.] On luchy chihlreu and their canls, see Ross^ler 2, 
^cv* 3tcvi. and 337* KM.' 3,57; wir briogen allesamen ein rot 
wamiuitach nff erden (pellera secundinam), das mftss darnach der 
man (husband) unter die stegeo vergraben, Keisersp, Wannen- 
kremer lOO"*, In AS. the caul is hmfela, hafela^ Andr. p. 
127-8 n.; MHG. hüetelin, batwdtj Hpt 1, 136-7, kuidbafgelj Mono 
8, 495, westerhufe in the Hitterpreis poem, westerhuot, Karaj» 27, 
6 J conf. the westerwat preserved in churches, N. Cap. 83, and 
the baptismal shirt of healing power, Dresd. Wolfdietr. 1(30-1-2 ; 
ßtera, vamlborse, pellicula in qua puer iu utero matris involvitur, 
Hoflm. Uor, Belg. 7, 19''. Lith. namai kudikio, chOd's house, 
Nesselm. 414. ON. HlöSr ia bom with helmet and sword (p. 
389). GDS, 121. 

p. 876*] Every man has an antjel of his oitn, but so have 
some beasts, Keisersp. Bro&iiml, 19^, Agreeing with Ceesar 
Heisterb., the Pass. 337, 46 says : duz einer iegelichen menscheit 
givene engd siot bescheiden : eioeu guoUn^ einen leiden iegelich 



menßche bl im hat. Every man lias his candle in the skt/j Hpb 
4j 390 (see Sappl. to 722 end). Da sprach der eiitjel woUgetan t 
' ich was ie mit dir^ unt woldest nie gemlgen mir (obey me) ; 
von ubele ich dich chßrte (turned), daz beste ich dich lörte/ 
Tund. 40j 60 ; ich bin der e7i(jel, der dm pßitjet^ Ges* Abent. 2, 
255 ; wil du dinem engel scheiiken (win), Griesh< 2, 50 ; angleus 
Domini te semper praecedat, comitetur ac subsequaturj Vita 
Mahthild. c, 20.— In Otfr, v. 4, 40 the augel saya to the 
women: jA birun wir in wdra iu eigene giburd — y onv servant?* 
The augel is called wtsa^^re, director, Helbh 7, 249. 33 Ij an in* 
yisible voice 7^ 203. 293. 355; dA hAst gehurt ein stimme, die 
sin enget spnidhj Pass. 158, 79; (der werlde vluot) manigen hin 
verdrücket, ob in dar-Az niht zücket (plucks him oufc) aut eng it 
mit voller krafkj 337, 41. The augel rejoices over his protege, 

MSH. 3j 174**.^ The heathen thiuk an old Christian has a 

young one inside him, and when ho is dying the angels take a 
babg out of his mouth, Ottoc. 440-1 [see a mosaic in the cafch. 
of San Michele Maggiore, Pavia] . On English guardian- an gels, 
see Stewart^fl Fop. superst. 4, 16-7 ; ou ladian, Somadeva 2, 117. 
Hermes ia an escort, Trofiwalo^, to men, Aesch. Eum, 91. 

p. 877,] Biarki's fce^r-fylgja ia in Petersen's Hedenold 1, 
210-3 ; a similar bear in Pornald. sog. 1, 102-5 j Gunnar'a fy^gj^f 
the biariidgr^ in NiaUs, c. 23, As swans are guardian-angels, 
ravens are a kind of attendant spirits to heathens : Haraldi ver 
fylgSom (p. 071). On 'gefa nafu ok fylgja hVta,' aee GDS. 

153-4* llamtngja means luck. Forum, sog. 4, 44; goifa ok A. 

4, 26; % hamingja iauti^ in the riot, full swing, of luck, Biuru 
sub V. taut; ef hamitufja fgfglr, 7, 280; fyigjor hans hot'So 
in^m^HeSins, Stem. 147\ GlUm's dream of his father-in-law's 
A. appearing as a dls, who towered above the hills, is iu Vigagl, 

sag. c. 9. Eügl, /ei^/t ; 'I had seen /w3r fetch/ Hone's Daybk, 

2, lOU-3-6-7; in some parts of Scofcl. fye for fetch 1019; 'to 
see his double 1012; wiff^ waff^ wraith^ swarth 1019-20, Ir. 
iaüe^ Conan 105 ; conf. Wilh, Meister, where some one sees him- 
self sitting; the white lady, the bamthic, 

p» 877.] The Slav, dobra sretia, Vuk 3, 444, «r6ha = luck 788, 
looks very like Ssk, Sri, Bopp 356^ [but B-ret-ati = couvenire, 
ob-ret-ati = in venire, etc.]; srutia is bestowed by U-sud, destiny, 
*I am ihy lack, thy brother^s luck/ Serb, march, no, 13. The 



Lettre Laima, Nesseltn. 351, is distinct fr* Laume 353; Litb. 
also Lafma =^Gk, Aat/j-m, Lat» Lamia {p, 50O n. SüppL to 864 
mid»): Laima letiw sauliizös dienat^^ Rhesa dain. p» 10. She ia 
comp, in Bopp's GL 296* to LaksJimi, abündantiae et felicitatif 

p. 879-] Misfortnoe coraes, goes : chumet ein unheil, Karajan 
5, 2. 19, 15; ZUG gienc in beiden daz laiheif, DlxiL 2, 51, conf, 
daz leit gieng ire zao 2, 50; hie trat nun nngelfickf^ für, Para, 
688, 29 ; ungluek wechat über nacht, u, hat ser ein breiten fusz, 
Mathesius (1562) 279* ; S wed, quick som en o-hjcka. Trouble 
does not come alone ; nnlla calamitas sola ; das nnglürlc was mit 
gewalt da, Herbenst, 330 1 t* on-geyal dat es mi bi, Karel 1, 699 ; 
on-gpoet (nnspeed) comt gheresen. Rose 8780 ; imheil nnair rämit 
(creams, thickens), Athis P 21 ; ^ where has misfortune had yon, 
that you look so gory ? ' Reise avant, (1748) p. 107 ; nnheil habe, 
der iz haben wil I En, 1 2859 ; ai hat des ungducks ßger mit 
seinen henden umbfangen gar (U.^s hunter has her tight) ^ 
Keller's Erz. 157, 10; sie reitet im^elücke (rides her), Beham 
in Wien, forsch, p. 47*; unfal reitet 'mich, Ambras. lied. 92, 9 ; 
ccmt Death riding on one's back (Suppl. to 844 beg.) ; was euch 
wn/f?i geit. Murner 2832; Ufifafo in Tbeuerdk ; ^rn-^er^?//^, Flore 
6152 ; U7ihei! mich fuorte an einen zöumen (reins), Engelh. 5502 ; 
riet mir 7mn nnheil (advised me), Er. 4794 ; uudanc begnnde er 
sagen ('gan curse) si me grözen un heile, Kl. 403 L. ; sin uvgelikke 
achalt, Lauz. 1951; mm JJu^adde, Nib. 2258, 1; JJnsoilde st 
verwäzen ! Helmbr* 838; Unselden-hrimnej Moneys Anz. 6,228; 
Unsmlde ist heiles vient (foe), Flore 6158; ^ misf, is at the door, 
in blossom,' Fromm. 4, 142; nngdüt^kes zwic (twig). Cod. paK 
355, 11 6* [the oppos. of 8aelden-zwic, wishing-rod, SuppL to 
977 beg.]; ung. winde^ MS. 1, Si*^; tliiit ein vngelikk sich 
aufdrehen (burn up), H, Sachs iii. 3, 8*, The »Imiting mijrf. vp 
in an *eicher' is like fencing-in the Plague and spectres, 
Miillenh. p. 196; the devil too gets wedged in a beech-tree, 
Bechst. March, 42; si haben Unglück in der kisten (trunk), 
Fastn, sp. 510, 8. 




p. 880;] Like the Gr. -TrpdoröJTrov is the Goth, htdja, Matfch, 
6| 17, cont Gal. 4, 19. I have fouüd MHG, schin^^elSo^ in two 
more places : des lewen »chtn, Bon, 67, 42 ; sinen »chin (image), 
Lanz, 4920. Personification does not give rise immed. to projier 
uftines, for these tolerate no article (Gramm. 4, 405. 595), but to 
sach names as ' der Wungch, din Soelde, der Hnnger.' 

p. 884.] To personified elements I have to add the Slav. 
Pogoda (p. 637), conf, Byr; Ignis, Aqua, Aer, Veritas in Scherz 
n. Ernst (1522-50) cap, 4, (1555) c. 354, H. Sachs i 255; 
Frosti, Log if Skld/f (tremor), YngL sag. c, 22, We say of SnoWj 

* there's a new neighhonr moved in overnight' (pp. 532. 761). 

* Hrim and Forst, hare hildHtapan lucon leoda gesetu,* Andr. 1258 
and Pref. p, xxxv. The Esths worship Cold (kiilm) as a higher 
being, Peterson p. 46. Finn, HjpJ^ö, IIi/tjtämQinen=^ge\u} 
Aeriiämöinen is the wrathful genius of severe cold, MHG* Rtfo 
(p. 761). Was 'die Heide/ the heath, thought of as a person? 

le blushes for shame, Walth,42, 21. Men blessed the Winj, 
ad bowed to it {p, 31 n.). The name of Hlt^i the &synja is 
echoed back in AS, A/In, Cod. Exon, 437, 17, as the name of a 
tree. The George in Reinbot's allegory is a child of der Sunne 
and diu Roue, and is called Eoaen-kinL On N^ji and NiSi, see 
above (p. 700). With the two femin, names of months in AS., 
Hrede and Edstre, conf, the Roman Maia, Fi or a, April Is, who are 
goddesses in spite of the months Maius and Aprilis being masc, 

p. 887*] The sword, the biter, is often made a person of, 

Ssk, asi'putri = cn\ter, lit. Sword's daughter; conf, ON. aultr 

{p. 888), KM.^ 3, 223. The ON. air, awl, is brother to the 

[dwarf or the knifr, Sn. 133. Does 'helm ne gemunde byrnan 

>' in Beow. 2581 mean 'the helmet forgot the coat of mail' f 

[On ritedo, see GDS. 606. Strange that a warrior's garb is in 

Jeow, 903 nr^mati läf, bnt in 4378 lÜr€'\mes l&fej conf. herge- 

?äte, RA. 568, A ship on touching land is addressed as a living 

[creature (p. 1229 ?). It is a confirmation of BtiHtnga wei», 

that the OS, Throf-mannij monile gutturis, is the name of the 
tow^ Dortmund, and IloUes-mmii, monile silvae, Trad. Corb. no. 



321, afterwards called HoUes-rninne 384, is the preseot Holz- 
mindeo. With Enoss is perh. to be conn, the OHG. female 
name Neosta, Förstemann Ij 900; ON. k^^eoüa hnosa— mint, 
Maun-yer^unar occurs in Tbidr, saga p. 153. What means the 
M. Neth. * want haer met gersemtn doeken'? Rose 11001; is 
gars-uma the truer division of the word? Gramm. 2, 151. 
Light is thrown on the maiden Spange by auff-spaung ftngri, 
femiüae juvenculaej Kormakss. p. 180; conf, mowi^e= maiden and 
sleeve, fetter (Kl sehr. 5, 441), erenhenja, both shirb and Erem- 
bergaj achllt-vezzei (-fetter) = sou ttger, squire^ Oswalt 3225, In 
the same way as Hreiia, Hnoss^ Gersemif Mettja (p, 306-7) and 
the Eom. Carna^ dea cardinin (Ov. Fasti 6, IUI — 168), are to be 
expl. the gods' names Lokl and Q rent iL A beautiful woman was 
often compared to some goddess of female ornament : hodda SiJ\ 
hodda Fretfjitj hrtiiga HUn in Kormakss. 26 means simply a lady 
adorned with rings. On the same footing as the goddesses of 
nuta, bees, dough, etc. cited by Lasicz p* 48-9 stand the Puta, 
Peta, Patellana, Viabilia, Orbona, Ossilago, Mellonia in Arnob. 
4, 7. 8j and the goddesses of grains in Augustine^8 De Civ. D. 
4, 8 (Rhein, jrb. 8, 184) and many more in the same author; 
conf. Kobigo, Rubigo (p. 477 end). 

p. 887.] Men fjreeied the player^s die, bowed to it, Jiingl. 389, 
On Deciu^, see Moon 4, 486-7. Hazart geta arriere main, lien. 
18599; SasarSj Myst. de Jubiual 2, 388-9. Dvapam et Kali 
sunt uomiaa tertiae et quart ae mundi aetatis, et daemon es harnm 
aetatnm, Nalus p. 213, conf. HultÄm. 3, 23-9 and Pref. xi-; the 
dice-playing of Ynzishthira and Öakuni was celebr., also that 
of Nala and Pushkara, Holtzm. 2, 1— 11. 3, 23-9, MHG. 'her 
Pfenuiuc,' MS. 2, 148\ 

p, 888,] Victory is personified in the AS, phrase : Sigor eft 
ahwearf cesc-tir wera, Cüßdin, 124^25. Similarly: ' deme Orloge 
den hals brekeu,^ break the neck of battle. De t mar 2, 555 ; 
* Hederlein brother to zenJcleui* (hader^ zauk — quarrel), H. Sachs 
i. 5, 538**; *der Rewd beiszfc/ repeutaoce bites, Luther 9, 472^; 
' der Zorn tritt/ auger steps, Pan tab 86. On #ü/3o9. Favor and 

the like, see above (p. 207-8). ^Goth* snnu ana ins Hatis, 

€(f>8aaey iir* avToi/q ^ opjr}^ 1 Thess. 2, 16 ; *an dem h&t Haz bi 
N{de eiu kint,' in him hate had a child by envy, MS. 1, 75'; 
kämen üf d^& Nides trift, PautaL 754. Envy, like ^ffovo^^ is »_ 



daemon; there was a form of prayer to keep liitn off, Lehr's Vom 
ueido 144 seq. ; Finn. Katij geniua iavidiae ; we say * Envy lookü, 
Beps, out of him/ The OHG. Inwiz, masc, may be the same, 

Pthoagh the Romau Invldia is femiiim©. ON. Topi oc Opij TtikuU 
OG Oßoii vaxi per tär meS trega^ Saem. 85*. UXouto?, the 

hgod of wealthy is blind ; the Ssk* Knvera is ugly, with three legs 

T%nd eight teeth, Bopp 78*; i^it/teiV, Er, 1584. Hunger, s© 

l^eod-sceaiSa hreow rtcsodej Audn 1116, conf, our ' hunger reigns 'j 
Hunger is the beat cook, Freid, 124, 17^ der JT. was \v beider 
koch, Wigam. 1070 ; Hmujhets cameriere. Rose 4356 ; der H, 
koch, Aev Mangel küchen-meister, Sim pi. 25; we say ' SckmaU 

whang is head*cook here^; bald legt sich SVAm. in das zimmer, 
Günther 1051% conf. ' her B ige not von DarlnoUf her Dünne' habe^ 
MS. 2, 179»; d6 lag er M daz hunger4uoch (-cloth), Fragra. 22»; 
am hunger' tnch neen (sew), H. Sachs ii. 2, 80"^^ etc. {Göz 1, 192, 
2, 52); der Hunger spilt (gambok), Suchenw. 18, 125j da viU 
Fru^t u. Durst den H, in daz här, u. zieheut {chitch H, by the 
hair, and drag) gar oft in al dur daz hla, MS. 2, 189"; il esfc 
Eerbot (affamu), Trist. 3938; ther Scado fliehfi in gdhe ! 0. ii. 

24, 37. Sleep, as well as death, is called Sandmann (Sapp. 

to 842): can it possibly mean one who is sent? conf. *d6 aani 
er in den sldf an,' Anegenge 15, 47; but the other is called 
Pechuiana (pitch-man) as well, Schm. sub v., and Hermann, 
Wend, volksl. 2, 269*. Sleep, a brother of Death, comes in the 
Bhape of a bird (p. 331), and sits on a fir-tree (see Klausen p. 30), 
like the sun sitting on the birch as a bird, and lulling to sleep, 
Kalev. rune 3. A saint says to Sleep : * com, guaet knechi, com 
hare dan 1 Maerl. 3, 197. Sleep looks in at the window, Kante* 
letar 2, no. 175; he walks quietly round the cottages, and all at 
once he has you, Hebel p. 223 ; den Schlaf nicht austragen, i.e. 
not spoil one^s peace, Höfer 3, 89* Deus Itisns, ApuL p. m, 105. 
IIL Sdp'hart, Wackern* lb. 902. Renn. 270. VlrwUz (Suppl. 
to Ö36 beg.), 

p. 890.] Attributes of gods come to be regarded as separate 
beiugs, and then personified (Lehrs* Vom neid p. 152), esp. as 
females, Copkt was set before tho eyes in a 'simulacrum aeneum, 
eoma copiae Foriunae retinena,' Marcelliui comitis Chron. p. m, 51 ► 
Care is a neighbour: j€irov€^ tcapöla^ fA€pifiyai, Aesch. Septem 
271 ; conf, *iat zwictl (doubtj herzen nicbgebttr.' Neces^ilg (diu 


Not) parts, Nmtd^t' skiWi, KL sclin 112-3; si vMifcen als den 
liuten touc (as became men), die ez diu grimme Not bat, Er. 837; 
conK 'als in min wÄriu sculde bat/ as my just right bade him do 
1246, Der Bat (advice), masCj has children by Scham, Treue^ 
Wahrheif, all fem,, Helbl. 7, 50. A host of such personifications 
(Fides, PatientiBj Humihtas, Superbia, Luxuria, Sobrietas, etc) 
we find already in Prodentius (circ, 400)| esp, in his PsychorDacliia, 
with due epic embelHshment ; eonf, Arnob, 4, 1: Pietas, Con- 
cordia, Salus, Honor^ Virtus, Felicitas, Victoria, Pax, Aequifcas. 
The Zendic has two female g'enii, IlaurvatiU and Amereidt (whole- 
ness and immortality), often used in the dual number, Bopp's 
Comp, Gr. pp. 238 — 240. The World is freq. personified (pp. 
792u. 850), and even called ' fran SpotkHi,' Gramu| 2, 499. 

Otfr. iii. 9, 11 says: *sö wer s6 nan biruarta, er /r?/wa thana 
fuarta^^ wlioso touch ed^ carried off benefit, as we talk of carrying 
off the bride; frum u, ere^ Hpt's Ztschr, 7, 343-9. Cervantes in 
D. Qui^c. 1,11 says fioely of Hope, that she shews the hem of her 
garnient : la Eaperauza mueätra la orilla de su vestido* OHG. 
Olikepaf MB. 13, 4K 46» 51 Okgehe, Otdgebe; conf. Borg-gabe 
(SuppK to 274), 

Such phrases as '^he is goodness itself rest on personification 
too : vous 6tes la honte mSme, Avec la biaute fu largesce sa suer 
et honors «a con sine, GuitecL 1, 116, 

p. 892,] Personifications have hands and feet given them, 
they dwell, come and go. The Athenians have the goddesses 
UeiOw and 'ApajKalf) (persuasion^ compulsion), while in Andros 
dwell Uevif} and ^ÄfMtjx^^in (poverty, helplessness), Herod. 8, HI. 
^XrJÖeta (truth) has ßed alone into the wilderness, Babr, 127* 
Aesop 364, Another name for Nenif^sis was ÄSpiiareta^ uuescap- 
ableness. Ex «latum aWit Salus j Plant. Merc, iii« 4, 6 ; terras 
Adraea reliquit, Ov, Met. 1, 150; fugere Pudor VcrnmquQ 
Fidesqxie 1, 129; paolatim deinde ad superos Anfraea recessit; 
hac comite, atque duae pariter fn ge re ^or ore«, Juv. 6, 19; Virtue 
goes, and leads Luck away with her, Procop. voL 2, 407, 

Aller Freuden füeze kören (turn) in den helle-grunt, Warn, 
1206; gewunnen si der Fr&iden «tap, Dietr. dr. 200^^ ; diu mac 
mir wol ze Froeiden hüm gesch ragen (var., mich wol ze Fr, b, 
geladen), MS. 1, 9**; conf. Fr. tor (Suppl, 866 beg.), Kruichitia, 
affliction, jumps out of the oven, Dietr, Russ. march, no. 9, 



Carry ing Fro-muot on the hands resembles the leaaiio imperutoris 
et novas Ht/j/ütte, RA. 433* * Fromut-loh cum feria ibi iiutritis' 
must be a bear-gai"Jeu, Drooke's Trad. Fuld. p. 63, Haupt ia 

Neidh. 135 thinks Froumofc is simply Cheerfulness, Ohereeh' 

iicheii, die aware was, vlo tachterst, Kose 5143; conf, Frauenlob's 
poem on Gerechtigkeit, Hpt's Zeitschr, 6, 29. Afinne, Tronwe ea 
gbevloeiij Rose 5141 ; diu Tnwc ist erslagen^ Tüd, gehugde 268; 
Treu ein wildbret (head of game), Schweinicheu Ij 13; ver 
Tritiwe, ver Wdrhtnt, HelbL 7, 38; der Triuwen khhe (cell), 
Eogelh. G295; dor Tr. bote 6332 ; in Ilv. pflege {care), Winsb. 8, 8, 
ooQf. 'der Zühie saP good breeding's hall 8, 7; St. Oeiruwe 
(trasiy) and Künunernis (sorrow), Mone 7, 581 — 4; memau wil 
die Wdrheit herbergen, Müllenh, no. 210; Fax terras itjgredittir 
habitu venmto, Archipoeta ix. 29^ 3, 

p. 893»] Der Eren bote and E. holde (Suppl. to 869) ; frouwen 
E, amis, Frib. Trist. CI ; daz Ere sin geuerte st, Turl Wh. 125»»; 
fro E. und tV hint, MS. 2, 15P; an Eren »trdze gesttgen, Pass. 
47, 80 ; Ere Az vß^*^*^ gedringen, Ben. 450 ; in der Eren tor koraen 
551| 2G ; sin lop (praise) was in der E, tor, Frauend, 81j 14; sitzen 
üf der E, banke^ Gr, ßud, 11, 20; aaz üf der E, steine, Laüsa. 
5178, conf. Er. 1198. WigaL 1475; der E. biine hut überdaht, 
Engelh. 230; der E. dach, kram, Rauch 1, 319; verzieret nft 
der E, sal, Walth. 24, 3; ftz frou E\ kavier vara, MS. 2, 151^; 
der E. iitich, Suchenw. 4, 152; der E, jißüege, Amgb. 2*; in der 
E. formte, Gold, schra. 1874, conf, 'in der Sorgen forste, ' Engelh. 
1941 ; der E. kraue treit (wears), Roseng. 908; treit der E, schilt 
914; der E. zwi (bongh), Hpt 4, 546; er ist der E. wiri (host), 
MS. 2, 59*; manttsl, da frou Ere hat ir brüste mit bedecketj 
Amgb. 18**; ver Ere, Wapenmurtln 6, 55. 

Frei Minne, MS. 1, 16\ The girl's question about Minne ia in 
Winsbükin 34, 8; der Minnen bode, Partenop. 80-4-0. 101 ; der 
if, kraß, Ülr. v. Lichtenat. 35, 15; diu Minne stiez üf in ir kreße 
TU (thrust at him her wand uf power), Parz. 290, 30; der Minnen 
~ ricke (toils), MS, 1, 61*; Minne w. Wisheit, Flore 3740; /ran 
r presents herself to two maidens as teaclier of love, with a rod 
(einem tosten) in her hand, aiul gives one of them blows, HätÄl» 
165; ft woman appears as M/s stewardess 159\ Can Liehten- 
stein's progress as queen Venus be conn, with a mythical cusiom 
(p. 259) ? ^ Vrou Mate (moderation) is fin edel vorstinae,' 



Pütter 1^ 1870 j Mäz, aller tilgende vrouwe^ PantaL 120; Maezic* 
Jteit biat üf die speo (to teach the baby temperance?)^ Sucbenw, 
xl. 144; Zuht, Milzef Befsehcidtntheif, Mai 170, 13; Zuchi u. Schäme^ 
ßtänt an der porte, u. liuotentj Hpt 2, 229; ze hant begreif sie 
dia Scham J Anegeuge 1 7, 3L 18| 22 ; diu Riuwe was sin froiiwe^ 
Parz. 80, 8; der Elwe tor 049, 28; diu Vuoge, Fliegel (p. 3 J 1 n.)* 
A fairy castle under cbarge of T agent, its 8 chambers with 
allegoric names painted by Stehle, is descr. in Geo. 5716 seq. 

p. 895.] The entire Roman de k Rose is founded on allegories; 
and in such there often lies a mjthic meaning. Before sunrise on 
Easter worw, appears the maid beside the founfaln mid the flowers, 
Hätzb 160'*; the lady that appears is approached bat once in ten 
years 143. 376; under a limetree in the wild wood, the fair ladij 
fvashes her hands 143**; a dwarf in the forest leads to the thre^^ 
Fates, H. Sachs v. 333^ or the teild ladtf leads one about 1, 272'^'*, 

In the Trobadors a singing bird allures the poet into a 

wood, where he finds three maidens chanting a threnody, Diez^a 
Leb. d. troub. p. 145. Fran IVUdecheit leads the bard by her 
bridle-rein to a level ground beside a brook, where Dame Justice, 
Mercy etc. sit judging, Conr. Klage der kunst; in his Schwan- 
Titter, Conrad says wllde avenliure, A poet snatches up his staff, 
comes upon a fair flowery field, where he meets the Minne-queen, 
Hagen 's Grundriss p. 438, or to a lovely child by a forest-fountain 
442. There is a similar description in Helbl, 7, 28 : the poet in 
the raomiog reaches a wild rocky waste, see 3 two ladies in white 
veils, Joy and Chivalry, waiting and wringing their hands; he 
helps them to their ffet when they faint, but now the Duchess 
of Kärnten is dead, they will go among 9nen no morCf they live 
thenceforward in the wild. Again, in Ls. 2, 2(59 : on a green field 
the poet finds Dame Honour fallen to the ground in a faint, also 
Manhood and Minne : they lament Count Wernher of Hon berg. 
Or take the Dream of seven sorrowing dames in MSH. 3, 171 — 3 : 
Fidelity f Modesty^ Cotirtesy, Chastity , Bounty, Honour and Mercy 
bewail the Diiringer and Henueberger; couf. the 'siben 
iibelen wibe, Vrdzheit, Unklusehe, GnteJieit, Zorn, Nit, Trdcheit, 
lloffart,' Diut. 1, 294 — 6. The ladies lanienUng the death of kings 
and heroes remind us of the klage-frauen, Mage-mtitter (p. 432), 
and the wood-wives ill-content with the world (p. 484). At the 
end of Euripides's Rhesus the mnse mourns the prince's death ; 



ID Od. 24, 60 tlie nine mum» come round the corpse of Achilles, 
and bewail his end. The lonely tower as the habitation of ancli 
beings occurs elsewh, too, as ^ turris Alethiae* in the Archipoetaj 
conf. ' Mens bona, si qua dea es, tiia me in gacraria dono/ Prop, 
ir. 24. 19. 

p. 896,] Dm Schande (disgrace) vert al über daz lanfcj MSH, 
3, 448^ j sfl hat din S, von ir vlnht, Kolocz. 129; ver 8., Renn. 
12231 ; swa vrö Ere wol gevert, daz ist tTo Schanden leit^ MS, 
2, 172; in Ä hoi verklfiset 2, 147\ Unere laden (invite dis- 
honour) in daz hfls, Uebel wip 815; llidiimven bant, Wtgal, 
10043; Unminne, MS., 1, 102*; UsigenmU (ill-will) but mich en- 
pfangen ze ingesinde (for inmate) 2, 51"^; Unbill (injustice) knocks 

at the door, Fischart in Vilmarp. 4; din Werre (p. 273 n)» 

Wendelmuat (Suppl. to 273 n.); conf. *frowe Annnot (povertj) 
muose entwichen, von ir hilse si flöch/ fled. Er. 1578; ez het 
din groze A. zuo im gehiU^t in den glet, diu A, mit jämer lit, 
WigaL 5691 ; sit mich din A. also jaget, Pass. 352, 89; das una 
schon reit (rode us) f ran Armut ^ H. Sachs i. 5, 523^; coiif. 'reib 
roich gross Ungedult/ impatience 524*^; frau Elend, llätzl. 157-8 
(there is a Fr, chap book about bonhomme Muere). Mi^scwettde 
von ir sprach, daz ir teil dtl niht en-waere, MS. 1, 84*; Mi'^se* 
vcnde diu im nilit geoähen mac 1, 85', We, wer wil nu Scn'gen 
walten? diu was min sinde (housemate) nu vil manegen tac 1, 

p. 898.] ^^M ffeo^, Hes. Op, 761-2; ^dßa carries rumours 
to Zeus's throne, Theocr. 7, 93. There is a Lat. phrase ; seit 
FarnQf seit cura deöm, Forcelh sub v. scio. Famaqne mgrantes 
snccincta pavoribus alan^ Claud. B. Get. 201 ; volat fama Caesaris 
velut velox equus, Archipo* ix. 30, 1, Rumour is to the Indian 
the song of a hy-ßoivti bird, Klemm 2, 132; a species of Angang 
therefore (p. 1128). Another phrase is: fama emanavii, Cic. 
Verr. ii. 1,1; manat tota nrbe rumor, Livy 2, 49^ So in German: 
daz maere wit erbratk, Pass. 285, 20, 7] , 41 ; daz m. was efgchotlen, 
Mai 228, 22. Lanz* 9195; von dem uus disiu m. er»chelle)}t (these 
rumours ring), Ecke 18; daz m, erschal in din lant überal, ez 
en-wart nUit also hegrahen^ Kolocz. 85; daz m, iiz schal (rang 
out), ilz quam, Herb. 14372-4; dese viare nie schot, Maerl. 2, 
203. 3, 340; alse die mare dus (abroad) üt spravg, Upt 1, 108; 
daz maere breiite sich (spread), Herb, 602. 1320» 17037, or: 



wart breit 2460. 13708; daai m. nd mien began, Tiirl. Wh. 28» 
die mare ghlnc hareotare, Maerl. 3, 190. Kiisto. 2, 1768; dass , 
maere witen kreis (ctrcalated)j Servat. 1856; die niemare liep 
(ran), Walewein 9513. 11007. Laoc. 35489 ; nymars lopf^ Lanc. 
26165; doe llep die niemare dor al difc laut 25380, 47053; die'^ 
mare Uep verre ende sere, Maerl. 3, 193 ; es komen neue maer 
gerani, WolkeDst. 63 ; daz m. wJten um me trat, sich nmme truoc. 

Pass. 22 Ij 93. 169, 32.- -In the same way: word is gone, Minstr, 

3, 92 ; sprang J^set wordj Homil, 384 ; dat ivard lep, Detm. 2, 348, 
358. 392, dat ruckte Icp, 2, 378. 39 L We say the rumour goes, 
is noised. Viel schiere vloitc (quickly flew) daz maere^ Ksrchr. 
957, '8415; sin in* vltmc witen in din lant. Pass. 204^ 24; von 
ir vlouö ein m,, Trist. 7292 ; daz m. vlouc dahin, Troj. 13389 ; 
Bchiere vhuc ein m, ersckolleti^ TürL Krone 68; d6 flitoc daz in. 
über mer. Herb. 13704; harte snel a. bait flouc daz m. ze Rome, 
Pilat. 398 ; diu sta^rken ni, witen vlitgim, Servat. 459 ; din m. vor 
in heim ßugen, 2393; do ßttgen din m, von hftse ze hÜse, Wigah 
84, 3. Ho: der seal (sound) ßouc in diu laut, RoL 215, 7; des 
vlouG stn lop (praise) über velt^ Hpt 6, 497 ; daz wort von uns 
fliugei über laut, Herzmaere 169 ; ON. sn fregn flijgr. More 
striking is the phrase : diu rtiaei'e man do vuorte {led) in ander ^ 
künege lant, Nib. 28, 3. Instead of maere : frou Mehle, Frau end. 
47, 29. Ksrchr. 17524; Melde kumfc, din selten ie gekc (lay still), 
MS, 2, 167*; if., diu nie gelac, MSH. 1, 166*; If., de noch nie 
en-lac, Kurlm. 159,43; dri jjlr so lac diu if.. Tit, 824; vermArt , 
in i/., Laoz. 3346 ; if. brach aus, Scbweini. 2, 262. Der wilde^ 
liumet was vür geflogen, Ti'oj. 24664; nu fluoc dirre liumi geltche 
über al daz künecrtche, WaltL v. Rh. 136, 43. i2f^wor = maere, 
Rudi 1, 128, 2, 80. 12L 173; Ramour speaks the Prol. to 
2 King Henry IV. Lastly: * qiddi managa biguDnun wahsan* 
reminds one of the growth of maere. 


900.] On the connexion of the idea of compodng with 

■f weaving i spinning, stringing , binding , tacking, see my 

3, 128-9,^ The poet was called a sniithf songsmith; in. 

do tnQrent Sasseuchr. p, 3 ; die Met aclmilren ^to sking) in Spee 299«. 



Rigveda 94, 1 : huncce hjmnam Agni venerabili, curmm velut 

^aber, paramus mente, Bopp^s Gl. 260*** With scuof, scop, 

poeta, conf, OHG. scoph-simc, poeais, Graff 6, 253 ; schöpf puck 

(-book), Karaj. 86, 6; in den schopf-buoiJwnf Ernst 103; conf. 

Lachni. on Singing p. 12 ; marrer scopf Tsrahel, e^egius psaltea 

Isr., Diut, 1, 512*. ^Witli ON. sJcdld-skapr should be men- 

tiooed an OHG. scaldo, sacer, Graff 6, 484; conf. Gmmtn, 2, 

997. HolUm» Nib, 170. The Neth. schouden is M.Nefch. AroMff^n. 

With the Romance terminology agrees * poi}s'v^=fiitdinge,' 

Diat. 2, 227'*; daz vand er (indited), Helmbr, 959; die vmclen 

conste, ende maken verse. Franc. 1919; de niakere, die de rime 

vant (invented) 1943 ; er vant diae rede, Mone '39, p. 53. 

AS. (Jidda y poeta, can bo traced in other Aryan tongnes : Sak. 

gadf dicere, loqui, gai, canere, gaiha, gi^^, caotiis; Lith. giedoti^ 

sing, giesme, song, Lett, dzeedaht, dzeesma ; Slav, gudu^ cano 

lidibns, gu^li^ psaltery, Dobrowsky p. 102. On the Celtic 

hard, see Diefenb. Celt. 1, 187; bardi, vates druidae, Strabo p. 

197 ; Bret, bardiilf nightingale. Ir. senrthon, chief bard. 

p, 901.] On the effects of song we read : )jaer wass kcth^ti 

dream, Beow. 987 ; huop ein liet an, u. wart fro, Hartm. 2, biichl« 

554; einen /nJ/*V;/i geigen (fiddle him into mirth), Wigal. p. 312, 

conf. 332. We often meet with AS. ^ giedd wrecan/ Cod. Exon» 

441, 18; 805 gied wrecan 306, 2. 314, 17; pmt gyd dwrmc 316 

20; )?e )?is gied iLTa'ce 285, 25 ; conf. vröude wecken, Tiirh Wh. 


p. 905.] The poet or prophet ia vvß4>Q\i}Trro^f seized by the 

nymphs (mnses), Lat. lymphatus. He ia go&*mäluyr, god- 

iiispired, Seem, o?** ; Gylfi gaf eioni farandi konu at laimum 

ßkemtüijar sinnar. . . . eu so kona var ein af ^ii<a aefi; hon 

er nefnd Gefiun, Sn. L Oandharva is a name for the musical 

sirits who live in lodra's heaven, Bopp 100**. G«id sends three 

»gels into the world as musicians ; and angel-jiddlers were a 

favoarite subject in pictures. We have the phrase : * der bimmel 

hangt voll geigen/ 

KütwftV = anbelitus creber, Sn. 69; see Biörn snb v. qvAair. 

Inditing if nUo expr. hyßUgea (to mortiae), richten (righten), Hpt 6, 497; richten, 
Euth. 48oii anJ concL ; 6enVi(*« » Freid. 1, 3; einea mezien^ Dietr* 190; wirken. 
Herb. (tUl; d&z liet ich anfi^fu (tiiok on) üf dlne gn&de volle. Mar. 148, 5 ; der diz 
m»**rw aiuchrtip (jotted down), Bit. 2006. The M. Neth. o«f/it»d<^« = translate, 
MiierL 3, 7^. 48; in dietaco wort ontb. 3ö2; in dietsch onbrtvU *2tii ; iu diütsoho 
onth.. Kose 29. Walew. 6; eoaf. AS. onband beado-rüne, Beow. 996. 




OSin's gpiith makes beer ferment {p* 102511.); ' g pit tie tbat 
»peBks drops of blood, ^ KM. no. 56, note. Lisch in Meckl. jrl>. 
5, 82; a door, when Jipat upon, answers, Miilienh. p, 399, coof, 
fugh hrdki (p* 682 beg.). On 'blood and anow/ see Dybeck H5, 
p. 69 : som hlod pa sntK Tho entire Mid. Age had a story run- 
ning in its head, with a playful turn to it, about a child made of 
snow or ice. The 10th cent, already had its 'modus Liehinc' ; 
an O.Fr. poem of the same import is in Meon 3, 215, a MHG. 
in hs, 3, 513 and Hpt 7, 377 ; in Scherz a, Ernst c. 251 (1550, 
183) the child is called eis-schmarre, scrap of ice, conf. Burc. 
Waldis 4, 71 and Weise's Erznarren p. 23. Franciscus makes 
himself a wife and child of snow, PfeifiTer's Myst. 1, 215. Who- 
ever drank of the dyri miÖÖr (precious mead), tho honey mixt 
with Kv&sir's blood, became a iskdld : thus the poet prays for a 
single irahen (tear) oat of the Camänae's fountain, Triat. 123, 

O^inn gains OShroerir fr, Suttilog, who then pursues him ; so 
Wäinäuiöinen, after winning Sampo, was chased by Louhi in 
eagle's shape (p, 873). OStnn himself says in Hävam&l 23** : 
' OShroerir er nu uppkominn fi alda ves iarSar,^ and in 24* it is 
said of him : * Suthhtg svikinn hann let numhli fra, ok graetta 
Guunlp^u* Other names for the drink : Yggs fnU^ Egilss. 656 ; 
Y(j({far fniöär ö57 ; VitTrisfidl 665 ; Vi^ns J^jifi 608. With arnar 
leir (eagle's dung) conf. leir-skaldj muck-poet, Dan. shamn-poet^ 
Olafsen's Prixe essay p. 5. Like the mead, Player Jack's soul 
is distrib. among gamesters. 

Like wS&'hora is soä-bora, also vates. The d in Goth, veitvodjt, 
testis, seems to exclude it, yet d and f^are sometimes confounded- 
P, Magnusen transl. O^hroeri in genii excitator ; Biorn makes 
Arcm obtnracnlum lebetis. On the relation of O^r to OSinn, see 
SuppL to 306. 

OSinn bestows the gift of poesy on StarkaJir. ' Apes Platonis 
infantuli tnel labiia inferebant,' John ot* Sidisb. de Nug, cur, 1, 
13. When St. Ambrose lay in his cradle, a sivarm cfbees settled 
on his tn&idlu The Muse drops nedar into the shepherd Ko- 
matas's mouth, and bees hving juice of flowers to it, Theocr. 7, 
60 — 89. Whom the Muses look upon at birth, he hath power of 
pleasant speech, Hes. Theog, 81 — 84. The gods breathe upon the 
poet, Ov, Met 1, 2-3-4, 



p. 906.] To Hesiod tending lambs, the Muses hand a spray 
^ laurel, and with it the gift of song, Theog. 22 — 30. la Lucianos 
het. praec. 4 he being a shepherd plucks leaves oti Helicon^ and 
there and then becomes a poet. The imxses come at early morn : 

Mirabar, quidnam miaiasent mane Oamenae, 

ant« meum stantes sole rubente torum ; 
natalis nostrae signiim misere puellae, 

et manibus fiiastos ter crepaere sonoa. Prop, iv, 9, L 

Conf. the story of the Kalmak poet, Klemm ä, 209. 210, and 
poor shepherds* viBion A of churches to be built (Supph to 86). 
UDS, 821. 

p. 908*] The first lay in Kanteletar relates the invention of 
the five-stringed harp (kantelo) of the Finns. Kalev. 29 de- 
scribes how Wäimimöinen makes a harp of various materials. 
Kallervo fashions a horn of cow*s bone, a pipe of bulFs horn, 
a flute of calves' foot, KaL Castr. 2, 58, When WäinämÖhien 
plays, the birds come flying in heaps, Kalev. 29, 217, the eagle 
forgets the yoiing in her nest 221. When Wlpnnen sings, the 
sun stops to hear him, the niooti to listen, Charles's wain to 
gather wisdom, wave and billow and tide stand still, Kalev. 10, 
449 — 457 ; conf. Petersb, exfcr. p, 11. In the Germ, folksong the 
water stops^ to list the tale of love, Uhl. 1, 223-4. 

Den ene begyndte en vise at qviide, 

saa faart over alle qvinder, 

striden gtröm den stiltes derved, 

Bom forre vor vant at riode. D V. 1^ 235. 

A song makes tables and benches dartce, Fornald. sog. 3, 222. 
KM, no. IIL Sv, tornvis, 1, 73. Stolts Karin with her singing 
makes men sleep or wakej Sv. vis. 1, 389 or datice 394-6. For 
the power of song over birds and beasts, see DV. 1, 282. Sv, 
via. 1^ 33, On Orpheus, see Hor. Od. i. 12, 7 seq.; conf. the 
Span, romance of Conde Arnaldos, 

p. 909.] Poets assemble on hills (as men did for sacrifice or 
magic), e.g. on the Wartburg : au pui, ou on corone les biaus 
dis, CouroD. Reiiart 1G76. Does the poet wear garlands and 
flowers, because he was orig. a god^s friend, a priest f The jeux 
floraux offer flowers as prizes for song : violeta, aiglantina, flor 


dal gauch (solsequium)* The rederijkers too name their rooms 
after flowers ; is it a relic of druidic, bardic usage ? 

p. 9U.] The ON. Sagti remiada one of the Gr. 0t}^7j, of 
whom Hes, 0pp. 762 declares ; 0€o^ vv Tt5 ia-ri Kal aiJrjJ. She 
conv-erses with OSiüti^ as ^etfta couveys rumours to Zeus {Suppl. 
to 898 beg.). Musa is reudered Mingerin, BarL 252, 7; Madete 
miisas, daz wareu »engereix (rhy. ereo)/ Herb. 178G5; but agaiD^ 

* muse^ 17876. Aventiure answers to bona fort una (bonne 

aventure), bona dea, bonus evmitus, Pliny 36, 5* Yarro RR, 1, 
1 ; vrouwe Aveuture, Lane. 18838; in the Rose the goddess 
Äventure = YoTtnnek 563 i, who has a wheel 3933, 4719. 5629. 
5864; V hus der Aventuren 5786. 5810-39 ; jonsie de Avonture, 
Stoke 1,39; maer d^ Aveuture was hem rjnimj Maerl. 3, 134; 
den stouten es houi d* Avenfure 2, 46^ like 'audacea forttina 
]uvat ' ; alse di die Av. es kout 2^ 93 ; der Aventuren vrienl, 



p. 913*] In Mone 6, 467 men are divided into living, hover ^ 
ingf doubffal and dead. Souls that cannot find rest in Hades 
and returning wander about the grave, are mentioned in Plato's 
Phfedop. 81. The dead were worshipped: sandoti sibi fingunt 
quodibet mortuos, Concil. Liptin, Feasts were held in honour of 
them, as the Pers. /m;er-/ea^i, Benfey's Monats-n. 151, the Rnss. 
corpse and sonl feasts, Laaicz 58, Souls were prayed for, Benf. 

Mon. 168-9, conf. soul-masses. Nib. 1221, 2, To near (not to 

remote) ancestors the Indians offered np food and drink, Bopp'a 
Gh p. 143^ n. 198». 79*»; conf. Weber on Malavik 103. One of , 
these sacrifices was Hdahi-karman, water-libation for the dead^ 
Bohtl. and Roth's Wtb. 1, 908 ; so x^^^ xuaOm Tratn vetcveatrt^ 
viz. meal, wine and water were poured into a hole, Od. 10, 517 — 
520. 1 Ij 25 — 29. The souls eagerly drink up the blood of victims, 
which restores them to their seases. Od, 11, 50. 89, 96-8. 148. 
■'.^3. 228. 390. The shades live on these libations, Luc. de luctu 
'I' be Lith. welts fern, means the ligures of the dead, Mielcke 
to the Samogitian goddess Vielona a particular kind of 



cake was offered : cum mortui pascantur^ Läsicz 48* 50. Food 
and drinJ: is laid ou the grave for the souls, Pass* 166, 84—93, 

Oa 7Han€if, Mania ^ see Gerh. Etr. g. 16; ' in mde Maiitum' — 
in the bosom of the earth, Pliny 83, 1 . On hires, see Lessing 8, 
251 J dome^ticn^ lar, haminfjtu, Saxo Gram. 74. 

p. 915*] Gehf^uerj not haunted, is also expr. by dicht ^ tight. 
Sup. I, 7t38 : uu bin ich unifeliinre, Wigal* 5831 ; I asked mine 
host^ wa3 he sare no ungeheuer walked the stable^ Simplic. K. 
1028 ; it is unclean in that house. Nürnberger 11. In Notker 
' manes ' is transl. by unholdon, in AS. by heU-waran (habi- 
tantes tartarum). 

Spuken (haunt, be haunted) is also called wafeln^ Kosegarten 
in Hof er 1, 377; AS* waßan, ON. vafra, vo/ra, mfa, MHG. 
waberen, ON- vo/ri = spec tru ra j AS. wcefer-^yne^ OHG. wahar- 
Äumf = spectaculum, Graff 6, 129, Kl. sehr, 5, 437. The dead 
lie ' heilir i haugij' at peace in the cairn, Hervar. p. 442 ; svä 
läti äss )?ik (God leave thee) heilan I haugi 437. They appear in 
churches at nuiht or in the dawn^ and perform services, wedding, 
burial, etc, ; the sight betokens an approaching death* Dietmar 
(Pertz 5, 737-8) gives several such stories with the remark : ut 
dies vivis, sic nox est concessa defunctis ; conf. the story in 
Altd. bl. 1, 160, a Norweg* tale in Asbiornsen's Huldre-ev. 1, 
122 and Seht^lliug's Last words of the vicar of Drottniug. As 
Wolfdietrich lies on Uts hier at jtighi, the ghosts of all whom he 
has killed come and fight him, Wolfd. 2328 — 34; conf. Ecke 23 
(differ* told in Dread. Wolfd. 327—330); also the tale of the 
ruined church with the coffin, Altd. bl. 1, 158* KM.^ no. 4, In 
the Irrgarten iJer Liebe the cavalier sees at last the ghosts of all 
kis lovers, p* 610. Such apparitions are said to announce them^ 
setvBBj sich melden, anmelderi, Schm. 2^ 570. Schonleithner 16, 
Conf. Diet. sub. v. * sich anzeigen/ 

Pp 915.] To ON. apfra-ffdnga add aptr-göngr, reditus, Eyrb. 
174, 314; ganger, Miillenh, p* 183. For * es geht um' they say 
id Bavmria ' es welzi dort,' Panz. Beitr, 1^ 98. Schm. 4, 205-6 ; in 
Hesse * e« wandert/ in the Wettaran * es wnnnert* conf. wanken, 
K^ineke 934; Neth. waren, rondwaren, conf. *in that room it 
won't let you rest,' Bange's Thiir. chron. 27^ The ON. draugr 
is nnconn. with Zend, drttcs, daemoD^ Bopp's Comp. Gr. p. 46* 

p. 910.] Instead of talamasoa^ we also find the simple data. 



larva, monstrumj Graff 5, 397 ; talmascke. De Klerk 2, 3474, 
The FiüD. talma (limus), lalraasca (macedo in lingöa)» baa only 
an accid. reseinbl. iu souüd. AS, Jivimeru, spectra, leuiures» 
lairae nocturoae, gedwlmor, praestigiator, geJwoimrt^Sj nebulonis, 
gedwomei^e, necromantiaj Hpt 9, 514-5. The MHG. getivtis agrties 
(better tlian with Lith. dwase) with AS. dwae^, stultus, for gefwda 
means stulfcus too, Eilh. Trist. 7144. 7200. 7300. Aii ON. 
skraveifa, fr. veifa, vapor^ and skrd obliqaus ? Vajnpires are 
dead men come back, who surk hltjo'l, as the Erinnyeä suck the 
blood of corpses J Aesch. Eiim. 174 [or the ghosts in the Odyssey]; 
conf. the story of the brown man, Ir. march. 2, 15. 

p. 918.] The Insel Felsenb. 3, 232 says of will o^ wisps: 
' from the God^s acre rise you flames^ the dead call me to join 
their rest, they loog for my company.' ON, hrcB-lios, corpse- 
light, hrtEVar-lloSf Jirojuar-ehL Vafr-logl, flickering flame, is seen 
about graves and ti-easures in graves (pp. 602. 971) ; conf. 
Sigurd's and Skirni's * marr, er mic urn myi-qvan beri vfsan 
vajrloga,' Saem. 82*,^ — ^Wandering lights are called 'das irre- 
diTifj ' — ghost, Schelmufsky 1, 151 ; der ftuer- ma tm. Pom er. story 
in Bait. stud. xi. 1, 74; brünntger numtt, Staid. 1^ 235; iaufmuie 
fackel, Ettn. Uuw. doctor p. 747. AS. dwds-Uht. M. Neth. 
dieafi^'fier, Verwijs p. 15; hchtei'-mane, Miilleuh, p. 246. Wend, 
hlmlutk^ Wend» volksl. 2, 260''; Lith. baliwijki^zle, Lett, leeks 
ngtjmt^j false fire; Lapp, fjolonjes, Liiidahl 475'^; conf. KM.* 3, 

19t>. ^On girregarj conf. Beham {Vienna) 377, 21; 'einen 

fjhren-fjarren enbor-richteu, einen teufliBcheo schrägen mit 
langem kragen/ Hag. Ges. Ab. 3, 82. The kobold^s name 
Lskrzfjcki is fr, SL iskra, spark ; and in Hpt 4, 394 the lüchte' 
mäunchen behave just like kobolda. In the Wetterau feurig 
gehn means, to be a will o' wisp. 

Xfnhapiized chUdren are cast into the fire^ Anegenge 2, 13. 11,^ 
'5, 12, 12; they go to Nohis-kvalten, Staid. 2,240; they shall 
not be buried in the holy isle (p. t>00 n,) ; vile si da vunden 
MterUch-er ktnde vor der helle an einem ende, da die müder wären 
mite t6t, Ed. 99, 12, whereas ' oitten (ab orionte) schulen diu 
westlr-büni in daz himihiche varn,' Karaj. 28, 12. Unchrtstened 
babes become ^^liztW^Ä^ (p. 475) , as untimely births become elbe 
(p. 1073); the uobaptized become white lettches, Bosquet 214, 
or kaitkas. Nessel m. 187''. 



p. 920.] The Lat. fttria is fr. fiirere, OHG. purjao, Diet. 2, 
6S4; it is rendered heUiiümna, Graff 1, 881 ; heil-icnterinf Schade'ö 
Pasq. 100, 9. 103, 25. 117, 79 with evideot reference to Wuotan 
and wüten to rage, uns ist dor tiuvel oaheo bi, oder daz wiietende 
her J Maurit, 1559 ; erst bob sich eia scharmutzoln (apose asoriin- 
niage), wie in eini itnlden heer, Ambras, lied, p. 151, UhL 1, 657. 
Other names for the Wild Host : die wlldo fahrig WolPs Ztschr. 
1,292-3; in Styria, das wilds tjjaid (hunt) 2, 32-3; in Bavaria, 
das gjoad, wUde gjoad, Panzer 1, 9. 16. 29. 37. 63. 85, 133; in 
Vorarlberg, das narJd-volk or wiiethtu, Vonbun p. 83; der wilde 
Jäger mit dem wüihU Iieer, GotthelFs Erz. 1, 221 ; in the Eifel, 
Wudes or Wodcs heer, Wolfs Ztschr. 1, 316. Firuieu. 3, 244'^ ; 
joijagd^jöjuifdf Odnabr. mitth. 3, 238 — 240, 

p, 924.] Ak im der tittvel jagete nach, Li vi. reimchr. 7274. 
The devil is called a weide7na7iy hunter, Merwund. 2, 22, and in 
return the wild-hunter in the Altniark is a hell-jeger, Hpt 4, 391. 
* Hark^ the wild hwiier, passing right over ns [ The hounds 
bark, the whips crack, the huntsmen cry holla ho ! ' Goethe's 
Götz V. B, 8, 149, conf. 42, 175. Fiscbart in Lob der laute p. 
100 had already made an adj. of the hunter's name : Ueckeibergiftch 
geechrei, biiffen u. blasen des jägerhorns; con P. supra {p. 924, 
1. 2) and Hachelberg in the Rbeinharts-wald, Landau*s Jagd p. 

190. Another version of the Hackelberg legend is given by 

Kuhn in Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 379 ; conf. supra (p. 146-7) . Can this 
be alluded to in a stone sculpture let into the wall of Dtesdorf 
church (Magdeburg country), representing a man whose left leg 
is appar. being wounded by a sow? Thiiring. mitth. vi. 2, 13 
and plate 7 no. 5. Somewhat different is the story of the one- 
eyed wild-sow, whose head laid on the dish gives the master of 
the hunt a mortal wound, Winkler's Edehn, 371. The whole 
myth resembles that of Adonis, and the Irish story of Diarmuid 
na mban p. 193. H. D. Müller (Myth» der Gr. stäinnie ii. 1,113) 
compares it to that of Action.—- — iJreaming of the 5u(ir, Rudi. 
10, 90. Waltharius 623; a boar wounds the Sun in hor cave, 
Rudbeck quoted in Tenzel and Mannling p. 205. Hackelherg 
must hunt for ever : alhie der lib, diu sele dort sol jngeii mit 
Harren (his hound) fiwicBchen, Laber 568. Of him who hunts 
//// the Judjfment'dag, Firmenich 1, 344. Miillenh. p. 58I-. In a 
Westph. folktale picked up orally by Kuhn, giants call to 



Hakelberg for help, he raises a storm, and removes a mill into the 
Milkii'Wfujj which after that is called the MiU-wofj. Id Catalonia 
they speak of * el viento dd cazador/ Wolf's Ztschr. 4, 191. In 
Frommann 3, 271 Holla and Ha<^kelhernd are associated io the 
Wild hunt, unless Waldbriihl stole the names out of the Mythology ; 
ia 3, 273 a * Geckenbehradea * of Cologne is brought in. Tiit- 
osel is fr. tufen^ bo-are, Diut. 2, 203^ ; rvrd ^ jXau^^ a souo tu tu. 
Lobeck 's Rhemat. 320. 

p, 927.] The wild bunter rides through the air on a ackimmel, 
white horse, Somm. p. 7; conf. BchimmeUreiter p. 160, Filling 
a boot with gold occurs also in a Hessian march en, Hess. Ztschr, 
4, 117, conf. Garg. 241» j shoes are filled with gold, Koth. 21^; 
a shoe-full of money, Panzer p> 3 3, 

The wild hunter is called Goi, Kühnes Westf. sag. 1, 8, and the 
durst in Switz. is sometimes gänthip.r, Staid. 2, 517; do they 
stand for Goden? Dame G^uden's carriage and dog resemble 
the Nethl. tale of the hound by the hell-car. Wolf p. 527. 

p. 930.] A man went and stood under a tree in the wood 
through which the wild hunter rode. One of the part if in passing 
dealt him a blow in the back with his axe, saying, ' I will plant 
mg Qjce in this tree;' and fr. that time the man had a hump» 
He waited till a year had passed, then went and stood under the 
tree again. The same person stept out of the procession, and 
said, * Now I'll take my axe out of the tree ; ' and the man was 
rid of Ins hump, Kühnes Nordd, sag. no, 69 ; conf. Bcrhta's 
blowing (p. 276-7), a witch-story in Somm* p. 56. Schambaeh 
pp, 179. 359, Vonbun p. 29 the schnänserli (36 in ed. 2). Wolfs 
D. sag. no. 348-9, Panzer 1, 17. 63. 

In the Fiehtel-gebirge the wild hunter rides without a head. 
Fromm, 2, 554 ; so does the wolen-jdger^ jolen-jäger, Osnab. 
mitfch. 3, 238—240; also the wild h. in the Wetterau, Firmen. 2, 
101 j he walks headless in the wood betw, 11 and 12 at noon, 
Somm. p. 7; the wild h, halts at one place to feed horses and 
hounds, p. 9. In Tirol he chases the Salg-ß^äuleinf WolPs Ztschr. 
2, 60. 35; he baits the loh-jungfer, Somm. pp, 7. 167; so giant 
Fasolt hunts the little wild woinun, EckenL 167. 173. 

p, 93L] Houses with their ß-ont and hack doors exactly 
opposite are ezpostd to the passage of the Furious Host (Meinin- 
gen), Hpt 3, 366 ; conf. the open house-door (p. 926-7), the 



siitiog over the door (p, 94.5 end). The keU-jdger's cry 'Wil ji 
mit jagen (hunt with us) ? ' is also French : * jiart en la (^ha896 ! * 
Bosq. 69. The story fr. W. Preussen is like a Samland one in 
lißeusch no. 70. 

lu Swabia the wild hunt is also called the mutige heer, Schwab's 
Schwab. Alp p. 312. Leader of the Muthes-heer is Linkenbold, 
who in the Harz is called Leinbohl, ibid, j there is a LinJceuhohh' 
lochle (-hole) there. However, in a Swabian poem of 1486 
beginning ' Got mercnrius/ the wild hunt is called ' das wilde 
wütiM-her.^ A frau Motte roams in Tharingia. 

At Ottobeuern lovely muste used to be heard at Christmas 
itime. If any one put his head out of window to listen, and to 
Tiew the march of Wuete, his head swelled to such a size that he 
could not pull it in again. The full deUciotis enjoyment was had 
by those who kept snugly behind closed doors. The procession 
passed along the fron- weg up the Guggeiiberg, or into the deviFs 
hole at the Büschel, where a treasure lies guarded by the poodle. 
On this delimous music of the night-fulk, see Vonbun p. 35. 

p. 933.] Unchristened ififnnts are the same as the subterra- 
neans and mosa-folk, whom Wode pursues and catches, conf. 
p. 483 and MuUenh. p. 373. The child's exclamation, * Oh how 
warm are a mother^s hands ! ' is like those of the gi pay -wo man ^ a 
child, ' There's nothing so soft as a mother's lap 'and ' there's 
nothing so sweet as a mother's love,' Miillenh. no. 331 ; Lith. 
motiuös rankos szwelnos, mother's hands soft, Mielcke 1, 284, 
Kraszewski's Litva 1, 389. In Germ, fairy-tales the dead mother 
comes in the night to nurse her children, KM.* 3, 21 ; conf. 
Melusine, Sim r. p. 80, Miillenh. no. 195-6-7 ^ hverl fell IddÖ'tujt 
ä briost grami, Saem. 167^; a similar passage in Laxd. saga p. 

The wild host, like the dwarfs, get ferried over ; the last that 
lags behind is girded with a rope of straw, Panz. 1, KU, 

p. 935.] De la danza aerea 4 que estÄn condenadas las Hera" 
diadag por la muerte del bautista, Wolf's Ztschr. 4, 191, In 
Wallachia Diwa (Zina) — Diana with a large following hunts in 
the clouds, and you see where she has danced on the gmss ; she 
can strike one lame, deaf or blind, and is esp. powerful at Whit- 
auntide, Wal. ralirch. 296. 

p. 936.] An Eckehart occurs also in Dietr. 9791, Ou the 



Vefinsberg, see Simr* Änieltmgen-l, 2^ 315. Wo find even in 
Altswert 82 : dirre berc was fro Veun^, conf. 80, 9, 83, 7, H* 
Sachs 1ms Venmherif iii. 3, 3^ (yr 1517)- ^^ (1518). IS»^ (1550). 
A witch- trial of 1 ö20 says : auf Ve nether g oder Paradies faren, 
Mone 7, 426. There is a Venu»hQ by Keichmannsdorf in Grä- 
fenthal distr. (MeiniDgen), near Saalfeld. A M.Neth, poem by 
Limb. 3, 1250. 1316 says Venus dwells in ih^foreaf. The earliest 
descript. of the Uorselberg is by Eoban Hessus in BucoL idyl. 5, 
at the beginn, of the 16th cent, : 

Aspic is at'iio sub latum vert ice moo tern, 

qua levis occidui deflectitur aura Favoni, 

Horrhonma Latio vicinua nomine dicit (by a Latin name), 

qui Nessura bibit undosum Yerarimque propinquum* 

Isthoc ante duas messes cum saepe veuirem^ 

ignarns nemorum vidi discnrrere larva» 

sax a per efc montes, tanquam nocturna vagautes 

terriculamenta, et pueros terrere paventes, 

quas lamias dicunt qnibus est exenipiile lumen, 

quas viglhs aiunt extra sua liinina lyncas 

esse, dunii talpas, nee quenquam cernere nee se. 

Conf* Victor Perillus^^s poem on the UorstdberiJ, yr 1592 (Jrb. d. 
Berl, spr. ges. 2, 352-8) ; it is called Ease! berg and Hörgdbg in 
Bangers Thiir. chron. 1599, p* 57-8, Songs about Tanhänser in 
Uhl. no. 297, and Mono's An», 5, 109 — 174; a lay of Danhäuser 
is mentioned by FeL Faber 3, 221. 

p, 937.] At the death of our Henry 6, Dietrich von Bern 
appears on horseback, rides through the Mosel, and disappears, 
H8, p. 49. In the Wend, volksl. 2, 267^^ the wild hunter is 
called Dgter-bemat, Dyter-benaifa, Dtfke-heniak, Dyke-hjadnat, 
In one story 2, 185 he is like the Theodericus Veronetisis whom 
the devil carries otf. Diter Benihard in Dasent's Theophilus 80 ; 
hrand-adem (barren streaks) on the plains are called by the 
V^'^ends Dyter'beniatowjf pnr, D/s path. Yet, ace. to Panzer 1, 
67 it is ikfruiffui season when the wilde gjai has been ; and where 
the Rodensteiner has passed, the corn »taudii higlierj Wolf p. 20. 
The wild host goes clean through the bam, Panz. 1, 133. 

p. 93y.] As early as the First Crusade (1096) it was asserted 
that Cai*l had woke np again: Karolas resuscitatus, Pertz 



215; conf. the kaiser ia the Guckenberg near Gemiind, Bader 
no* 434^ and the Karlsber^ at Nüroberg, no. 48 L 

p, 94i),] On SchnelhriH, see Panzer 1, 194 and the everlaHtuig 
ht$nier of Winendaelf Kunst en letterblad '41, p. 68. Reiflenb, 
Renseign. 214* The setting-out of a carrimfe ivith three tvheeh 
and a long-nosed driver is descr. in the story of the monks cross- 
log the Rhine at Spire, Meland, 1, no. 604 (p. 832). Oopkie eqiies- 
tres are seen near Worms in 1098, Melaiid. 2, no. 59 ; battahons 
sweeping through the air in 1090, Pertz 8, 214; conf. Dionys. 
Halic. 10, 2 ; higher up in the clouds^ two great armies marching, 
H. Sachs iii 1, 22 7\ 

p. 94a.] Something hke Heme the Hunter is Hfirna the 
Hunter^ otherwise called Harry-ca-nabf who with the devil hunts 
the boar near Bromsgrove, Worcest. (Athenaeum). The story of 
the Wunderer chasiog Frau Saelde is in Keller's Erz. p» 6; conf, 
Pastn. sp. 547. Schimpf u. ernst (1522) 229. {1550} 268. 

p. 946.] Where Od en 'a lake (On-sjö) now lies, a stately 
mansion stood (herre-gard), whose lord one Sunday wmit a hnnt- 
iuy with his hounds, having provided himself with wine out of 
the churchy to load his gun with, and be the surer of hitting. 
At the first shot his mansion sank out of sight, Runa '44, 33. 

Here the huntsman is evid. Oden himself* Among the train 

of GuYo rysseromi ( = Gudron the horse-tailed, Landstad pp. 121. 
131-2) is Sigurd Snaresvend riding his Grant (Faye 62). The 
members of the troop go and sit over the door: tlie like is told 
of devils, who lie down in front of lU-hiiti^er where drinking, 
gaming, murdering goes on, Berthold p, 357 ; and of the 
Devil, who sits during the dance, H. Sachs 1, 342'*''; 'setz nur 
die seel auft überthur^ Üi. 1, 261 ; sein seel setz er uff über thür, 

lats mit dem teufel beissen, Simpl. pilgram 3, 85, ^Northeru 

names for the spectral procession are : oskareia, haafika^Uraia, 
juiei'kreia, skreia. Ash. og Moe in the Univ. annaler pp. 7, 
41-2; julaskreiHj julitskreid-i, o»kerei, oskorrei, dalifarei, jolareiae, 
A&seu's Pröver 27*8. 31; conf, ThorsreiS (p. 166) and hti^preif 
hespreif thunder. Lapp, julheer, Klemm 3, 90. 

p. 949 n.] The very same is told of Örvarodd as of Oleg, 
Fornald. s. 2, 168*9. 300; conf. a Transylv. tale in Haltrich^s 
Progr. p. 73. 

p. 950.] On Uolda^s sameness with Fricka, see Kl. sehr. 5, 


416 seq. The Gauls too sacrificed to AHe-mist Aman de Venat» 
c. 23. 32. Hecate triviorom pnteses, Athen. 3, 196 ; men took 
a sop with them for fear of the cross-roads 2, 83, for Hecate^ s 
hounds 7, 499 ; 'E/cdT7)<; heiirvop means the bread laid down where 
three roads met, Luc. DiaL mort. 1 and 22 (note on Lucian 2j 
397) ; feros Hecatae perdoniuisse cane^, TibulL i. 2, 54, 

p. 950.] The appalling guise of the Barii (GDS. 714) recalls 
our death's-head cavaliers. At the outset of the Thirty -years 
War there were Bavarian troopers called Invincibles, with black 
horses, black clothing, and on their black helmets a white death's- 
head ; their leader was Kronberger, and fortene favoured them 
till Swedish Bauer met them in Mecklenburg» March 1631* 
Frederick the Great had a regiment of Deafch's4iead Hussars. 
In recent times we have had Lützow's Volunteers, the Black 
Jägers, the Brunswick Hussars. Does a coat-of-arms with a 
death's-head occur in the days of chivalry ? We read in Wig&l, 
80, 14: an sinem Schilde was der Tot gemalt vil grüsenliche 
(Suppl. to 850). Remember too the terror-striking natae of the 
legio fulminatrix, K€pavvoß6Xo<i. Secret societies use the symbol 
of a death^s-head ; apothecaries mark their poison-boxes with the 


p. 952*] 7«rtt5Ü/fKcA^n is also exsecrari, abominari. OS. farwa- 
fan, devovere, OllG, far wazaft^ withar-hndzan^ recusare, Graff 1, 
1087, As abomiuari comes fr* omen, so /ar-hndtan fr. kvdt, 
omen (SuppL to l]05n.)* Beside the Fr. souhaii (which G^nin 
Recr. 1, 201 would derive fr. sonhait, as convent fr, convent, 
etc.) we have also ti Art /Ä in Thib. de N., and the simple haii — 
luck, wish. For its root, instead of OHG. heiz, ON. heit, we 
might take the Bret, hetr GiOeL aiYea^ = pleasure. De sohait, de 
dehn i/ , G u i tec 1 . 1 , 1 09 . 

Disappearing (verschwinden) and appearing again are at^aifrf 
yeuenOai and <})av€pov jeviiOat^ Plato's Hep, 360. Frequent is 
the phrase * to vanish mider one's hand ' ; conf. the clapping of 
hands in cases of enchantment (p. 1026) : thaz tha hiar irwunti 



mir untar theni henti, 0. i. 22, 44- j verswant den luten under den 
handelt j Griesh, Spraclid, 26 [Late examples omitted] ; ze haut 
verswant der kleioe, Ortoit 14t, 4; vile schiere her verswant von 
Strien otigen zehant^ daz lier en-westej war her bequam, En. 2021 ; 
vor iren ougeii er virswant, Hpt 5, 533; verswant vor 8inen oiigen, 

Krone 29606 [SimiL ex. om,].- Der engel sk vor im verswant, 

Wh* 49j 27; d6 der tiuvel hin verswant, BarL 3027; du der 
winder gar verswant, Fraaend. 409, 1 7 ; solde ein wip vor leide 
sin verswnnden MS. 1, 81'* ; der hirz vorswant, Myst. 1, 233; in 
den wint gahes (suddenly) verswondeo, Mar. 159, 7 ; daz ver- 
swant mit der luft^ Pass*. 369, 91 ; der engel mit der rede verswant, 
Hpt 8, 171 ; the devil says Meli muoz verswioden,' MSH. 3, 
174*: 'von hinnan stet min begirde (desire), Got müeze dich in 
huote län ! * alaus #tö^n diu gezierde, Diufc. 2,251-2; Sant. Ser- 

vace dd verfiwein, Servat. 3317 [Ex, om.]. Voer ute hären 

ogen, Karel 2, 990; de duvel voer dane ahe en roc (smoke) te 
scouwene ane, Maerl. 2, 237 ; Var-in-d^wand, N. pr. ring 33^, 
30* 86% 28. 36. To begone^ OHG. huerhaji, ON. hvcrfa: OSina 
hvarf |jä, Stern . 47; oc nu hverßtr |>essi alfur sd sem akwj'ji, 
(as a shadow), Vilk, c. 150j brottu harßnn, ibid. ; ^J |4 burf, 

Fornald, s, 1, 488, conf. setjkvaZj sink away, Sfflm. 10"', 229^. 

The translated sleeps like Kronos p* 833 n. ; Gawan falls asleep 
on a table in the Grals-halle, and awakes next morning in a moss, 
Keller's Romvart 660. Vanishing is often preceded by thunder : 
ein grozer »lac, Heinr. n. Kun. 4215. Erf. march. 84, 160; 
' there came a crash (rassler), and all was sunk and gone/ Panz. 
1,30; Gangleri hears a thunder, and Valhöll has vanished, he 
stands in the fields, Sn. 77» 

p. 953,] The shepherd Gyges steps into a crack of the earth 
made during storm and earthquake, finds a giaut'a corpse inside 
a brazen horse, and draws a ring oft* its hand, Plato*s Rep. p. 369, 
Translation is imprecated or invoked in the following phrases : in 
te rnant montos mali. Plant. Epid. i. Ij 78; Kara tt/c yi)^ Sj/vat 
rfij(^6fi7}y, Lucian 3, 156. 5, 202 ; ^ami^ fiot ttjv jf}p t^vj^o^tjp 9, 

68. 8, 18. Ot?dipus is swallowed up by the earth, Oed. CoL 

1662. 1752 ; conf. ' iflipping in like the schwick ' (p. 450 d.) ; die 
lu/te mich veri^lunden, Hpt 5, 540 ; Xaap edriKe, II. 2, 319 ; \i$o^ 
i^ äv&pmiTOv yeyovivaif Lacian's Imag. 1 ; der werde z*eitiem 
äieine ! MS. 1, G* ; hon (Gobrun) var buiu til at s^mmja af harmi, 



Seem. 211 I du-ne hetest ditz gesprochen, du waerst benameo re- 
hroeheiif Iw. J53. We talk of burating with rage (p. 552 n.), i.e., 
ill order to jump out of our skia : er wolte aus der baut fahren, 
Salinde 13. 

p. 958.] Ä fnutsJated hero h spoken of as early as 1096 : Inde 
fabulosum illud confictum de Carolo mufiito^ quasi de mortuis iu 
id ipsum re^uscitaio, et alio tjea^cio quo nihilominus redivtvo (before 
Frederick I. therefore), Pertz 8, 215 {Suppl. to 939). FrGihrick 
is supposed to lie at Trifels in the Palatinate also^ where his bed 
is made for him every nigbt, SchlegePs Mus. 1, 293. Then the 
folktales make Otio R^dbeard also live in the Kifhäu.ser, and. give 
bim frau Holle for housekeeper and errandwoman, Somraer pp. 1 . 
Ö. 104; he gives away a green twi<jf which turna into gold, p. 2 ; 
m the mountain there is skiUle-phiying and 'sclanariikeln/ p. 4, 
A legend of Fredk Redbeard in Firmen. 2, 201*. A giant has 
jilept at ihs utone-tfihle in the mountain these 700 years, Dyb. 
Runa *47, 34-5. Not unlike the Swed. folktale of a blind giant 
banished to an island are the stories in Runa '44, pp. 30. 43. 59. 
60 : in every case the helf given is stnipped round a tree (conf. 
Panzer 1, 17. 71. 367), but the other incidents differ. Such 
giants call churches de hvita klock-märrarna 4, 37, and the bell 
hjeUeko, Dyb, '45, 48. '44, 59 j the blind grej old man reminds 
one of Oden. Ace, to Praetor. Alectr, p. 69, Kaiser Frederick 

seems to have cursed himself into the ' Kiphiiuser.' On the 

Frederick legend, see Hpt 5, 250—293. Closener p. 30-1 (yr 
1285). Böbmer's Reg., yr 1285, no. 830, conf. 824-6. Kopp^s 
Rudolf pp. 736—749. Detraar 1, 130 (yr 1250). Of Fredk 
the Second, the Repgow. chron. (Massm, 711) says straight out : 
' hi deu tiden sege-men dat storm keiser Vrederic ; en del Volkes 
segede^, he levede; de twivel warede lange ttt; ' conf, ibid. 714. 
Another name for the auricula is herg-kaincrleln ; does it mean 

the wonder-flower tliat shows the treasure ? Fischart's 

Geschicht-kh 22** says : anff dem ket/s^^r Fridet^ich sian ; Schiller 
120"' (?) : und nebenher hatten unsere kerle noch das gefundene 
fressen über den altm kaistr zu plündern, FhiL v. Sittew. 
Soldatenl. 232 : fressen, saufen, prassen auf den alten Jceyser hinein. 
Alber tin i's Narrenh. p. 26i ; heuraten avf d, a. fc. hineift, 
Schmeller 2, 335-6 : immer zu in d. a, kawer hinein sündigen, auf 
d. a. k, /u>kiT// sündigen, zechen, i.e. without thinking of paying. 


p. 961.] The sleeping Fredk reminds one of Kronos sleeplttg 
in a cave, and htrdit bringing him amhrosuif Plut, De facie in orbe 
Innae 4, 1152-3 (see p. 8-33 n*). Arthur tcto und the knights of 
the Grail are ötiut up in a mountain, Lohengr. 179. Lanz. 6909» 
Grarin de L. 1, 238; si jehent (they say) er lebe noch hiute, Iw, 
14. Raynouard sub v. Artus. Caösarius heisterb. 12, 12 speaks 
of rex Arclurus m Monte Giber (It. moute Gibello) ; conf, Kaufm, 
I p. 51 and the magnet-mountain ' ze Givers/ Gndr. 1135-8, 564 
(KM.* 3, 274), Other instances: kontg Dan, Mullenh. no* 505; 
the count of Flanders, Raynonard 1, 130*; Afarko lives yet in 
the wooded mountains, Talvj l,acxvi. ; so does the horse Bayard. 
On the search for Svatoplak, Swatopluha Jdedati, see Scbafarik 
p. 804, 

p. 968.] The while lady*s huneh of heys is snake-bound, Pan- 
der 1,2* A white waiJeji with keif.^ m Firmen, 2, 117 ; tlrei untie 
jmnfern, Hpt 4, 392 ; three white ladies in the enchanted castle, 
Aroim's March, no. 18; conf. the Slav, vilas and vlUy, spirits of 
brides who died before the wedding-day, who bold ring-dances 
at midnight, and dance men to death, Hanusch pp. 305. 415; 
dancing williSf Mailath'a Ungr, march. 1, 9; Lith. weles, figures 
of the dead. 

p. 909.] A certain general plants an acorn to make his roßn 
of, Bttn. Chymicna 879. There is some Hkeness betw. the story 
of Release and that of the Wood of the Cross, which grows out of 
three pipa laid under Adam's tongue when dead. That the pip 
mast be brought by a little bird, agrees with the rowan sapling 
fit for a wishing-rod, whose seed must have dropt out of a bird's 
bill (Suppl. to 977 beg.), and with the viacnm per alvnm avium 
redditum (p. 120(>) ; conf. the legend of the Schalksburg, Schwab's 
Alb* p. 32. You must fell a tree, and make a cradle out of it; 
the first time a baby cries in that cradle, the spell is loosed, the 
treasure is lifted, H. Meyer^s Züricher ortsn. p. 98 ; conf. the tale 
in Panzer 2, 200. 159. Other conditions of release: to draw a 
waggon up a hill the wrong way, to buy a piece of linen, to hold 
the white lady's hand in silence, Reusch p. 437 ; with your month 
to take the key out of the snake's mouth, Firmen. 1, 332 ; to kiss 
the worm, or the toad, or the frog, wolf and snake, Miilleuh. p. 
580. Somm. Sagen p. 21. Meyer's Züricher ortsn. p. 97, 

p, 97L] Men do bury treasures in the groxutd: the Kozacks 



are said to keep all their money underground ; thieves and 
robbers bury their booty, dogs and wolves pieces of meat* The 
Marsiaos buried the Roman eagle they had captured io a grove, 

whence the Romans dug it out again, Tac. Ann. 2, 25. The 

treasure is called leg*>^'-horf , Renn. 17687. 2505; ON. faurar — 
thesauri, opes reconditae. ' Shogs not the treasure up toward 
me, That shining there behind I see?' Goethe 12, 193, The 
treasure hhtomSj Pansser 1, 1 ; ^ for buried gold will often shift 
about/ Irrgarfc, d, liebe 503 ; the cauldrons sink three ells a year, 
Dybeck 4, 45. Once in 100 years the stones off the heath go 
down to the sea to drink, and then all treasures of the earth lie 
open, so that one need only reach them out ; but in a few winters 
they come back, and crush those who donH get out of the way in 
time, Bret, march. 88 — 93. The treasure suns itself, Panzer 2, 
16. 30. It cools (glüht aus), Müllenh. p. 203-4. Treasure-gold 
turns to coal J Lueian's Timon 1, 110. Philops. 7, 284 ; conf* the 
legends of Holla, Berhta^ Fredk Barbarossa and RubezaL The 
roah of a glowing treasure turn to gold, Rouscli no. 25-6-7- 
GliJnmerinfj fire and coals of a treasure, Dieffenb. Wotterau p. 

275* Signs of a treasure : when a hazel bears mistletoe, and a 

white snake suns himself, and treasure-fire burns, Reusch no. 15. 
Where treasures lie, a blue fire burns (Hofmannswaldau), or light 
finds its way out of the earth, Leipz. avent. 2, 40 ; it swarms 
with insects, etc. (pp- 692-4).— — The treasure-lifter is stript and 
plunged up to his neck in water in a tab, and is left till midüight 
to watch for the coming of the treasure, Cervant. Nov. de la 
gitauilla p. m. 106. A beshouted treasure sinks^ Wetteran tale 
in Firmen. 2, 100 ; conf. AS. «m(3 = thesaurus, opes. Some good 
stories of treasure-lifting in Asbiörusen's Huldr. 1, 142-3-4. 
Ghosts have to give up buried weapons ; saemir ei draugam 
dj^rt vapu bera, Fornald. s. 1, 43G. A connexion subsists betw. 
treasures and graves : the hauga eldar, grave-fii'es, indicate 
money, Egilss. 767. The hoard does^io^ diminish : sin wart doch 
niht Tuinre, swie vil man von dem schätze truoc, Nib. 475, 12. 

p. 972.] The woiider-flower is said to blossom either on Mid- 
summer night alone, or only once in 100 years. If any one, 
having spied it, hesitates to pluck it, it suddenly vanishes amid 
thunder and lightning; conf. brifcaonica (p. 1195-6), fern (p. 
1211). Preusker 1, 91-2. Before the eyes of the shepherd's 



mau a woivler-flowe)* *jVQWn up suddenly out of tlie groond ; he 
pulls it, and sticks it in his hat ; as quick as you cao turn your 
hand, a gre>j juannikin stands there^ and beckons him to follow ; 
or else, the moment the flower is stuck in the hat, the white todif 
appears, Firmen. 2, 175, The wonder*flower gets caught in the 
shoe- buckle, Somm. p. 4, as tcrQseed falls into the shoes (p, 
1210), and also ripens or blossoms on Midsum. nighty pp. 4. 16r5. 

It is called ischlÜHfidbhinie, Panzer 1, 833, wunderhlutne, 

Wetterau. sag. p. 284. Phil, v. Steinau p. 77; Pol. dzlwaczeh, 
Boh. ditimjk, wondertiower. The three hlne flowers effect the 
release^ Firmen. 2, 201** A Schleswig story makes it the yellow 
flower, and the cry is; Forget iwl the l^esf, Miillenh. p. 351. 
Another formula is: ' wia meh as da verzotarist (scjuanderest), 

om sa minder host/ Vonbon p. 5,^ As early as the 15th cent, 

vergUge min nit occurs as the name of a flower, Altd, w. 1, 151 ; a 
gloss of the time has: verffUg-mein-nicht alleluja, Mone 8, 103; 
vergia-man-fHcht garaandria» ibid, Vergus nit mtdn is a bine flower, 
Uhl. 1, 60, lOB. 114-6, 129; bluralein verghs nit mein, Ambras, 
liedh* pp, 18. 251, Bergr. 37. 70 j bliimelain vergim ni mala, 
Meinert 34 j vrrgiss mein uu:ht, Menante's Gal. welt p. 70 • 
Svfed. f org at' mig-f'j, Dybeek '48,28; Boh. nc^zapomhihi^ Pol, 
hie-zapominka, Russ. ne-zabadka, conf, Weim. jrb, 4, 108; das 

blümlein wunderschön, Goethe 1, 1^9.^ The h*^el cut off him 

that hurries away, Firmen. 2, 1 76. In a story in Wiichter's 
Statist, p. 176-6 tlie wounded heel never heals. A proverb says: 
'Tis what comes after, hurts your heel, 

p. 974»] The spring-wnrzel is in OHG. sprinc-wurz^ lactarida, 
lactaria herba, Grafi* 1, 1051, or simply itpriufja 6, 397. Does 

ritf diderit (usu, diterich^ picklock) also mean a spring- 
worzel? Firmen. 1, 271. The springw. or wonderflower is 
sometimes called bird^» nest, Fr. nid d'oi^ean, plante aperitive, 
vuln^raire, qui croft an pied des sapins ; it opens boxes (folktale 
in Mune 8, 539), and makes invisible, DS* no. 85. Again, it is 
called zwettdatt, bi/ogUo, and is picked ofl" the point of bifurcation 
in a tree ; does it mean a parasite-plant like the misletoe ? It 
must have been regarded as the nest of a sacred bird : thns of 
the nskin's tiest it is believed that the bird lays in it a small 
precious stone to make it invisible, Hpt 3, 361 ; conf. Vonbun's 
Vorarlbg 63 ; Boh. hnjzdnjk, ophrya nidus avis, ragwort, PoL 




gniazdo ptasze (see Linde 1^ 728**). On the gyeen-pecker^ Pr. 

pivert, see Am. Bosq. p» 217-8, and bauni^heckel, Mnsäcis 2, 108; 
picos divitiisj qui aureos inontea colunt, ego aolua supero, Plaut* 
AolaL ir. 8, 1. On the legend of the shamir, couf. Hammer's 
Rosenöl 1, 251. Altd, w, 2, 93. Pineda's Salomon (Diemer 
p. 44), aamir. Diem. 109, 19 ; ihanir^ Gerv. Tilb. Ot. imp. ed- 
Leibu. p, 1000; /A amar. Vine. BeUovac. 20, 170; iamin, Maerl. 
in Kästner 29", In Griesh. Predigt, p. xxv. is the story of the 
ostrich 2, 122. 

p. 977-] The Swed. slag-ruia is cut off the ß^g-rönn, bird's 
rowan (or serme) tree^ whose seed has fallen fr. the beak of a 
bird, Dybeck '45, 63 ; it must be cut on Midsummer eve out of 
mistletoe bougliSj Runa ^44^ 22. "^45, 80. Dan. önske-qülift, Engl, 
divining-rod, findmg-dkk. Germ, names : der Saelden zwic, 
Altsw; 119, 127, couL uogeliickes zwic (SuppL to 879 end); 
gtuvks-ruthe, Lisch in Meckl. jrb. 5^ 84 ; ivünschel-rnoie sunder ^ 
awisel (without cleft), MSH. 2, 339^ j wunschel-i^, Tit. 2509, 
5960-82, w. über alle küneginne, 1242, wänji^chöl'herndez rft 
1728; alles beUea u/MiiÄc/^'^-m, Troj. 2217 ; mins heils wün^cheU 
ruoiet Altsw* 118; der wüuHchel-ruoten hört, Dietr. drach. 310*. 

Nu hiit gegangeti miner künste ruote, MSH, 3, 81^ The idea 

of the wishiug-rod was not borrowed fr, Aaron's magic wand ; 
on the contrary, our poet of the 12bh cent, borrows of the former 
to give to the latter : Nim die gerte in dirw hant, worcbe zeiohen 
manikvalt; ze alien ditKjen ist sie guot, »we» gu wnusget dm muoL^m 
Not a word of all this in Exod. 7, 9 ; the wishing-rod however^H 
did DOb serve the purposes of harmful magic. Conf. the virgula 1 

diviiLa^ Forceil. sub v. ; Esth. pilda, GDS. 159. The wishing- I 

rod must have been cut at a fitting time ami by clean bands, I 
Kippe die wippe 1688, D 4^ : it is a hazel-rod, and holy, Vonbun 
pp. 6. 7. 64; a hazel-bough, Fromm. 3, 210; a white sonier^ 
laden hedtn dab, Weisth. 3, 411. 4GL Stories of the wishing- J 
rod in Kuhn p. 330. Müllenb, p. 204 j of the old wiiuschel-stock, I 
ib. no. 283. On the manner of holding it> see Hone's Yearbk ] 
1589. It is culled schlag-ruths because it anschlagt, hits [the nail 
on the head] ; hence sieget, cudgel? conf. Parz. 180, 10—14, 
and the hazel-rod that cudgeh the absent (Suppl. to G51 end). 

p, 977.] One must drive a white he-goat through the stable, 
to hft a treasure that Ues there, Hpt's Ztschr. 3j 315. 




•^.980.] The devil is by the treasure^ and he is blind too, like 
Platiia (SuppL to 993). The Ssk. Kuvera, a hideous beings is 
god of wealth. Bit- is the same as divil-. Pott 1, 101. When 
money is buried, the devil is appointed walehjiianf Miiileoh, p. 
202«3, or a gretj man on a ikreeAegged white horse guards it 102. 
Finn, aarni or kraitl is genius thesaurij coiif. mammeJahien below. 
AS. wyrm honlen htjrdß, Beow. 1 767. Fafnir says : er ek ä arfi 
Id (on the heritage lay) tnikloin tuJns fo^or, Ssem. 188^; me^an 
ek urn tnenjom lag, ibiJ. * Laauvium armosi vetus est tutela 
draconis ; ' maidens bring him food : 

Si fuerint castae, redeant in coUa parentum, 

clamantque agricolae 'Fertilis annus erit ! ' Prop, v. 8, 3. 

Dragons ^un their gold in fine weather. Buna *44, 44, like the 
white maiden.s. Some good stories of the roving dragon in 
Mullen h. p. 206 ; eonf. the dragon of Lambton, Hpt 5, 487 ; be 
is also called the drakel, Lyra p* 137, the wlieat-dragon, Firmen. 
2, 309. The n. prop. Otwurm in Karajan begins with Ji^ead, 
conf. ot-pero. Heimo finds a dragon on the Alps of Carniola, 
kills him and cats his tongue out; with him he finds a rich 
hoard : locnm argentü septum possedit^ in quo aurea mala habiiit, 

Mone 7, 585 fr. Faber's EFagatoriam. W. Grimm (HS. p. 

385-6) thinks the rittg Aiidvarc^naut was the most essential part 
of the hoard, that in it lay the gold-engendering power and the 
destiny, but German legend put in its place the wlHhing'rod ; 
note however, that öuch power of bi'eeding gold is nowhere 
ascribed to Andvara-nant Sigurd first gave it to Brunhild 
(Fornald. s. 1, 178), thon secretly pulled it off again (187). 
Siegfried in the German epic, after winning the treasure, leaves 
it in charge of the dwarfs, does not take it away therefore, but 
gives it to Chriemhilt as a wedding-gift, and as such the dwarfs 
have to deliver it up. Nib. 1057 — 64, Once it is in Günther's 
land, the Bnrgundians take it from her, and Hagen sinks ic in 
the Rhine 1077, 3 ; conf. 2305-8. Hagen has merely bidden it 
at Locbbeim, intending afterwards to fish it up ftgain, conf. 1080. 
So likewise in Ssem. 230 : ' Gunnar ok Högni t6ko \yk guUit alifc, 
Fäfois arf/ On the fate bound up with the gold-hoard in the 
ON, (and doubtless also in OHG.) legend, see Hpt 3, 217. Finn, 
mamtn*'lainen, mater serpentis, divitiarum subterranearum custoa 



(Kenvall) reminds one of ON. mödir Ailu = serpens, Saem, 248\J 
, Golden geese and docks also sit undergrouiid on golden eggSj 
Somm. sag. p« 63-4. 

p* 98L] In some stones it is the oW mait in tlie raoiintaio 
that, when people come in to him, eropn Iheir lu^ada hiiLi, Somm. 
p. 83 ; then again the spectres wish to nhave the beard of a man 
as be lies in bed, SimpL K. 921. 9B0, In Musäus 4, 61 both get 

p. 983.] With Liirlenhtrge conf, * dz lAirh'ttherge wart gefurt 
sin stolze eventure/ Ritterpr.'', and Liinuberc, Graff 2, '244. Or 
Burlenberg might be the Birlenhm'g of Weistli. 4j 244. On the 
sunken or de Toulouse and or de MonfpelUer, see Berte 20. 
Sinkiog is preceded by a a-a^h (Snppl. to 952 end) ; heyr^ii hann 
dj/na mikla, Sn. 77 ; there was a bang, and all was sunk and 
gone, Panz. 1, 30 (in Schm. 15, 125 a loud snore) ; then comes a 
crack, and the castle once moro is as it was beforej Kühnes Westf. 
&ag. 2, 250 ; a fearful crash ^ and the castle tumbles and dis- 
appears, Schönwerth 3, 52. Near Staffelberg in Up. Fran- 

conia lies a great pond, and iu it a great äsii, holding his tail in 
his mouth ; the moment he let^ it go, the mountain will fly to 
pieces and till the pood, and the flood droivu the flats of Main and 
Rh 171 f, and everything perish, man and beast, Panz. 2, 192. A 
little clottd on the horizon often announces the bursting-in of the 
flood or violent rain, Miillenh. p. 133. 1 Kings 18, 43-4 (Hpt 8, 
284). An migel walks into the sinking city. Wolf's Niederl. sag» 
326. Of the foundling Gregor, who came floating on the flood, 
it is said : der sich hat verninnen her, Greg. 1144* After the 
flood, the baby is left up in a poplar-tree, Müüenh. p. 132. In 
the legend of the Wood of the Cross also, a newborn child lies on 
the top of a tree. On the name Bold, see GDS. 758* 


p. 986.] Schwenk's Semiten 161 says the Devil is a Persian 

invention. On AhuromazddOf see Windischm. Rede p. 17-8 ; the 
cuneif. inscriptions hü^ve Aitramazda/Gr. flpofMda'0ij<i. Ahura is 
the Ssk, asura, Bühtlg555; and Beniey in Gott* gel anz. '62, 



p. 1757 conn, mazda with Ssk. medb^i medh4m = vedhäm. The 
lud. asura is evil, the deva good ; the Pers, ahiira is good, the 
dafiva bad; so heretics repres. Ahnman, the devil, as the first- 
bom Bou of God, and Ormyzd or Christ as the second. The 
Yezids worship the devil mainly as ooe originally good, who has 
rebelled^ and may injure, may at last become a god again, and 

avenge himself. Lucifer falls out of heaven (p. 2U) ; the 

angels fall three nights and days fr, heaven to hell, Ca0dm/2Oj 12; 
sie fielen dri tage volle ^ Kara], Denkm. 42, 9 ; Hephasstus falls a 
wJuile day fr* Olympus to Lemnos, II. 1, 592. As God creates, 
the devil tries to do the same; he seta up his chaptsl next the 
church (p. 1021) ; he also has 12 disciples ascr* to him^ Berthold 
321 ; couf. deviPa pupils (SuppL to 1024). 

p. 987.] Ulphilas translates even the fem. i} SidßoXo^ by 
diabula, pi. diahulos, slanderers, 1 Tim. 3, 11. Among corrup- 
tioris of the word are : Dan. knefmlf snefvel, Molbech'a Tidskr. 6, 
317; Arab, ehlh, iblis ; prob, oar own 'der tausend!' conf. 
dusii (p. 4H1) aud claus, Diet. 2, 855. Lith. dh^ahts, dtvulus — 
great god, Nesselm, 140** Devil, Devilson occur as surnames: 
Cuonradus Diabolun de Rute, MB. 8, 461. 472 ; filii Tmfelonift 
(SnppL to 1019 end) ; Beroldus d ictus Diaholusj Sudendorfs 
Beitr, p. 73, yr 1271 ; Cunze gea. Dttßis heuhit, Arnsb, urk. 787» 

^The Fmn,perkele, devil, Kalev, 10, 118. 141. 207. 327 and 

happ. perke I J pergaleh (SuppL to 171 end) are derived fr. pint, 
cacodaemon, says Schiefn, Finn, namen tJll. 

Saianas in Diemer 255, 10; satandt in Hpt 8, 155. 355 (the 
odiooB *.), Karaj. Sprachdenkm. 52, 3; a pi. satanasd in 0. v. 
20, 4. The word sounds like scado (p. 989), skoksl (p. 1003), 
above all like Stetere, Saturn (p. 247). 

p. 99L] Der tievel gap den rat (advice), wander in bezeren 
ne h&t, Fnndgr. 2, 87; als ez der tiufel riet. Nib. 756, 9; der 
tiuvel mir daz riet, Frib. Trist* 2207. The devil is called niht 
guoies : we »ay 'it smells here like no good things'; Lett, ne 
labbais, the not good ; Lapp, pahüke», the bad one. He is called 
der vhel atem (breath), Fundgr, 2, 18; unreine sagfie untwas^ 
Bruns 324-5; conf. Swed. Oden hin oude, Ibre's Dial. lex. 123"; 
der arge tumbe, Martina 160, 23, as we say rstupid devil '; arger 
wiht, Diut. 1, 470 ; der sure wirt (sour host), HelbL 2, 587 ; ftz 
de» hiiieren tiefela halse (thi-oat), Griesh. 52; deu leiden duvelen 



(odious *L), Hpt 2, 197; der Mdige tifel, Mos. 52, 18; Jeding, 
CavalL Voc. Verlan d 40* ; loj^ng, iffjp, Wiesel gren 385 ; liothan, 
Dybeck '45, 72 ; der greulich hafe dich herein getran (brought), 
Uhl. VolksL p* 801. Litb. hS^ixs, devil, conf, haisus, grim* 
Firan. jnihn^ pahoilUnen, devil ; Esth. pahalaiven^ pahomen, 

Salmelairjen 1, 179. 193. 234. In Scand, the devil is also 

called skanif iiJcammen (ehame), Ihre's Dial. lex. 149''. D^b. '45, 
3. 55. 77. Is he called the Uttfe one? 'whence brings you tier 
Hazel here f ^ Gryphius'a Dornr. 56, 8, The live, hodtlg devil, or 
simply * der h'ihhafiifje/ the veritable, Gotthetf's Käserei 356 ; 
fleischecht 67' lelbhaßei' teuf el, Garg. 229^; ich sei des leihhaßigen 
bntzen 24-4'*; der sihh]]e tiovelj Berth» 37; des sihligen tufels 
kint, Uietr. drach. 2r2\ 285^^; couf. vif mauß, Meon 3, 252; 

ainz est deahle^ vis^ M. de Gar. 178. Antiqiing hontis occurs 

also in Widukiud (Pertz 5, 454) ; our üiian resembles Ur-hau9, 
Old Jack (Suppl. to 453 n.); u-tujel, Gotth. Erz. 1, 162. 177. 253. 
275. 286, ur^imfel '2,217 -, d' oude aathan, Maerl. 2, 300; de uald 
knecht, de mild, MüllenL p. 265. The household god of the 
Tchuvashes, AV/t'/i (Götzens Kuss. volksl, p* 1 7) recalls ^ gamwel 
Eric' ON, a^id^^A'ofi^diaboliis, hostia; tber wtdarwerto (un- 
toward), 0. ii. 4, 93. 104; u^arc^diabolus, Graff 1, 980; helle^ 
ivarc, Diut. 2, 291 j conf. ON. varg}% lupus, hostis (p. 996). Der 
vient, Pfeitfer'a Myst. 1, 131 ; der mnt, Helbl. 1, 1186; der leide 
vientf Leyser 123, 11. 38; laä-gefeüna, Beow. 1113, is said of 
8ea -monsters, but it means ' hateful foe,' and might designate the 

devil. Der heische dief, MaerL 2, 312; der nach t-ffchade^ said 

of a homesprite, Rocbholz 1, 295 (Kl. sehr. 3, 407). Ein tinhuld, 
Hagen\^ Heldenb. 1, 235. With the fem. unholdä in OHG, 
hymns conf. * daz w!p, diu unhtdde/ Pass. 353, 91 ; in Unlmlden- 
tali Bair. qu* J, 220 ; and the Servian fem. vila in many points 
resembles the devil, Uberfengll^ itharfangarij pi-aevaricator, 
Usurpator, seems also to mean the devil in contrast with angels, 
Hpt 8, 146. 

p, 992.] Der ubele vahmij Diemer 302, 28; der v., Karaj. 
89, 14; diu väleiidin^ Cod. pal. 36!, 74*"; vdlunUmie, Krone 9375, 
9467; diu ubele t?., Mai 170, 11; disem valafide gelich 122, 21; 
do nrkiusche der välande 172, 16 j ein vil boeser vdlani, Tiirl. 
Wh, ISO**: swaz der v. wider in tet (agaiust them did), Wekch. 
gast 5177; des vdlandes spot (mock), Warn. 2426; des i;. bant 



1358. The word occtirs in the Erec, not in the Iwein, Hpt'a 
Pref, XV, I find Conr. of Würzbg has not altogether forborne 
its use: der leide rdhmi, Silv* 4902; wilder ik, FrauenK 382, 15 ; 
der in miiez si stillen 123, 19. It occurs but once in M. Neth. 
poets; die quade valandej Walew. 8945; (distinct fr. it stands 
vneliant^vailiant 9647, ß,nd fait ant , valiant ^ Lane. 2146L 24643). 

Da poaer feilant, Fasbn. sp. 578, 21; böser volant 926^ 11 ; 

volanden man, Hpt 5, 20. 31 ; der schwarze volaml, Mülmann*s 
GeisÄel 273; der voUand, Äyrer 340*; volaui in witch-trials of 
1515 {Wolfs Ztschr. 2, 77) ; den aol der böse vohind holen ! 
Lichtwer 1758, 128. In the Walpurgis-night on the Blocksberg 
Mephistopheles calls himself jn nicer VohitifJj squire V., Goethe's 
Fangt, p. m. 159. In Tburiogia (at Gotha) I heard 'Das glab 
der Fold!' devil believe it» Völundr, Waifland seems unconn. 
with valant, whose t^* is really an /. 

p» 993.] The devil is lame in a Moravian story {p. 1011), the 
same in Wallachia, Fr. Müller nos. 216. 221 ; coni Thdr*s lame 
goat (p. 995). He is blind, Lifch. aklalift ; his eyes are put out 
with melted lead (p. 1027). He is black: ne nos frangat demon 
ater, Chart. Sithiensc p. 8; tenehroatus hostis, Munteres Tempelh. 
158; der swarze meister, Hpt 1, 277; voq dem tiuvel hoert man 
wol, wie er mverzer st dan kol, u. ist doch unaihtic (yet invisible), 
Ls. 3, 276 ; die »warzcn helle-warten, Servat. 3520. In Tirol and 
the Up. Palatinate he is called gniu-ivuzlj Schm. 4, 208* He 
wears grey or (jveen clothes (p. 1063), and, like the dwarfs, a 
red cap, Müllenh. p. 194. The African Negroes paint the devil 
wkU^, Klemm 3, 358. 864. 

p. 995.] The devil^s h(n*7i partly resembles the hone in Thorns 
head (p. 373) ; conf, ' gehurote helle ohitefi/ horned ox of hell, 
Hpt 8, 15L 236. He has a tail: 'tied to the devil's lau,* 
Keisersb. xv, StafFely 41-3. 59. Schartlin p. 226; the troll too 
hag a tail, DjK Huua '44, 73, the Norw. hold re a cow'r taiL He 
has a fcen'jf and a hor^e^s foot, Lisch's Meckl. jrb. 5, 94, a korsti'if 
foot and a man's, Miillenh. p. 197, Deoful warn and wUln-leAn, 
Andn 1170, 

p, 997,] The devil has horns and dov&n, feet, Wolffs Ztschr. 
2, 63; his gnal'ii feet peep out, Mone 8, 125, as goat*» feet and 
dawB are ascr. to dwarfs (p. 451 n.) ; daemones in specie mpra- 
runif Acta Bened. sec. I p. 33; devil as stein-tjclsz [wild goat. 



Capricorn ?], Haltricb p, 44-. Pfeiff, Germ. 1, 484 ; die bös tenfeb 
.Bujen (she-goats), i.e» witches, Keller^s Altd, erz. 192, 22, Wifck 
'hocIcH lid' agrees 'des tiuveU ylit/ limb of the d.. Pass. 377, 24 
(SuppL to 1019 end); box-nicheis habe ir sale! Lindenb). 123; 
'to plock a horn oot of the devil/ Garg. 17**. Here belong the 
surnames HeUbock, Ilölibockf Denkschr. der k. k. acad. 5, 20. 

The devil is named Säu-rmtsatel (sow's snoat), and finds bell«, 
Ph. Dieflenb. Wanderung p* 73 ; duivels ztHnije^ (pigs)* Hpt 7, 
532 (Suppl. to 478). The hog for breeding is called /^fiAi, Weisth. 
2, 528. There is a hero's name^ Ur-mein, DietL 5253; conf. 
ur-ber, ur-ktimpe, ur-sau, ur-schwein. The devil is called a luhs, 
IjTix, MS. 2j &\ 7*; a hare^ Panz. Beitr. I, 137; an ape, becanaa 
lio apes God {SuppL to 1024 beg.)* 

The devil was *der vil uogehiure helle-wöl// Hpt 5, 520; die 
hrAle*wargea 7, 376 ; abstrahis or« htpl, Erm. Nigell. 4j 370. 
GDS. 329. 333, 

He?/^./*Mni = Cerberus, GK sletst. 4, 32. Renn. 289 ; der übele 
huuf^ Diemer 309, 22, der hdle-hnnt^ der hunt verwuzen (accursed), 
314, 2. 13; vuor der iibermoote hunt also tiefe an den helle-grunfc 
4, 26; nU'hufdf dog of apite^ Helbl. 2, 264; devil seen in dog'g 
shape, IWs, 203, 59. 

p. 999.] Acc. to Grjphius's Sooett. 1, 1 tbe devil is called 
höllüU'i'ahe ; he appears 'in ft imrzei' vogele h\\de,' Ksrchr. 4314; 
der hüllische fjeier, vulture, Meuiert p. 165; das hat sie der geier 
gelernt, Lessiug 2, 446; die höllische agalmttr (magpie), der 
satan, Pol. maulaffe 195, conf. Parz. 1 ; helle' gouch, Krolewicz 
3879, conf. the cockoo and his clerk {p. 681-2) ; de bunte kiimt 
hahl se ! Haneoreyerey 1618 A v"*; fort juw (brings yon) de 
kl wit nu weer her? B viii^ He has goose-feet, crowds feet, Thiir. 
mitth. vi. 3, 67. 70, 

The set pent in Paradise was wrongly supposed to be the devil, 
Schwenk's Semit. 162. He is called der Imtwunn, Mar. 148, 28; 
der aide helle^tracU, Pass. 13, 23. 101, 47; der hellewurm 106, 27 ; 
Cfilidrus, Erm. Nigell. 2, 191, fr. '^iXvhpo^, water-snake. Leviathan 
is transL iu AS. by sw-draca ; he is deicr, 'cum armilla in 
maxilla,' Vom geloub, 601, and there is 'ein vine ime in sine 
nasen gelegit ' 541; conf. ^in des tiuveles drozzen/ throat, Sol. 
244, 29; den hat des tiuvels kinwe (jaw) verslundeu. Warn, 540* 

Belzehup, Karaj. 52, 3; Behebuc in Fragm* of Madelghia ; 



BesehnCf Walew. 8244; dritkhB fern, as a fly, Spiegel's Aresta 
124, A spirit is shut up in a ghws as a ßij^ MS* 2, 13-4, or in 
H hoXy Löipz. avanL 2, 41 ; there is a deüil m the [jlastt, both io the 
legend of Zeno in Bruns, and in that of the scholar and robber 
in H. V. Herford, yr 995 and in Korner. 

p. 1000.] The devil as a hammer (siege), Kemble^s iSaU and 
Sat. I4t». 177. He is called Eemnierlrin, Ambras, lied. 142. As 
Donar's hammer gradu. becomes a fiery eword, h is also said : 
emßurec siverf der tiuvel hat, Hpt 5, 450 (p* 812, Snppl. to 1013 
end). The devil rollitnj like a milhtona resembles the troW roUi tig 
like a hall, Nilssou 4, 40. 

p. 1002.] The devil is 'der aide bellewarte; Pass. 23, 18. 
helle- tcirt 99, 1 1, der aide hellewiht 293, 94 ; er rehter hellescheryen 
ifmtch, Mai 156, 40; kelleücherje. Tit. 5468. 5510; heUendierge^ 
Helbl. 2, 608 ; hcUefiur, Berth. 56; there is a tnan's name, Heltl^ 
tamph (-smoke), MB. 14, 424 ; der fund nz helh abgriiiide, Walth. 
3, 12, as we »ay *the prince of darkness.* With hellegrdve {p, 
993) connect the prop, names Helrrnpho^ Bcihmer's Font. 2, 185, 
aad Herman der heUengi'avej heli/'fjrdve, Mon, zuller, no. 305 
(yr 1345). no. 306. 

The devil dwells in the North: cadens Lucifer , . . traxit 
ad inftrrni sulfurea stagna, in (jelula a^utfonis parte ponens si hi 
tribunal ; hunc jWocitfsinnim Iwpmu Agnus mitissimua stravit, 
Raban. Maur. De laud, crucis, fig. 10 ; * (Lucifer) chot, wolti sizziu 
nordin/ Diem. 94, 16; entweder zu den genadin oder den 
tmgendflin, give ad austrani sive ad aqfiihn^fii Leyser 135, 34. 
In the N. lies Jötun-heimr (p. 34), and the devil is considered a 
giant, as Loki and Lo^i ai*e of giant kin ; onakar honom (wishes 
him) längt nordan titi Jjälh (at the devil), Sv. vis. 2, 163. 

They say in Smfiland, 'drag till üäckenfjäiU ! ^ Cavall. p. 25V 
On Hflila, Hel'lti-ßallj see Bartholin p. 356 — 360 ; fewr im 
Heckdberg (Mt Hechi), Fischart in Wackern. 2, 470. 

By desser korken buwet (builds) de diivil einen Nolns kroch, 
Agricola^s Sprikworde (1528) n, 23 bh 14'; nobis-hauH, Mone 8, 
277; in nobis hnuitj da schleget das hellisch fewer zum fenster 
hinaus. Er, Alberus*s Barfiisser Manche Eulenspiegel u. Alcoran 
(Wittemb. 1642) bl. E 4; 'so fare they on to nobinhauft, where 
flnme shoots out at the window, and bake their apples on the sill,' 
Schimpf u. erust (1550) c- 233; 'husbj thou art now in nobii* 



Ä£WW«' = purgatory, H. Sachs (1552) iü, 3, 44^"*' ; ir ßpart'g (the 
Reformation) in NohUhrug, Fiscliart's Dominici leben (1571) x^^ 
NobU Krücke, Meland. Jocoaeri* (1626) p* 548; 'send down to 
nobMrug^* Simpl. 3, 887 ; * How Francion rideth in a chair into 
the Nobti^knfg (abyss, dungeon),' Hist, des Fi'ancions (Leyd. 
1714), Tab. of cont. ix. In Celle they sing the cradle-song: 
müse-kätzen, wo wut du hen ? ik wil nk nähers kränge gdn. On 
NShtiTs-krochj NoheU'kntg^ see Kuhn in Hpfc 4, t!88-9. Leo 
{Malb. gL 2, 42) derives 'nobis' fr* Ir. aibheisj abyss; aibhistar 
is said to mean devil. 

p. 1004.] AS. scocea is found on German soil too : Adalbertus 
scncrM, AnnaL Saxo (Pertas 8, 690). Seyfriden dem Meppekchen, 
MB. 16j ]97 (yr 1392). The devil's name Barlabaen is also in 
Walow. 9741; BarUbaefi, Limb. 4, 959; Barnehimn^ Barleboti, 
Barlebnen, V, d. Bergh IK 12. 275-6; borlebuer^ said of a boor. 
Rose 2804. The word frivwrc in TürL VVh. 136\ ßytmrc in 
Cod. pal., reminds of F^murgan (p. 820 n). - Names of devila : 
htsferhale, schandolf, hfigemhni (cntif. p. 1063), hagtilstein, Ber- 
thold 56; ein tiuvel genannt haferUnc^ Hag. Ges. Abent. 2, 280; 
ItUferlein, schentel, Fastn, sp. 507-8-9. Does ON. köhki — Eat&n&St 
still very common in Iceland, mean senex procax? Owed, 'hin 
Mle,^ the devil ; Vesterb. sitiKjen^ the bald, Unauder 36, conf. 
knhl-kopf in Gramm. 2, 374 ; ÖstgöL skammert, sknät, ^JcräJl, 
Kaien 17** (Suppl. to 991 mid.). In Vorarlberg /örnt^r and höller 
are devils' names, Bergm. p. 94, jammer otherwise denoting 
epilepsy, convulsicm (p. 1064). 

Euphemisms for the devil (p. 987 mid,) are : the God-he-wüh' 
im ; Meister Sieh -dich -fur {look out, mind yourself), Ettn. Unw. 
doct. 241 ; Et^cetera^ Ital. celenitojo, Gipsies call God tlevel, and 
the devil beinkt Pott p. 67. The Dan, gam m el Erik is in Norw. 
gamie Mrik, garnJe Sjnr, Aasen 124*. On Hemme rim, see Suppl. 
to 1000; MartineUo (p. 1064). Finkcpmik in Hpt 6, 485. 
Seh iwper-s clmm per, Sek im mer^ schetriTn er . 

p. 1006.] The devil appears as the himter in green, Schleicher 
2iS^ s^^ Green-coat in witch-stories, KM* no. 101. In Üstgötl. 
Oden means devil. His army is called a Mvarni : des tivelis 
geMwarme^ RoL 120, 14 ; der tiuvel h&t özgesant s!a geswarme 
204, 6; geswerrne, Karl 73^; des tiefels her (host), Griesh. 2, 
26. Verswinden sam ein kunder, daz der boese geist fuort in 



dem rove {reeds) ^ Tit. 2408; der teufel fährt io wildes gef-öhricU, 
H. Sachs V. 344-5*6. 

p. 1009,] De olle riesen-moder, Müllenh, p. 444, the giant* 8 
old grandmotJwr 450, ßrüsi and his mother worse than he, 
Fomm. sog. 3, 214, all remiod ua of the deviPs mother or grand- 
mother : des Übeln tenfels 7nuoferf Wolfd, aiid Sahen 487 ; u 
brachte hier ter stede die tluvel ende ain moeder mede, Karel 2, 
4536 : frau Fuik is held to be the devil* s grandmother, Hpb 5, 
373 ; ' je9> the devil should have had him long ago, but is wait- 
ing to find the fellow to him, as his grandmother wants a 7iew 
pair of eoaeh'horscj!,^ GotthelPs Swiss tales 4, 51 ; der tiifel 
macht wedele drus, u. heizt der grossnudter den ofe dermib (to 
light his gran n J 'a fire with), Gotth. Erz. 1, 226; de düvel und 
eck sin mod^ir, Soester Daniel 8. 1 1 ; 'if you are the devil, I am 
his mothei\* Praet. Weltb, 2, 64 ; * who are you, the devil or his 
mothei- ? ' SimpL 1, 592; conf* * ist er der tufel oder sin wip?' 
Dietr* dr. 159*; des tiuvels 7tmoicT u. sin xoip, HätzL 219*; diu 
ist des tiuvels mp, Nib. 417, 4; des übelen tiuvels brut (bride) 
426, 4. Mai 172. 10. Cotif. Death's mother (p. 840-1); 'from 

Jack Ketch to Jack's mother he went/ Pol. colica p. 13. To 

the pop. saws about sun and rain, add the N. Frisian : ^ when it 
rains and the sun shines, witches are buried at the world's eod.' 
There are ma ?Ay devils: steh fc in tausend teufel namen auf! sauf 
(drink) in iausent t Damen ! Diet. 1, 230. 

p. 101 1 .] The devil demands a sheep and a coch, Caes. Heisterb. 
5, 2; or a black ke-goitt, Miiilenh. p. 41, a black cock and he-cat 
201, a black and a white gnat 203. With the curious passage fr. 
H* Sftchs agrees the following : Of a heretic like that, you make 
a new-year's present to Pluto, stuck over ivith box, Simpl, 3, 5* 
p. 287. Boar's heads and bear's heads are still garnished so^ and 
even Asiatics put fruit in the bear's mouth. ' The devil shall 
yet thy bather be,' Froschm* J. 2* (Suppl. to 247). 

p. 1012.] A slinking hair is pulled out of Ugarthiloms ; seven 
hairs oflf the sleeping devil or giant, like the siben locke (Luther, 
Judg. 16, 19) off Samson's head. Renn. 6927. Din helle ist üf 
getan, der tiufel der ist uzgelän (let out), Dietr. dr. 211**. 121*. 
143^; Lucifer waere tiz getan, Tirol in Hpt 1, 20; 'tis as though 
the fiend had hurst his fetters, EHz. of OrK p* 270; le diable est 
dechaine, Voltaire's Fred, le gr. 23, 118, With the phrase 



'the devil's dead,' conf, * Ulli er dauSr ^ (p. 453 n.}. Other ex- 
pressions: des tmveh iuoder = escQ. diaboli^ M8H. S, 227**; 'the 
d. may linid the candla to one that expects the like of him,^ 
Nürnberger 254 ; ' of the d. and the charcoaUbumer/ Fastn. sp, 
896, 12; 'looked like a fitkl full of deinh; Zehn ehen 177; 
* we avt'nge ihn deml ou ourselves/ Ee. 1147; thieves go out 
iu O'W numbers, so that the d. cau't catch one of them. Ph. 
V. Sitte w. 2 1 066^690; c^est Vhutolre du diable^ eine teafeh* 
(jesrhichte. There was a Geschichte vom henker, Gotthelfs Uli 148, 

p» 1013.] The devils se^d occurs also in Dietr, dr. 28P^ and 
Boner's Epilog 51. His sifting: hinet rUerei (tonight riddles) 
diuh Satanas alsara weize. Diem. 255, 10. Fundgr. Ij 170, His 
sn sires : wie vil der tubil nf una dofd (teudiculaa ponit), Hpt 5, 
450 ; wayk is in Gothic either hhimma, 1 Tim. 8, 7. t>, 9 (ON. 
ljloinm=fustis), or vriiggS^ 2 Tim. 2, 26; des tivels netzt^f Mone'a 
Anz, ^tJ9, 58 ; des tiefels hahe, Griesh. 2, {>3 ; des tiuvels gwert, 
Ls. 3, 264 (p. 999 end); daz vindet der tiovil an staer videln, 
Renn, 22629. 

p. IUI 4.] As Wuotan and angels carry men through the air, 
80 does God^ but much oftener the devil (p. 1028} : sit dich Oot 
hht her getragen^ Htitzl. 167, 43; der arge m^ani truoc in dar, 
Laur, 822 ; noch waeti (oor dream) daz si der tiuvel vnorte, Livl. 
1425 ; der t, hat in her bräht, Greg. 1 162. der t. hat mir zno 
gebrdht, HelbL 1, 641, iuch brähte her der tievel üz der helle, Hpt 
1, 400; die duvcl brochte hu hier so na, Hose 12887 ; nil over ins 
diiveU geleide, Karel 2, 4447 ; iu trage dan wider der tufel, Diocl. 
5566-89; welke t/wre^ bracht u dare? Lane. 1528; brochte jou 
die duvel hier ? Waiew. 5202 ; conf. * waz wunders hat dich htjr 
getragen ? Wigah 5803 ; welch iwdhei dich hiutehin ? Hahn'a 
Strieker 14. We say ' w here's the d. got you F ' i.e. where are 
you? wo hat dich derhenker? Fr. Siraph 1, 57. The Greeks 
too said : top B' apa reew? pt^ev dirt} jay ev oiKaBc Baip^t^, Od. 16» 
370 ; Ti? Bai^mv roBe TrtjpLa 'irpoixjjyaye ; 1 7, 446 ; äXXa ae 

SatfjLcjy ocKaS' vire^wydyoi 18, 147. To the curses add: der 

thuwl neme 1 Herb. 6178; da? si der tievel alle erslä ! Archipo* 
p. 233; our 'zum teufel! ' couf. 'woher zum t?* Eidensp. c. 
78 ; louf 2u dem <., wa du wilt 89. Like our * red beard, deviFa 
weird' is the phrase : ' dieser /w^/**, der auch euer hammer ist,' 
Raumer's Hohenst. 2, 114 fr. Hahn's Moo. 1, 122. The devil 

laughs fco see evil done, hence : des mac der tiuvel lachen^ IlelbL 
4, 447 (SuppL to 323 eod) j 'yoa make the devil laitf^h with your 
lies/ Garg. 192V 

p. 1015,] The devil 'over-cooies us ^ like a nightmare. In a 
tale of the 10th cent., he calling himself N Uha r t ^oins the hiatrio 
Vollarc, in^rites and entertains him and his fellows, and dismisses 
them with presents^ which turn out to be cobwebs the next 
morning, Hpt 7, 523, Sirttngthening a negative by the word 

* devil': den tetifd nichts deugen, Eliz. of OrL 447; der den 
iäfel nützschit (nihtes ?) kan, Ls. 2, 311; conf. ' hvaSa 0(Tinä 
l&tum ? ' (SuppLfto 145 n.) ; oar ' the devil (nothing) do I know ; ' 
ieufeh wenig t Ph. v. Sittew. SoldatenL p. 191, our ' verteufelt 
wenig/ Does ' das hat lien teufd gesehen * in Lessing 2, 479 mean 
'seen nobody' or 'that is terrible*? Welcher tmtfel (^wbo?). 
Berth, ed. Göbel 2, IL With 'drink you and the devil 1 ' cont 

* heft hn de dtnel dronketi ghemakt ? ' Rose 131 *>6, With ' the d. 
first and God after ' agrees : in beschirmet (him protects neither) 
der iiuvel noch Got^ Iw. 4635. 

p, 1016.] The Jewish ^ew of passet^slon may be gathered \\\ 
Matth, 12, 42 — 45; other passages and an Egyp. fragment are 
coll, in Mannhdt's Ztschr. 4, 25G — ^9. Possessed by devils is in 
Goth, (inuhahaulani* (fr. haban) fram ahmam nnlirainjaim, Luke 6, 
18; MHG. ein beheft man, demoniaci Uolr. 1348; hehaft, Diemer 
324, 25. Servat. 2284; ob dft beJieftet bist, MS. 2, 5»; beheßete 
lute, Myst 1, 135. 147; ein hehefter mensch, Renn. 15664-85. 
5906; ßint mit dem tievel hoft^ MS. 2, 82"; mit dem übelen 
geiste behaß, Warn, 350 ; der tievel ist in dir gehaß. Ecke 

123 ; iiufeihaße diet (folk), Bari 401, 25. ^We say behaftet or 

besessen: mit dem tiuvel wart er be9ezzen, Ksrchr. 13169; der 
tivel h&t in heie^zen. Warn. 344; obseanutf a daemone, Böhm. 
Font» 2, 323; ttuvel-winnic, Servat. 783; Huvel-ftHhtie 1079; 
gevangen mit dem tiuvel, Fragm. 36^ j des boten ich zuo's wirtes 
maget mit Worten h&o gehu7%deny MS. 2, 11'; die den viant hellen 
in, Maerl. 3, 234. ON. }ü hefir diofulinn i ßinni hemli, Vilk. s. 
511, i.e. he makes thy hand so strong; daz iuwer der t, mueze 
pflegen (tend) t Herb. 2262; der t. müeze in walden 9747; daz 
iuwer der t. walde 14923. 18831 ; der t. müeze t&alden iuwer 
untriuwe 16981 ; var in einen rostfischaer, Helbl. 7, 744; vart 
in ein gt^rihte, «liefet in den rihtaere 7, 760. A devil says; 



sine ut inirem in corpus iuuvi, Caes. Heisterb, 10, 11 ; an evil 
spirit, whom the priest bids depart out of a womaia (yr 1463), 
aaka leave to ptntis tnttj others, whom he names, M, Beb« 276-7 ; 
hem voer die duvel in't lif (body), MaerL 2, 293; der tiuvel var 
im an die siwari, Helbl. 15, 434; reht als waere gesezzen der 
tuvel in daz herze aiu, Dietr. dr, 117*; en scholden dre soven 
diivel darum hestan^ Kantzow 2, 351 ; nu friz in dich den tiufel 

der din suochet, MS. 2, 135^. -* The d. look» out of her eyea* 

H. Sachs 1, 450^ der t. aus dir hlii, Kell, Erz. 327, 15, hat 328, 
23 (and the reverse: Oot &z ir jungen munde sprach, Parz, 396, 
19) ; der t. ist in dir gehaft, der fild üz dinem lile. Ecken!, 123. 
Devils in the body are like the nan^en (fools) inside a sick man, 
who are cut out as the devils are cast out. The devil is driven 
out through the nose with a ring, Joseph. Antiq, 8, 2. 5. Diseases 
wait for the patient to open his mouth before they can pass out, 
Helbl, 7, 10 L Mit dem BoA^n curwren, adjuvanto diabalo aegros 
sanare, Leipz. avantur. 1, 271. Virtues also paas in and out, 
Helbl 7, 65. 102. 1 13. 

p. 1017.] As the gods diffuse /ro^ranre, legends medieval and 
modern charge the devil with defiling and chaugiug things into 
louck and mire : der tiuvel schize in in den kragen ! Helbl, 5, 
107; Sathanae po^^erwira petes, Probra muL 220; welcher t. una 
mit den Heiden hete heschizen, Morolt 3014; der t. lauft u. 
hofiert zugleich, Simpl, 178; ca^ai raonstra, Reinard. 4, 780; die 
seind des teuf els letzter /tirz, Rathschkg in Farnasso (1621 4to, 

p, 33).- The devil Ueni and cheats: der tnige-tievd (p. 464), 

conf. ' driogr var Loptr &t Unga^ Sn, ^48* 1, 29; ein tiuvel der 
hiez Oggewedel, der ie die firsten lüge vant, MS. 2, 250*^ ; dem t. 
an« heiii lugen^ Rüther 3137. He is called 'des nidis vatir 
Lucifer,' Diemer 94, 20. 

p, 1019.] Makiug a covenant with the devil, Keisersb. Omeiss 
36-8; he bites a finger of the witch's left hand, and with the 
blood she signs herself away; or he smites her on the face^ 
making the nose Meed, Moue^a Anz, 8, 124-5. The devil's mark 
(p. 1077); hantve,He (bond), ddmide uns der duvil woldi bihaldin, 
Wernh. v. N. öl, 33. He will make his servant rich, but re- 
quires him to renounce (Jod and St. Mar if, Ls. 3, 256-7. An old 
story told by the monauhus Sangall, (bef. 837) in Pertz 2, 742 : 
Diabolus cnidam pauperculo .... in humana se obviam tulit 



specie, pollicitus iron mediocriter illucn esse ditaadum, si societaiia 
vtnatlo in perpetuum slbi delrgUsef adnecii, A similar story in 
Thietmar 4, 44 speaks of prope jacere aud servire. One has to 
abjure God and all ike saints; the d. comes and givew ike oath, 
Hexenproc. aus Ursentlial p. 244-6, Roaz hat beidiii sole und 
leben einem Havel geben, der tuot durch in wuudera vilj er füeyet 
im allez daz er wil, WigaL 3ö56-9. 7321—6; when R. dies, the 
devils corae and fetch him 8136. Giving oneself to the d, for 
riches, Berth, ed. Göbel 2, 41 ; wil er Got ver^kte/ien nnde die sole 
rerlieaen, der tübt'I hilfefc iine derzuo, daz er spdte and fruo tiion 

mac besnnder vil manicfalden wnnder, Alex. 2837. Kissing the 

devil (pp. 1065 last L, 1067 last L, 1071) ; dich eiuvrtde der tievel 
(unlesH the d* shield thee), da-ne kanst niht genesen. Nib, 1988, 2. 
The d. fetches his own, as OSinn or Thörr takes his share of souls : 
der hel- Scherge die stneii an steh las (gathered his own unto 
him), Lob. 70. The child unborn is promised to the d, (p. 1025), 
Alfcd, bl. 1, 296-7, as formerly to Obion : gafti OÖ'ni, Foromt 
»ög. 2, 168; conf. gefinn OÖni sialfr sialfum nier, Ssem, 27^, 
With Bearskin conf, the ON, biarn-ölpu-ma^r, Kormakss. p. 114; 
the Hung, bearskin , Huugar. in parab, p. 90-1 ; Völundr sat ä 
berfialiij Saem, 135*; lying on the bearskin, Schweinioh, 2, 14; 
wrapping oneself iu a bear's hide, KM. no. 85 ; getting sewed up 
in a bearülln, Eüz. of Orl. 295. 

One who is on good terms, or in league, with the devil, is 
called devil's comrade, partner, fellow: vdlaiites man, Roh 216, 
7; des iivelm hlgen 156, 4 ; der tiuuels bote, Hpt. 6, 501 ; t, kneht^ 
Iw. 6338. 6772; ein tübels knabe, Pass, 172, 59. 175, 16, 296, 
27; oar * teufels-kind,' reprobate; filii Tiufelonis habent Tinfels- 
grub, MB, 12, 85-7; Morolt des timwls kinl, Mor. 2762; wi\ren 
ie des tiveU klni, Trist. 226, 18. The pokcat, Lith. szmzkas, is 
called devil's child, because of its smell? iltiabalg (fitchet-skin) 
is an insulting epithet. Helle-kint, Griesh. 2, 81 ; des tiuveh 
genozt Trist. 235, 29 ; slaefestu, des i. gdit (Uth, limb)? Pass. 377, 
25; alle des tievels Ude, Hpfc 8, 169; mernhmm diaboli, Ch, yr 
1311 in Hildebi-and's Svenskt dipL no. 1789 p. 15 (p. 997), 
What does düvehktiker mean ? Seibertz 1, 631. 

p. 1024,] The devil has in many case» taken the place of the 
old giants (pp, 1000, 1024) ; so the i^inn, hiisi gradually deve- 
loped into a devil. One Mecklenbg witch-story in Lisch 5^ 83 



ßtili retains the ginnt where others have the devil ■ conf. KM/^ S, 
206- 7» The tieril that in many fairT-tales appears at midniffht 
to the lone watcher in a deReried eü^ite, reminds one of Gretuhl, 

whom Beowulf bearded in Heorot. The devil mimics God, 

wants to create like Him : he raakt^s the (jnnt, KM, xio. 148, and 
the magpie, Serb, march, no. 18; cent March, of Bukovioa in 
Woira Ztschr. 1, 179,180, He builds Bern in three night», 
Pref. to Heldeob, Where a chnrcli is built to God, the d. sets 
np his fAa/Jtfi hard by ; in the play of Caterina, Lucifer cries to 
the devils, ' habet üch daz IcapeUichen vor den [treten/ ad graduB 
ecclesiae, Stephan p, 172, In tales of the church -hnihluirf devil 
they make a wolf run through the door ; conf. a song in Uhiand's 
Volksl. p. 812 and the story of Wolfgang in M. Koch's Reise 413. 

S war just ein neu-gebautes nest, 
der erste bewohner sollt^ es tanfen; 
aber wie fiiugfc er's an ? er lässt 
weislich den pudel voran erst laufen. 

Wallenstein's Carap, p.m. 33, 


Tales of deviVfH 
is also called ' die 

Mephistopheles hate?i belU, Faust p.m, 
hrldges in Midien h, p, 274-5 ; such a one 
gtiebmide brücke/ Geschichtsf,, heft 7 p. 36, 

There is a devil*8 storis near Polchow in Stettin district^ on 
which the d. takes his noonday nap on Midsum. day ; it becomes 
as soft as cheese then, and the evil one has left the print of his 
limbs on the flat surface, Bait, stud, xi, 2, 191. xii, 1, 110. A 
devWs ehamher lies between Haaren and Büren (Paderborn), 
DeviVs kitchens , Leoprechtiog 112-3-7. A field named teufds- 
rüitif Weisth. 1^ 72. The Koraan fortificjitinus in Central and 
S, Germany are also called pfal-hscke, pfal-raint pfal-rank^ ; 
Er. Alberus fab. 25 hf^ pol-givxhen, Jaum. Sumloc p. 17; die boll, 
poU-grcibea, conf, the ivon pohij Steiner's Main-gebiet 277-8; 
bulweg, ibid.; wul, wulch in Vilmar's Idiot. 102, conf, art. Pfahl- 

maver in Hall, encyclop. It seems these Roman walls were not 

always of stone or brick, but sometimes of pjale (stakes) : Spar- 
tian, as quoted by StÄlin, speaks of ^ Hiipitibu» raagnis in mud urn 
muralis sepis funditus jactis et connexis'; and Moneys Bad, 
geach. 2, 5 mentions ' pali,^ oar pjiiie. Near the Teufels-mauer 
is situated a P/ahls-buck, Panz. 1, 156, and in the Wetteran a 




pohl'bom (Ukert p. 281)| jusfc like Pküies^bnmno (p. 226). Ou 

the other hEmd the deviFs wall is not only called schtmin-graben, 
but also naa-strasse, Stähn 1, 81-5. 97. Ukert p* 279 ; and if 
the former is said to have been * thrown up by a gockei-hahn 
(cock) and a schwein/ it puts us in mind of the boar that roots 
up earth, and bells out oi the earth, Firmen. 2, 148; conf. supra 
(pp. 666, 996} and the ploughing oock (p. 977)» ' In bereiuloch, 
daz man nempt dea tiifois graben/ Segesser 1, 645, On a giant's 
wall in Mecklenbg lies a teuf els ba^k-ofen (Ukert p* 314), just 
as the people call grave-mounds 'baker's ovens/ ibid. p. 280.£ 
Other places named after the devil in Mone's Anz. 6, 231. f 

p. 1024.] 'Devil tnke the hindmost I' Garg. 190^ conf/ 
sacrificing the last man to Mars 227*. So the vila consecrates 
12 pupils on vrzino kolo, and the twelfth or last falls due to 
her, Vnk sub v. vrÄino kolo (SuppL to 986 end)* The same with 
the 12 scholars at Wunsiedel, Schön w. 3, 56, and the student 
of Plesse 3, 26. Again: * w& sit ir ze schnole gewesen ? hat iu 

Aer tttfel vorgelesen?' lectured to you, Dietr. dr. 157*'. The 

devil's taking the shadow reminds us of the schatten- busze 
(shade w-penaoce) in German law. The Indian gods cast no 
shadow, which is as it were the soul of a man, Klemm 2, 309. 
Oatchivg tfie shadow is also Wallachian, Schuller's Argiach 17. 
Miillenh. p. 554. Winther'a folke eventyr p. 18» Icel. story of 
fl pp p imd, Aefintyri p. 34-5. Chamisso's legend is known in 
Spain: ^honibre que vendi^J su sombra/ Mila y Foutala 188. 

p. 1028.] The huskutg of the child in the legend of Kallund- 
borg church is the same as that of the giant's child (p. 548). 
Similar stories in Schönwerth 3,61. Miillenh. p, 300-1. A cock 
that is earned past, crows and puts the devil out in his building, 
Sommer p. 53. Schön w. 3, 60. Disappearance takes place after 
thrice elajypimj the hands^ Dybeck 4, 32 (nos. 31 and 33). With 
the story of ' »täf done, self have,' conf. p. 450-1 n. ; the tale of 
the water-nix and Selver-gedan, Hpt 4, 393 , the Engadine story 
of the cliahi and the svess, Schreiber's Taschenb. 4, 306. Von bun 
pp. 5, 6 (ed. 2 p. 8) ; the LapU story of giant Stalle, Nilsson 4, 
82 ; and the Norse one of Egil^ ibid. 4, 33. Müll. Sagenb. 2, 

p. 1029.] The divinum of croi^s between the peasant and the 
devil is also in Müllenh. p. 278. ' To raise corn and turnips i» 

VOL, IV, 2 



the formula of ag^icultare : ' ry)>ia nndir rugln ok ronum/ rj^ 
and tuToipSj ÖstgöL lagh pp. 217. 220. 

p. 1029.] The dragonfly is called devU^s horse * Finn, phton 
heuoiti^n — dnemonh equos^ pfrum piihi = da/f^monis ancilla. A 
priest^s wife is fche devil's hroüd-mare, App, Spell, xxjciv. Nethl. 
duivel's-kop (-head) = typba, oar tuttil-kalbe, deutel-kolbe, 
Teufeis-rohr, coiif. Wakh. 33, 8. Devil's thread is ace. to Vilmar 
the cii scuta epiliimm, called rang in the Weste rwald. A farm 
named duvel-hiie« gutolj Seibertz 391 (1280). 



p. 103 L] Got wunderaere^ Gerh. 4047; Got^ du ly-, Ad. v. 
Nassau 230; Got ist ein it'., Helinbr. 1639; Krist w., Walth. 5, 
35; Got wunderi, Eogelh. 455, 491. 

NA moht-e iuch nemen wunder, 

waz gcite wireu bl der zit ? 

si waren Uute, ah ir nu sit, 

wan daz ir k reft eel ich gewalt 

was michel unde manecvalt 

von kriutern und von steinen. — Troj. kr. 858. 

(what were gods in those days ? Men like you^ except that their 
power over herbs and stones was much). All gods ai*e magicians^ 
ibid, 859 — 911 ; Terramer calls Jesus a ^ncujician, Wh. 357| 23 : 
Thorns image speaks, walks and fights, but by the deviVs agency, 
Fornm, sog. 1, 302 — 6; a statue of Freyr gets off the chariot and 
wrestles 2, 73-5 ; tiuvele wonent darinne (inside them), Rol, 27, 

8, The grdl makes men magic- proof even to the fifth of kin : 

die edel fruht vom gr&le, unas an die fünften sippe keines zoubers 
str&le traf in weder rucke, houbt noch rippe, Tit. 2414, Matfie* 
matid are classed among magicians ; thns Cod. ix» tit, 18 treats 
^de maleficis et matheraaticis^ ; mathematicus^himil-scowari, 
stargazer, Diut 1, 505*; niath, = tungel-witega, steor-gleaw^ 
Hpt's Ztschr. 9, 467** ; vaticinatores et mathematici, qui se Dec 
plenoB adsimulantj Jul. Pauli sentent. 5^ 21, 



p. 10;34.] The bad is the nut right : ea geht nicht mit rechieii 
dingen zu ; * das ich solcher frawen sei» die mit hosefi stackeii 
ambgeti/ Bodmer's Rheirio^* 424 (yr 1511). ON. ford(e(fu'skapt% 
furdfKÖ'U'Verk (misdoing) =veneficiura j fordep-Hcipr, Gutalag 77 ; 

\fördüBpa^ Östg. lag 225. AS, man-fordwdlan — mnleucl, Beow, 
1120, Gl. to Lex 1 § 2, Dig. de obseq. par* (indignas militia 

I ^udioandiis est qui patrem et matte tu nialeiicoB appellaverit) : \ioc 
\ qai matrem dixerit affacioratrirtim. OHG. zonpar, Graff 6, 

FS80-1-2. MHG. den selben zoaber, Hartm. büchl. l, 1347, daz 
zouber 1318. Daz z. — magio potion: mir ist zouher gegeben, 
Herb. 758, and ; Circe künde treoke geben, sulioh zoit^ber, salche 
spise 1763L M. Lat. zohria f., Moneys Anz. 7,424; mit zouhrr 
varn, MS. 1, 73^ Curiously in the Dresd. Wolfdietr. 162: kein 
z, dir kan gewinken (rhy. trinken) ; tover ea ontfoerdene ml, 
Karel 1, 1469; si zigen in zoubef'licher dinge, Trist* 272, 2; 
^ouber-lisie, EracL 1062 ; zouher liste tragen» MS. 1, 78^, z. hin 

|Ö9^. Dmme-gan (go about, meddle) mit lover j/e und myckeru*, 

Sarmeister^s Alterth. 25 (yr 1417); tovem u. wykken, ibid.; 

\witken, Bruns Beitr. 337 ; wickeris, bote, micheUe, Gef ken's Beil. 

Il41, toveriß, wlckerle 124. Welsh gwüldaa^ witch, OHG* wUfuht 

^saltarej gesticalari, Graif 1, 708 ; conf. Hpfc 3, 92, AS, hweohr^ 
augnr, fttgfe hweoler, fr. hweol, wheel. Lett, deewaredsis who aees 
God and dbcovers hidden thingt*, couf, devina (p, 471). BuU- 
manu 2, 256 derives "Xft^^t I divine, fr. grabbing, grasping ; conf. 

GrSpir (p. 471), WeU-hexeny Gryph. Dornrose 90^ 27 ; wiza- 

nunc, divinatio, wizzigo, vates, Gl. Sletst. 6, 699 ; ein wtzzag 
gewam-e, MS. 2, 189^; vitka liki fara, Saem. 63*; Engl, wizard, 
ON. gan, 'magia,* Biörn ; but 'inconsultna gestua,' Nialss. p. 683\ 
AS, /tit'afrt = omina, divinationes, Can, Edg. 16 (Suppl. to IlU7 
beg.). Lat. verairU^ Boothsayer, sorceress ; verarej to say sooth, 
jnf. veratrum, hellebore, Lith, wardtftt, to work magic. ON, 

^9€Ut etti sag^Sak^ I said a sooth, Saem, 226^. OHG* wdr*secat, 
divinator; der warsager tut mir warsagen, H. Sachs ii. 4, 12**, 
UQser w, 13\ the one who practises in our village, as among 
Finns and Lapps, Suomi '46, p. 97-8. Fara til ßölkunnigra Fiona, 
Fornm. b. 2, 167; kynga, magica^ Laxd. 328; in Cavall* Voc, 
Verl. 38* kyng, sicknesa. Leikur, witches, versiformes, Gröttas* 
IL Betw. Laaterbach and Grebenau a divineress was called e 
bU kmhd, a blue child. 



p. 1037.] Spoken magic, spell^ is in MHG- gahtei\ Ledz. 
7011 ; m\i gahteT'lisie, Fuirdgr, 2, 100; gaUtern, StalrL 1, 417* 
C'lrminator, carftiinatria^, MB. 16, 242 (yr 1491). Veniielnefi, 
bewifch, Schm. 2, 587 j vermapien ad oculoa, denies, Moneys 
AtiÄ. 7, 423; verschiren, fascinare, Diut. 2, 214''; versehieren, 
heswoijeiiy Müllenh» p, 560 ; verntochsn u. venneineu, Ges, Abent. 
S, 78 ; bomlnes magicU artlbu^ dmnentarej Lamb. p. 214 (yr 1074), 
Kilirm has unghenn, work magic, ?i«j;/(e*r^, maleficua, ung her -heuere, 
umhÜGSj mighers ajHren volva, q. d, manium sive cacodaemonum 
ova. Van den Bergb p. 58 has Fris, tjoeuder» en fjoenders, wizard 
and witch. Ougpente, fascinafcione. Gl. Sletsfc. 25, 149. 

ON. seiSr, magic: Gunnhildr \&t seiS ejla^ Egilss. 403; »mS-^ 
gtaSr or -utafr, Laxd. 328; conf. Lapp, aeiia, Gastrin's My t. 
207-8. Boiling of herbs (p. 1089), of stockings (p. 1093). 

MHG. die hnoze versiiocheiij try remedies, charms, Morolf ^M 
916; gülite büezen, heal sickness, Freid. 163, 16 ; de tene hötm%, ^H 
cure toothache, Hpt 3, 92; boehm, Gefken's BeiL 151. 167; " 
boterie 124. 175-7 ; zanzdn, work magic, Mielcke 36*. 

Lupperie, Gefk. Beil. 109. 112; lächenie, Troj. kiv 27. 234; 
lachefiaere 27240, conf. 963 ; stria aut fierbaria, Lex Alam, add. 

ON. bölvuar konor, witches, Sjem. 197"^ (p. 988); froiÖ'i, 
seien tia, eep, magia nigra (suppl. to 1 014). 

Nethl. terms for sorceress, witch : nacht-loopster (-rover), weer- 
viahster^ weather- maker, luiater-vinkj mutterer in secret, grote hoi, 
great horse; op kol rijden, work magic, Weiland sub v* kol ; in 
ma anwoi sein, be bewitched, Wolfs Ztschr. 2, 54. Necroman- 
ticus habebat cucullum ac tunieam de pilif^ cttprarum, Greg, Tur« 
9, 6; conf. indutus pellibus 10, 25. 

The AS. dry^ magus, comes not fr. Spü?, oak {p, 1215 end), 
but fr. Ir. tlram, with a pi. draoithej of which the Romans made^H 
druvhe^ Leo's Malb. gL 1, 23. Davies in Celt. res. had derived ^1 
it fr. Wei. dervfydd. Spells were read out of a book : am zouber 
las, Pass, 171, 25; ein pfafTe der wol zouber las^ Parz. ^Q^ 4; 
'ich hülü von allem dem gelesen daz ie gefloz n. g^ßoitc' says the 
eoothsayer, Troj. kr. 19057; in den swarzen bnochen lesen, 
Ksrchr. 13234. Finn. lukia, to read, but in the Runes always to 

conjure, Castr. Pref. p. x. Ze Doltt ich niht lernen wil von 

der nigromanzle, MS, 2, 63^ j zu Toletum die ars necromanti 



lernen, Cass. Heisterb. 5, 4, coiif. JiibiDal's M7it%ret 1, 396 ; 
noch so lernet man die list in etner stat zuo TolSt, diu in His- 
pantenstet. Herb. 562, conf. Fromm, p. 225 and ze DoIM (p. 1048 
beg.) ; ein etat heizet PeraicUij da erste zouber wart erdabt, Parz. 
657, 28. The traveilln^ scholars roam fr. school to school, and 
learn black arfc^ H. Sacbg it. 4^ 19**; conf. devil's pupils» disciples 
(p. 1024). Cam lerte yiniu chint (taught bis children) dei zDiiber 
dei hiufce sint, Dint 3, 69. 

p. 1038.] MHG. ?ir;ce« — augorari : stille liezen, Er. 8687; ich 
kan vliegen u» verUezen, MS. 1, 89* ; Htihs-lu^zo, magus, Hattemer 
1, 259'^. Zoiibergtj too is sortilega. Wolf's Ztschr. 2, 72 ; kanstu 
von xouber meistersebaffc, die ufirf an nie (throw it on her), 
Laurin 1675. With Swed. fjiisa to conjare, conf. Dan, kiff^e, 
terrere. 5Mr^==sortilegium, hurten, conjnre, divine, Grefken 99 j 
conf. Lith. hurfas lot, hurii prophesy, hurilnmkas lot-caster, and 
Lett, hurt witches, bxtrtjieks sorcerer. The lot speaks t ' al dar- 
nach daz Us gesell ; geit ez wol, viisse-seit ez/ as the lot shall say, 

yea or nay, MS. I, 156'.^ -Gongulares list^ 0, iv. 16, 33 ; caucu- 

lure, magus, Hpt 3, 382; mit goucgehs liste, Fundgr. 2,99, 

^ ffoticgeldre lint 99. 100; de gouchehire, MB. 8,482; em goukel, 

EracllllO; gokelt onder den hoet, Ferg. 2772; under 'm huot 

gaukeln , Suche nw. 29, 45. May we take it as conn, with gou(^h^ 

gowk,* cuckoo y the Dan. for gowk and conjure are gjvg and 

\gojgy, but the OHG. houh and koukalön, Fr^re Barbarin in 

friores practises sleight-of-hand, and is called encanteor, ON. 

mon-hverßnx^ar^praestig'me, Sn. 79; AS, geäwlmör, gedwtfmor^ 

fitntaaoia, praestiginm. 

There is an old word, OHG. hHofiar, AS. /tfi^n^r>r = 8onu8, vati- 
cinium, ON. hlio& merely son us ; OHG. hteofhir-ttdzo hartolu*^, 
necromanticus, hleodar*tfiz2eo^ hleodar-sezzo arioUis, hhodaf*mza 
vaticinium, Graff 6, 302-4; lioder-sazat Hattemer 1, 261; in 
cervulo=:in llodevBaza , ooragias = i'i'oflfir-«d2ro, Gl. Slefcst. 23, 3.8; 
conf. Sup erst, A ; the diviner then nits in a chair ? The sahn- 
IttzzOj magas, Graff 6, 9L 2, 322, appar. divines with a knife or 

p, 1039.] Magic is ascribed chiefly to wovien. Priestesses, 
prophet^aaes, were old, grey-haired (p. 96-7) : Sibylla * saz aniffiä 
(unkempt) an irme bete-hÖs,' Eu, 2694; groz n. gm was ir daz 
bar, u. harte verworren (tangled) als eine» pferdes mane 2698; 



daz mies lokeljte liienc ir üz den oren 2708. KeapoL »eiiyitt^ 
l»rutta stregaj fr, scirpuSj a kind of rush, A wnndei'-aUez wip 
interprets the dream upon her oath, Walth. 95, 8 ; vwlls sar(nefTj 
Moon 3, 159; a nooih&Bjing /oftter-modeTf Arvidss. 2, 5; herlingit 
inUu, SiBm. 169 J alter mibe troume, Tiirl; Wh, 82*; 'a devil - 
ridden root- del ver, spell -speaker, and wizzened old herb -h unter/ j 
Garg. 189*. Ir. caiUeach means a veihd woman» uhl woman,^ 

witch, Herdnmen too are sorcerers : ' for, you see, we »hep- 

berdsj cut off from the world, have our thoa^^'-hta about many 
thiDga while the silly eheep are grazing/ Voss's Idyls 9, 49. 

p. 1041.] fle(7ih«»e = eumenide8, kmjtU — stng&f GL Jun. 378, 
381; /uT^Wifrt = eumenides, Gl, Sletst. 6, 27^3; kaghethi^en, Br. 
Gheraert 717, conf. Aezo«?/?* = palaestritae, Gratf 4, 1073. Hage- 
AWe = lizard (OHG. egidehas), Gemmula Antwerp, in Hoffm. 
Horae Belg, 7; io the Ring 210-1 it is called htwey 210 both hiii-e 
and unhold. Is the Lith. hekszty harlot, formed fr. hexe, ati 
keksztas fr. heher, a jay? In the Ring p. 230 a witch is called 
Häfhel, sorceress; conf. ' hdgill, 8t& 1^ stay, little witch, 57, The 
Swiss hag i<ne — heXB {Stidd. 2, 10) may Lark back to OHG. hah^ 
sin OH subnervare [hamstring, cut the hdthsc^ hough], for a witch 
vnne^'ves (comedere nervoa, p. 1081 last L) ; conf. Fris. hexna, 
Loxna, hoxne = poples. 

p, 1042.] OSinn is called ^aldrs foSr, Ssem. 94*. The V*ilkina- 
saga names a sorceress O^tacia, who learnt magic of her step- 
mother (see p, 1055). Other names of witches in Skaldskap. 
234. A sorceress is a vala or völva : seitF^staär mi kill, }?6ttus6 
menn }>ä vita, at ]?ar mnndi Terit hafa volu lei St noekud (saga 
tumulus), Laxd, p. 328. She is also called ;f 07«^; ßögS k HeiSar- 
wkog. Forum. 3, 122 ; Nethl. nacht-loopster, grate ko! (SuppL to 
1037 mid.) ; conf. reerSi sin gand,/or at sei^Sa, Vilk. saga c. 328. 

p. 1044.] Gera seiS-hiaU mikinn ; appar. a platform to hold a 
good many i j^au J^ar H upp oil (all), pau kva^u pur frceifi 
Bin, en |7at vorn galdrar, Laxd. 142. 

p. 1046.] For 'masca^ the Lomb. Glosses have nasca, Hpt^s 
Ztschr. 1, 556; conf. talamasca (p. 915). With »trlga connect 
arpiy^ owl, who waylays children, and is kept oflf by hawthorn, 
Jv. Fast. 6, 130 — 168; trrpiyXa in Leo Allatiua ; trriyXo^; (7017^). 
DC. Another word for mask is schem-hart, Schm. 3, 362. 
Oäger's Ulm p. 526 : nu sitze ich als ein scheuipaH trüric, Reuu 



17998; «cewa^larva, Graff 6, 495-6; LG. scjieme in Voasj 
NethL ii(*hfievi, scheme, shadow; cofif. scheine in Frauenl 174 

p. 1046.] On cliervioburgus^ see Malb. gh 2, 153-4. MuUeo- 
hoff (in Waits p. 287, and Hone's Anz. 8, 452) compares it with 
the fcepifoifiopof; of the mysteries. A Tyroleae legend tells of 
roving night-wivea and their cauldron, Germania 2, 438. In our 
nursery-tales tviich and old cook are the same thing, KM. no. 51. 

Lisch's Meckl. jrb. 5, 82. On a hill or mountain named kipula, 

or kipivuori, kipuraäki, kipuharja (sorrow's mount, hill, peak), 
stands Kivutar before a caiddron (kattila, pata), brewing plagues» 
In Kalev. 25| 181, is mentioned a parti- coloured milking- pail 
(kippa), 182 a copper bushel (vakka), 196 kattila. Ace. to 
lien vail a witch is panel ar, panutar. A butterBy is called keiid^ 
boier (-heater), and whey-stealer, milk-thief (p. 1072). 

p. 1047.] A salt-work is a sacred gift of God, and protected 
by the law of nations, Hommel 8, 722. Sali is laid on tables 
and altars: sacras faeite mensas salinorum apposita, Arnob. 2, 
67 ; sal in um est patella, in qua diis primitiae cum sale offere- 
bantur. Egyptians hated salt and the sea; their priests were 
forbidden to set salt on the table, Plut. De Iside 32.— — The 
interchange of H and S in hal and sal is, ace. to Leo (in Hpt 5, 
511), syntactic in the Celtic tongues, and Gael, »h is prou. A. 
HalUiadi is more oorr. spelt Hallstatt, M. Koch's Reise 407* 
Ssk. »ara — salt. Lat. kalec, herring, is akin to aX?, salt, GDS. 
800 [So 61. seldi, ON. sUd, herring, means salt-water fish; but 
Tent häring^heer-ö^ch, bee* it goes in hosts, shoals, Hehn's 
Plants and Anim. 411]. 

p, 1050,] Witches eat horneflesh, Wolf» Ztschr. 2, 67. The 
pipe at the dance of trolls inside the hill is a home-bime, Afzelius 
2, 159; conf, a Pruss. story in N. Preuss. pro v. bl. 1, 229. 

p. 1051.] The Witches' Excujpion takes place on the firni 
night in May, Lisch's Meckl. jrb. 5, 83. Wolf's Zts. 2, 68. 
'The Esth. witches also assemble that night/ says Possart p. 
161 ; others say the night of June 23-4, i.e. Midaum. Eve. 
'They ride up Blocksberg on the first of Mai^, and in 12 days 
muAl dance the snow away ; then Spring begins/ Kubu in Upt's 
Zta. 6, 483. Here they appear as eläike, godlike maids. 

p. 1053.] Witches' Mountains are: the Bräckelsperg, Wolfs 
Zts. 1, 6; several Blocksbergs in Holsteiu, Miilleuh. p. 564 1 



Brockmshurg, DiLtm, Sassenrechfc 159. GDS, 532; the nnhol- 
denpe^-g near Passaii occurs already in MB. 28^, 170. 465. ' At j 
the end of the Hilss, as thou nearest the DQier (Duioger) wood, 
18 a njountain very high and bare, named «/ den bloszen zellen, 
whereon it is given out that witches hold their dances on Wal- 
purgis night, even as on Mt Brocken in the Harz/ Zeiler'aj 
Topogr. ducat* Brunav. et Luneb. p. 97* Betw. Vorwalde andj 
Wicken sen (Bruuswk) ataods the witches' mount Elicuf. Near 
Briinighausen is Kukeshnrg, already named in the Hildesh. dioces. 
circnmscr,, oonf. Lünzel p. 31-8, which Grupen calls Kokettbnrg, 
named after the deviFs kitchen. Witches* hills in Holstein, and 
their trysts in N. Friesland, are in Miillenh. no. 288-9. A witch- 
mtn near Jiilchendorff, Mecklenbg, Lisch 5, 83; is Koilherg 
another? Gefk. Cat^l. 111. In Sommer pp. 56. 174 the 
Brocken is called Olock^VAbenj. Similar places are the Franco- 
nian Pfefernherg near Marktbürgel, and the Alsatian Bikhtlberg, 
conf. bnhihsberc, puekelsherg^ Graff 3, 135; for other trysts of 
witches in Elsass, see Alsatia \56, p. 283. Dwarfs as well as 
witches haunt the Heiiberg or Höperg^ Ring 211: mifchm^ horses 
flew over Höperg 234» In Tirol they meet on the Schlemko/el, 
ZmgBvWB Hexenproc. 37; seven more places are given in his 

Sitten 32 and Alpen burg 255. 262. In Bleking the Swed. 

try sting- place is called Jungfru-kttUen^ Wieselgr. 398; in fairy- 
tales Blä-kuUa or Heekevfjell, Cavallins 447-8. The vila holds 
her dance on the mountain-top (vr), vrzino kolo ; there also she 
initiates ber pupils, Vuk sub v. vrzino kolo, * i^esogora seu 
Blokßbarch/ Ceynowa 13, exactly translates Kalenberg, fr. lyity 
bald, Linde 2, 1318-9. Finn, kipvla or kippumäki, see Peterson 
p. 72-3 (Supph to 1046). In Moravia the witches meet on Mb 
Bodos ft a Slavic mont-joie, Kulda. In Persia another name for 
Mt De ma vend is Arezuraj whi're daevas and wizards assemble, 
Spiegel's Avesta 2, cxiv. 

p. 1054.] In Vilk. cap* 828 'roerdi sin gand^ seems to mean 
'rode into the air/ There is a dwarf named Gantf-aJfr, Sasm. 2'*^ 
and a valkyrja Oöndal (p. 421). The Hachel rides on a wolf. 
Ring 230-7; witches fly on goain, 210-1. Matfch» v, Kemnat 
names unholde and nachflmsser together; does the word contain 
thueae, durae ? In Passion 4, 85 it says : daz ist ein naht^vole^ 
den guoter werka tages-lieht lät gesehen wfinec iht. The Vatns- 



dcela p. 106 cap. 26 thus deacr. a sorceress and her extraordinary 
turn-out: ]?ar fer J?/i Liot, ok hefir breittliffa urn sik bo it, hua 
hafSi rekit Joiinnfram yfir höfuö^iij ok for ({fuxif ok retti hofu&li 
ui d milium foianna aptr ; öfagurligt var hen Dar oitgnahragd, 
hversii hun gat pvi tröllsliga skotit. VerlaufF^s note p. 107 says, 
the (old) Gull|?ons saga cap. 17 descr. the similar figure cut bj a 
sorceress, to dull the enemies^ weapons. 

p, 1061,] Troli'dance» deacr. in Afzelius 2, 158*9. A remark* 
able story in Lisch^s Meckl, jrb, 5, 83 tells of a giant giving a 
feast on a mountain, and tkumhiings dancing on the table before 
him ; the rest is like other witch -stories. H. Sachs v. 343"* 
says witches hold their dances and weddings on a great heeck-iree, 
A nmaician comes upon a witches' dance, and has to play to 

them, Firmen. 2, 383-4. AS, niht-genge ^ vritoh*, conf. tiaW- 

egese, nakt-eise (note on An dr. xxxii) ; nacht-ridders^ Br. Gher. 
715; nacht'volk, Yonbun p. 34-5. WolPs Zts. 2, 53; glauben, 
die lute des nacktes fai-n^ Gefk. Beil. 24; ON. Näit-fan, a man's 
name, Landnam, 1, 1 ; varende rra«M?en = witches, Belg. mus. 2, 
116, Br. Gher. 717; au^fahrerln, Judas erzsch, 2, 107; naht- 
/"rawe in Mone 8, 408 means midwife; nackt-frala is the plant 
mirabilis jalappa, belle de nuit, Castelli 205. The Theasalian 
witches also fly by night : <f>aal Se aifTr}v koI Trereaflat rij? vukto^;, 
Lncian^s Asin. L In Servia the magicians and their pupils 
travel with the vila. The unhuld fetches bottles of wine out of 
cellars, H. Sachs i. 5, 532*'. A story in Pertz 2, 741 of a pilosus 
who fills bottles, 

p. 1061.] Doge looks like AS. dwaes, fatuus ; but in Reinaert 
7329 dasen, inaanire, rhymes with verdwasen, so it can hardly be 
the same word as dwasen. The Gemm. Antwerp, (in Hoffm. 
Hor. Bdg. 7) has t?a«e = peert8-vlieghe, hornet, and in the Mark 
they still speak of a dasen- schwärm^ Schmidt v. Wern. 276-7. 
MHG. ' dtiesie hunt/ Frauenl. 368, 2. Heimdall is called humptfU 
valdi, Saem. 92\ 

p, 1064.] Other herb and flower names foi; the devil and for 
witches in Wolf's Zts. 2, 64, Schotte is even OHG* : Scönea, a 
woman's name. Gräsle, Kreutle^ Rosenkranz^ Keller's Erz. 195. 
The elf vor change into flowers or branches by day (Snppl. to 470 
beg,). Is not the devil also called Hagedorn, like the minstrt'l 
in Berthold 56 ? Is Linden-iolde (^top) a witch ? Hing 235* 



The deWI often makes a handsome figure : dsLemon ctdolesceni is 

vmitidi speciem induens, Cses. Heiaterb. 5, 36 ] hence the names 
Fi'Uch, Spn'ng-ins-feldf Fled'er- winch, Sckl^epp-hans (yr 1597), 
Tliiir. mitth, vi. 3, 68-9. The ^ ziehen ßßderwische ((^oosewiog 
dusters)' are witches, Panz. Beitr. 1, 217; Met fledermi^che a. 
maikäfer-ßägel gesund hei t (health) ! Franz. Sim pi. 1, 57. 49 ; 
hinaus mit den ßiiderwLHchmi ! Ung. apotheker 762. Other 
names : Zucker, Paperh, >James of devils in the Alsfeld Passion- 
play are colL in Hpt. 3^ 484 — 493. 

p. 1069.] Witches take an oath to do the deviV» will; see in 
Geschichtsfreuüd 6, 246 the remarkable confession of a witch of 
üi'äernthal (yr 1459). The dt^viV» bride sits up in the tres with 
htT * kalt'Samigen stink-bniut^am, Garg* 72** ; devil and witch 
huld dance and we^Iding on trees and bmigh», H, Sachs v. 343^. 
In records even of the 12th cent, occur auch surnames as ' Oscu- 
lans diabolum, Baaians daemonem, Demonem osculant, Beee 
diable/ üuerard's Prolegom, to the Cart, de Chartres p. xoiv. 

What does ' oscnlans acnionem' there mean ? T res muli eres 

fc>ortüegao Silvanectis captae, et per majorem et juratos justiciatae 
(yr 1282) ; the bishop claims that they belonged to his juris- 
diction, Guer. Cart, de ND. 3, 34L And even before that: 
Jndices tanquam malepmni et moifum miseront in igiitrmj Caas. 
Heist. 4, 99; this was at Soest, beginn, of 12th cent. In Eng- 
land : Proceedings against dame Alice Kyteler, prosec. for mreery 
1324 by Rich, de Ledrede bp* of Ossory, ed. by Th. Wright, 
Lond. '43, Camd. Soc. xlii. and 6L A atrega of 1420, who 
turned into a cat, Reber'a Hem merlin p. 248. About the same 
time Wolkenatein p. ß08 says of old women : 

Zauberei und kupeUspiel, 

das machen si nit teuer (not scarce) ; 

es wird doch ie eine versört 

mit einem heissen feu^, 

' Yilfmeti zu ! ist der beste rat (plan) ' thinks Matth. v. Kemhat 
p. 11 7 i wKile ou the contrary H. Sachs 1, 532° saw clearly that 

des teufeis eV und reuterei (weddings and ridings) 

ist nur gespenst und fantasei (mere dreams) ; 

das bock-jaren kumpt aus misglauben (superstition). 


An EtjgL treatise on Witches and Witchcraffc by 6. Git!brd 

1603 has been reprinted forth© Percy Soc. ^42. The burning 

and sti'ewing of the ashes is found as early as Rudi. 6, 49 : Rogo 
me comburatis, in aquam civierem jwriatis. Fomm. sö^, 2, 163: 
Klauf hann pk por i skiSiir einar, lag^i ! eld, ok hrendl at öftkn, 
giSan f^kk bann aer log nökknrD, kasta^t )>ar & öskuniii, ok gerSi 
af grautj {^ann grant gafhami hlan&um hnndum (al. grey hundum); 
conf, supra (p. 189). 

p. 1075.] The witch holds up her left hand in taking the oath 
to the devil, Geschichtsfr. 6, 246. On the nature of the mark 
printed on her by the devil, see Mone's Ana. 8, 124-5. The 
Greeks too believed that the Thessalian sorceresses anointed 
themselves with a salve, Lucian's Asin. 12-3, Apuleius p. m. 
116-7; vil kunnen salben den kiibei (tub}, das si obnan ausfam 
(By out at the top). Vintler (Sup. G, L 180). A witch is called 
fm'k-ridtr, Garg, 47* ; she rides calves and cmvs to death (p. 1048 
mid.) ; she has wings, Mällenh. p. 212. The witch's or sorcerer's 
flight through the air is the god*s riffa I opt ok log (air and fire) ; 
conf. the skipper and his man sailing on water, air and land, 

Müllenh, p. 222,- lo the midat of the witches the IJevit sits 

on a pit It IT ( = irmens41}, Mone's Anz. 8, 130; he sits with them 
on the tree J holds dance and wedding on trees and bouglis (SuppL 
to 1069 beg.). There are banquets of witches, as there are of 
fays : their viands are tasteless as rotten timber, or they suddenly 
change to mwcrfc; so all the food the Htildre brings turns into 
cow\t dungf Asb. Huldr. 1, 49, 51. Sometimes the devil plays 
the drone-ptpe, Thiir, mitth. vi. S, 70, With the young witch 
set to mind the tmuls, conf. the girl and three totuU in Lisch's 

Jrb, 5, 82. Witches turn the milk, skim the dew, lame the 

cattle, and brew storms. The mischief is chiefly aimed at the 
corn-fields and cattle {p. 1106) : they draw milk out of a hufe, 
Asb, Huldr. 1,176. Wolfs Zts. 2, 72, Mullenh, p. 222; they 
stretch a string^ and milk out of it, Hone 8^ 131, or cnt a chip 
out of the stable-door for the same purpose 5, 452-3 ; they milk 
out of an ami or the neck (handle-hole) c/ an axe^ Keisersb. 
Omeiss 54", illustr. by a woodcut ; the senni milks out of four 
taps in the wall, Fromm. 2, 565. Witches make butter by churning 
water with a stick, Miilleuh. p. 224; they \tilch people's milk fr. 
them,' M. Beham in Mooe 4, 454 ; they are called rnolkeu-tover. 

Mone*8 Schausp. 2, 74 (tJpstaodioge 1116); conf* App 
xsxv^ii : ^ Up tliro' tlie clouds and away, Fetck me lard aud m*7/c 
and whey I ^ Witches gather dem^ to get people's biibter awaj, 
Miilleuh. p, 565; conL AS. dedw-drtag^ Casdm. 3795 (Bout.), 
GreiQ 101; to we daz gehsen wirb (gathered dew), Notk. Cap., 

conf. ihau'ischlepper, tau-dratjil (p* 786). Thej darn peace ur 

no peace into the bridal bed ; they plait discord in, by plaiting 
the pillow*feathera into wreaths and rings, MüUenh. p. 223. 
Hence die tales about the old wife that's worse than the devil : 
'in medio consistit virtus, like the devil between two old wives/ 
Garg, löO**. An old woman having caused a loving couple to fall 
out, the devil was so afraid of her that he reached her the pro- 
mised pair of shoes at the end of a stick. Witches ' nemeu den 
mannen ir gseln/ M» Beham in Mone 4, 451. Grasping, beating, 
stroking, blowing, breathing, eyeing are attrib. to witches (p. 

1090) , as they are to healing women. In their magic they use the 

handtf of mib&rn bahes^ Fastn. sp. p. 1 349. Thieves cub the thumb 
off an unborn child, and light it : as long as it burns, every one 
in the house sleeps; splnam hiimani cadaverls de tecto pendant, 
and nobody wakes, CaBs. Heist* 6, 10 ; 'du haddest ok ens deves 
dumen bavene henghen an de to one' U said to the cheating inn- 
keeper, Mone's Schausp. 2, 87 (a thief taken at Berlin in 1846 
had a green herb sewed iuto her petticoat, her herb of inch she 
called it) ; ungemeüitkint [unbetrothed ?] are employed in sorcery, 
Ksrchr. 2102. 2500; conf. 'lecta ex structi^ ignibim ossa,' Lach- 
mann's emend, of Prop. iv. 5, 28, It is ' thonght that the alh 
(nightmare) cometh of untimelg birtlis,^ M. Beham in Mone 4, 
450. These are divided into bicLck, white and red (Hpt. 4, 380), 
which seems to support my division of elves into black, light and 

brown. The caterpillar devil' s cat (Staid. 1, 276) reminds one 

of katze-spur^ sih&ivy caterp. so called in the Palatinate; conf. 
Rubs, gusenitza, Pol. wa,^ieuea, Boh. hausenka, Langued. dtablolin ; 
ON. bröndüngr^ variegata, Swed, kSlmask, The butterfly is 
call e d pfeif' JH u. t ier^ Sch m . 1 , 30, ßfu n- trager , Alb. S cho 1 1 2 9 1 ; 
conf. pipolfcer, fifolter. The witch is delivered of will o* wispn, 

Thiir. mibth. vi. 3, 69. ^ Witches carry magic in their hair, 

therefore we cut it off: tliis already in M. Beham's Wien p, 274; 
conf, the weichselzopfe (plica Pol.). The witch chains her lover, 
the devil, with gam spun in a churchyard, Thiir. mitth. vi. 3, 70, 


WitchQH float on water, as GoSrün says of herself: 'bofo mik, 
ne drekffo havar b&ror/ Saem. 267*; *hon inätti eigi sör*pHi,^ she 
might not sink 265. The unsightly German witch is paralleled 
by the Finn. Pohjan akka harvahammas {thin«toothed}, Kalev, 
2, 187. 205. 5, 135. 

p. 1077.] Heathen featnres are the witches' consumption of 
horseflefth or even man\s ßenh, also tljeir dislike of bells. With 
the witch's blood-mark , and with Death's mark, conf, ' atakias 
(a-riyfiara) Friiujins ana leika bairan/ Gal. 6, 17. It m remark- 
able that a witch cannot weep ; she has watery eyes, but sheds 
no tears. In the Tirol. Inquis. (Pfaundler p. 43) : sie sprotzt 
mit den aupfen, umnt ohne thränen. Exactly the same is said of 
Thöck : 'Thöck mun griUa purrn^n iaritm (with dry tears) Baldra 
bilfarar.* Here the witch answers to the giantess* 

p. 1080,] To lie under a han-oiv defends you fr. the devil : 
stories in Müllenh. no. 290. Firmen, 1^ 206^ He that puts a 
piece of turf on his head will not be seen by witches, Panz. ßeitr. 
1, 240-1, Wearing Gundermann's garland makes yoti see 
witches, Somm. p. 58. The priest can tell witches by their round 
hats, Ceynowa p. 14, 

p. 1082.] Pol. iedzona means old witch, eater of men, esp. of 
children ; conf. iedza, a fury. Wicked women with white livers 
are also known in France, ivhite^Uvered men in Schambach 123*, 
Witches poke straw into the hearths place : j^er I briosti liggr 
halmmnk, )>ar er hiartat skyldi vera, Fornm. s. 2, 208 ; Walther 
Ströwtnherz, Schrei ber*s Frib. urk, 2, 161, In Petron. c, 63 : 
Btrigae puerum involaverant, et supposuerant dramentitium vava- 
ionetn ; and just before; videt manuciolnm de stramentis factum. 
At a witches' feast, boys were usually killed, boiled or roasted, 
and eaten up ; which reminds us of heathen practices, and those 
of giants. Such killing, cooking, and eating of children is an 
antique and vital feature, KM. nos. 15. 51-6, conf. supra (pp. 
1045 end. 1058 — 60). Kettle and cooking are a part of magic, 

p. 1083.] A beast crawls into the sleeping woman's mouth 
Wolf*s NdrK sag, 250, and note p. 688 ; or a »nalce creeps out of 
it, Walach. march, p. 103. A white mouse slips into the dead 
man's mouth, Somm, p. 46; ' but alas, in the midst of her song 
a red monnie popt out of her month,* Faust p. m. 165 ; a hee flies 
out of one's mouthy Schreib. Taschenb. 4, 308. As the white 

16*26 MAGIC. 

mouse runs up the rampart in Fiscliart*s play, so witcbes indoors 

run up the witil to the rafters, Process v. Ursernthal. With 

the iron bridge of king Gunthratn's dream, conf, the sword-hrldye 
in the Bom. de la charlotte pp. 23. Si (Suppl to 835). When 
the witch ia setting oot,, she lays a broom or a halm of »traw m 
the bed by her sleeping husband, Mone 8, 126. With OHG. 
irproHaUj tranced, connect 'inbrodm lac/ Lachm. Ndrrhein, ged. 
p. 9, and * in hännebn'iden gelegen/ Reim dich p. ö2, Oop 
entzückt is in MEG. ' gezucket anuie geiste^^ Diut. 1^ 46ö ; als in 
zuckele der geist, Uolr. 133L We also say * rapt, caught up, 
carried away.' 

p. 1083.] With the Servian stariuig -spell agree the Moravian, 
Külda in D'Elvert 92-3» German formu!aa in Mone 8, 12G. 
Panzer 1, 251. Miilleah. no. 291. Lisoh^a M. jrb, 5, 85, With 
them compare i oben hinam^ iiirgem an ! Gallenb. Wurmld (?) ^i^ ; 
hui oben aus, und nü^rfHiud aUj Agricola's Spr. 217. KL red. 
(? 1565) US*; fmi cp hei au^ stöU nernichanf N» Preusa. pror. bl. 
1, 229. The cry of pursuit ia in Schünw, ], 139; so Aschen- 
piistep (Cinderella) cries; * behind me dark, before me bright;' 
kSeand. lyst foratif og vmrki hag, Norsk e event. 1, 121; IjtUfi for 
rnig^ viorkt efter mifj, Sv. äfvent» 1^ 410. 427; hviJt fremutif otf 
iiort b(igy Abs. 421. But ' herop og herned til Mötisaas/ Aeb» 
Huldr. 1, 179, is another thing. An Engl, spell for faring to 
Eltland is: ^ horse and hattock ! with my topi' Scot. bord. 2, 
177-8. Voiund's speech: ' vel ek, verSa ek ä fitjom 1 ' is appar. 
a flight- form nla, for he soars up immed. after, äa3m, 138*»^ — — 
When a sorcereaa anoints her should era, wings sprout out, Stieres 
Ungr. march, p. 53. Faust uses a magic mantlä to fly up; conf. 
the remarkable tale of a dwarf who spreads ont his cloak, and 
lets a man stmid on it with him, H. Sachs i. 3, 280^^^ 

p. 1085.] The good people (p. 456} cnt themselves horses ont 
of switches, Erin 1, 136. The itiagic steed must be bridled with 
bast, or it rnns away, Reusch p. 23-4. In Pacolet*8 wooden horse 
one has only to turn the tap to right or left, VaL et Orson c. 26 
{Nl. c. 24)* A hose-band tied round the shank lifts into the air, 
Eliz. of Orl. 505. 

p. 1086.] The German witches too are liindered in their ex- 
cursions by the mund of bells. If they are late in coming home, 
and the matin -peal rings out from a church, their career stops a» 



if paralysed, till the last tone has died away. The witch abuses 
the heU, Panz. Beitr. 1, 20. 

p, 1089.] ' Carmine grandines aveiiere* is as old aa Pliny 17, 
28. Hail being in grains, it is strewn oafc by bushelfals : t% 
j^aXafiy? Qfiov ^ihi^ivoi y^ikiOi BiaaxeSaadijrmtTaVj Lucian's Icarom. 
26. *You hail-hoiUr I * in a term of abuse, Mone's Schausp. 2, 
274. German witches scatter a powder with cries of alle^ schaver, 
allet scfiauer ! The day before Walburgis night, a merry cobbler 
mocked his maid : ' Take me with you to Peter's mount I ' When 
evening fell, there came a storm, nigh shook his doors and 
Bbntters down ; well knew the cobbler what it meant. The 
Esths know how to produce cold : if you set two jugs of beer 
or water before them, one will freeze and not the other; see 
WulfetHn's journey. The weather must be well hoiLfd : if the pot 
is empiUd too mttUj your labour is lost, Mone 8, 120. 130. The 
Kalmuks have the same kind of weather-making» Klemm 3, 204. 

Witches boil apple-hlogsoms, to spoil the fruit crop, Mone 8^ 

129, Dull on the fir-tree pours out hail, Panzer 1, 20. Says an 
old woman dripping wet, ' Pve had this weather in mij back this 
fortnight/ When the Imntsrnan heard that, he struck her over 
the hump with a stick, and said, * Why couldn't you let ü out 
sooner then, old witch as you are?* Siraplic. 1, 287. Witches 
make sioneif roll (ein rübi gan) into the hay aud corn fields ; also 
avalaneheß, Proc, v, Ursernthal 245 — 8, The shower-maidens feed 
on beshowered (lodged) corn, Panzer 1, 88. Hence Ph. v. Sittew» 
and the Fr. SimpL 1, 53, 68 call the witch * old weatkt*r ; ' elsewh. 
she is hageUanne, donnerhageltt-aas (-carrion), 7 Ehen p. 78 ; 
uhower-breeder, fork-greofter. Witches are timither-mahen*, Wolf« 
NdrL a. 289. A witch drops out of the cloud, Bader nos. 337. 
169, The Servian vila leads cloiuh (vode oblake) and makes 
weather, Vuk sub v. rrzino kolo ; she teaches her pupils the art. 
Onr Germ, phrase, 'the old wives shake out their petticoats ^ = it 
snows, suggests the Wallachian witch who throws olf her petti- 
coats. The Indiana of Surinam say their sorcerers have thunder- 
storms, violent showers and bait at their command, Klemm 2, 

lß8. The 0. Fr. poets name heathen kings * roi (ia^te-bt^,* 

GuilUume 4, 179. 256 and * roi Tempeste,' 4, 257, 26; couf. 
Mätzner 257 and Tampasie in Wolfram's Wh. 27, 8 (rhym. with 
Faus»abri for Fauche-pre, or bl6 ?) 46, 20. 344, 7, 371, 3. 4i2, 

1628 MAGIC. 

39. A Thessalian sorceress fetches the moon down from the 
skj, and shuts her up in a box^ Aristoph. Clouds 749. At 
Tos, deduetoB quibns est fallacia lunai, Propert. i. 1^ 19; tano 
ego crediderim vobis et sidera et amnes posse cjrtacsBis dueere 
carminibns i. 1^ 23; illic et sidera primam prsBcipiti deducta polo, 
Phosbeqne serena non aliter diris verboram obsessa Tenenia 
pallnity Lucan. Phars. 6^ 496 ; cantus et e cnrm lunam dedueere 
tentaty et faceret si non aera repulsa sonent, Tib. i. 8, 21 ; haue 
ego de coelo dticentem sidera vidi, i 2^ 45 ; te qnoqae, Lana, 
fraho, Ov. Met. 7, 207 ; in hac civitate, in qoa molieres et lunam 
deduamt, Petr. c. 129. 

In Esthonia the witches knead stalks of rye together, and re* 
peat a spell over them ; unless the knots are soon found out and 
burnt, the crop is sure to fail, Possart p. 164, conf. 162. 

p. 1091.] In transforming, the sorcerer touches with his staff: 
pdßSip iwifuuraeaOai, Od. 13, 429, conf. 16, 172. Venus touches 
the mouth of Ascanius with her feather. En. 802 ; and Dido 
catches it (the magic) from his lips 815. Mice are made out of 
fallen pears, but without tails, Firmen. 1, 276^; conf. the red 
mouse (Suppl. to 1083 beg.). Young puppies made, Simpl« 2, 
296-7 (ed. Keller), conf. 328. Ace. to Renval], bjära is the Finn. 
para, genius rei pecuarisd lac subministrans ; conf. Lencquist 
De superst. 1, 53. Castren 167-8. Ganander's Myth. Fenn. 67, 
even Juslenius sub v. para. In Angermanl. it is called bjara, 
Almqv. p. 299; in Vesterbotten, see Unander sub v. bora; the 
Gothl. Yocab. in Almqv. p. 415 describes it as sm&troll med bre 
ben. Esths make a home^prite out of an old broom, Verh. 2, 89 ; 
did Goethe take his Apprentice fr. Lucian's Philops. 35-6 (Bipont. 
7, 288) ? Even a man is made out of wood, and a heart put tn- 
side him ; he walks about and kills, Fomm. s. 3, 100. 

p. 1093.] Wa^'ßgures were placed on doors, at cross-roads, 
and on the graves of parents, Plato De legg. 1 1 , 933 ; in another 
passage (of Plato?) Anacharsis speaks of Thessal. sorceresses 
and their wax-figures ; the xcaxen image of Nectanebus, Callisth. 
p. m. 6. At a synod of 1219 Archbp Gerhard of Bremen con- 
demns the Stedingers as heretics, charging them with 'quaerere 
responsa daemonum, cereas imagines farere, aphitonissis requirere 
consilium, et alia nefandissima tenebrarum exercere opera,' Sa- 
dendfs Registr. 2, 158; ' quaerunt responsa daemonum, eerea 



Bimulacfa faciunt, et iu suis Bpurcittis erroueas consuluat pliito- 
TlisBas/ Bull of Greg. 9 (1233), ibid. 2, 168. Oq wax-figures, see 

Osuabr. verb. 3, 71. M. Lat tnmdiuor, praesti^ator qui ad 

artes magicas vulttis effiugit ; invuUare, fascinare^ Fr. envoulter, 
Ducange sub vv, invultare, vuUivoÜ. They tried to copy the 
features of the man they were going to bewitch iu the wax or 
clay puppet; they solemnly baptized it, gave it sponsors, aud 
anointed it. When they pricked it with a needle, the man felt 
a sharp pain ; if they pricked the head or heart, he died. They 
tried to have an Easter candle out of the church, to do the work 
by. Sticking needles iuto a war-figure occurs in Kemble's 
Chartae, Pref. lix. Ix., and the story in Miillenh. p. 238 ; conf. 
imago argentea (SuppL to 1175 end). Ferebatur imaginem quan- 
dam ad instar dvjüi, ex Egipto adiatam, adorare ; a qua quotiens 
responsa quaerebat, necesse erat homicidium aut in sum mo festo 
adulterium procnrare; conf. Pertz 10, 400 and the thiefs thumb 

(Suppl. to 1075 end). Outttng out tfie footprint answers to 

Tffpctv TO t)(vo^ Kal äßavpovv, vestigium observare et delere (blur), 
by plantiug one's right foot on the other's left print, and 
one's left on his right, and saying : iwtßißi^Ka cro^, tcai vTr^pdv^ 
eifii, conscendi te, et superior suoi ! Luciau's Dial* meretr. 4. 
GDS. 137. 

Thinga ilmi make invisible are : the tarn-helm (p. 463), the 
bird's nest (Suppl. to 974), the right-hand tail-feather of a cock 
(to 671 mid,), fern-seed (p, 1210), the ring, rather the stone in 
the ring (p. 911), Troj. 9203. 9919, and the sonnenwedel (helio* 
trope) laid under a stone, Mone 8, 614. 

p. 1097,] Plioy 8, 34: Homines in lupos verti rursumque 
restitui sibi, fatsum esse existimare debomus. Dnde tarnen ista 
vulgo infixa sit fama, in tantum ut in maledictis versipelUe habeat, 
indicabitur. An OHG. name IFermW/' occurs already in the 9th 
cent., Hpt 12, 252, and in öamland the name Warwolf, A wer- 
te;«// in H. Sachs ii, 4, 16% meerwolf, beerwolf in Btto. ünw. doct« 
671- Wtfrwatz (watz = brood- hog) is a family name at Drei- 
eichenhain ; is it formed like werwolf? Loup» garous, Bosquet 

p. 223 seq. ^To change yourself into a fox, wolf or col, you 

use an ointment, Proc. v, Ursernth. ; or shift the buckle of a 
certain strap to the ninth hole^ Eeusch in Preuss. pro v. bh 36, 
486 and 23, 127. GDS. 152; conf. the old leather strap. 


A A 



Firmen. 1^ 213, People witli a woIf-girdle are ulf-heSnar: is 
that coün. with our heiden^ heiden-ivolf for uabaptrzed child, in 

Wal deck heid-oUeken ? PapoUere '60, p. 8. By putting a-slip 

of wood (sprooccolo) in one*8 mouthj one becomes a she-bear, 
and man again on taking it oub> Pentam. 2, 6. If you dash 
grass against the stem of a tree, wolves spring out of it, 
Remigii DaemonoL {1598) pp. 152. 162. Slgefridus dictua tijolf- 
vel, MB. 1, 280, but wolvel (Wolfel?) 8, 458. The gods send 
Idun a wolfskin : vargs-belg seldo, let ifaraz^ lyndi breitti, Saem, 

89». Were- wolf stories in Mullenh. nos. 317— 320. Firmen. 

1, 363. 332. 212-3. Lekensp, 2, 91-2. ON. i varg-skinns olpu, 
Fornm. s. 10, 201 (ölpa, lilpa — toga, vestis). A were-wolf may 
be known by a wolfti-zagekhen (*tail) betw. the shoulder-blades. 
Keusch no. 75 and note ; by a little ' raugen wolfs-zagel ' grow- 
ing out of the back betw. the shoulders, Preuss* prov. bl. 26, 435. 
117. 172. 

p. 1098,] The witch appears as a fox, Schreib. Taschenb. 4, 
309 ; as a ihtee'hgged hare, Somm, Sag. 62 ; as a kol-svört keUa, 
Fomm. s. 3, 216. 220, Sv. forns. 1, 90 seq. Men protest : ' by 
eatien, die te dansen pleghen tawoendaghs ! ' Belg. mus, 2, 116. 
If a girl has fed the cat well, the sun shines on her weddiog-day, 
N. Preuss, prov, bl. 3, 470. Good stories of witches in Miillenh. 
pp, 212 — 6; also that of the cat's pari» being chopt off, its turning 
into a pretty female hand, and the miller next morning missing 
it on his wife, 227 ; and that of the witch who is ridden as a 
horse, who is taken to the farrier's to be shod, and lies in bed 
in the morning with horse-shoes on her hands and feet 226, 600. 
Mone 8, 182. So in Petron, c. 62 a were-wolf has been wounded 
in the neck j presently a * miles ' is found in bed, haviog his 
neck doctored : intellexi illura vernpdlem esse, neo postea cum 
illo panem gustare potni. The öfreskr in the eToniog sees a bull 
and a bear fighting ; the next day two men lie wounded in bed, 

Lindn. 5, 5, Transformation into a bear or fox, a swan or 

raven, is frequent. In Walewein 5598 : teneu vos verhrek*iti ; 
and 785 ; versciep hem. ' Er enlwarf mch zti/ he changed into, 
MysL 1, 214, etc. A bride turns into a »wan, Miillenh. p. 212 j 
a man becomes a hawk or falcon, and comes flying to the tower, 
Marie 1, 280, conf, 292. Women often change ioto toads: wesen 
ene paddßj en sitten onder die sille, Walew, 5639 ; gieuge ich ala 




ein krßts gäfe, a. soldo bi ei me zone g4n, Herb. 8364, ^I mnst 

here remark, thafc ver&a at göUttm in ON. tales does not mean 
turning into a awine, bat running about wild like a boar, Ver- 
lanff on Vatnsd. p* 106-7* The magicians and enchantresses in 
our fairytales often change men into wolves, bears, cats, dogs or 
swine ; the witches of a later time have no longer the power. 
Circe's formula, when turning men into swins by a stroke of 
her rod, was : epx^o pvv av(f>€6i»B€^ Od, 10, 320. The Lapland 
sorcerers stud bears^ wolves, foxes ^ ravens, to do mischief to 
men : such beast is then called illle, Lindahl 474*. 

It is a different thing when timpermns exchange figures* Tbis ON. 
skipia liium or hömum, skipta litoni ok hUonij vixla lUum is appar. 
eflfected by more will, without spell or clothing, e.g. betw. Sigurd 
and Guunar, Saam. 177-8. 202-3. Vols. sag. c. 27, betw, Signy 
and the sorceress. Vols. 7. It happens esp. among born brothers, 
who are so like as to be taken for one another ; but in the 
Nib. 337, 3. 429, 3. 602, 2 by the tarnhat which makes in- 
visible. In the same way the wrong wife or lover is smuggled 
into bed at night, as Braogaene for laot, conf. Berthe au grand 
pied and the Fabliau of the hair-cntting. A later and coarser 
version of this is the mere exchange of clothes, 

p. 1099,] Magic lies in the nails : des zoubers ort-habe (seat) 
ligt an den nagelen, Geo. 57**. Magic is fixed in the A air ; con- 
sider the elf-lock, elf-knot (p. 464) ; witches have all the hair 
shaved off them, see story in Klemm 2, 168* M, Beheim 273, 
26. 274, 7. Magic is taken out of the hair, Wolfdietr. 548; 

conf. wolf's hair above. Magic can nialre us proof against 

sword and bullet, shot and stroke; e.g. by a thread of silk, RA. 
183. One so made proof is called ^frozen man, Ettn. Unw. doct. 
641* 653. 683, iron man, ON. hard'-giorr, poison-proof, Sffim. 170; 
Kyrtil hiiu eigi iarn^ Landn. 2, 7. 3^ 4. The waund-speU makes 
iov^ülnerable ; bnt it can be neutralized by first hiding a knife 
in the ground and then wounding with it : this is called unloosing 
ifie spell^ H. Sachs v. 347*' (conf. * digging something in for a 
man,^ iii. 3, 7**), and the exorcist banntuch-macher, hart-mncher, 
Ontolaf's Wohh. 207, SS7* Othello 3, 4 has a magic kerchief 
wrooght by a sihifl : * the worms were hallowed that did breed 
the silk.* A St. Oeorge's skirt is made of yarn that was spun on 
a Saturday, Superst. G, ?. 182. 



p. 1100.] Witches are Bccu^ed of grasping, stroking, dazzling: 
' she made a elutch afc me that will last as long as I live,' Bod- 
mann^s Rheiogau p. 425, jr 1511 ; or 'ein boßer angriff, böser 
schlag, herz-griff/ They tread the cattle ; they * bringeo einexi 
webthuro za halse/ they learn you what dazltuj (hoodwinking) 
means, Bod in. Rh, 908> yr 1505, Magic is wrought by rubbing : 
the rubbing of wood brings forth a squirrel, of chips a marten, 
of leaves a bee, of feathers a flight of grouse, of wool a flock of 
sheep, Kalev. 13, 160, 220, 280. 17, 828, 467 ; conf. themarchen 
of the three brothers, who rub feathers, hair and scales, and 

iramed, eagles, bears and fish come to their aid*^ Widely 

spread is the belief in the magic of the eye, Grenzboten ^60, no. 
26. BXe/i/wi, avawvofj and 6<fe6aXfi6<; ßdaxavo^ are already in 
Plutarch's Sympos, v. 7; nescio quis teneros oenlus mihi /mtcinat 
aguos, Virg. Eel. 3, 108. EngL eüil eije, Ir, the halar, Conan 
p. 32 ; the blink o^ an ill ee, Hone's Dayb. 2, 6B8. His diebtis 
ei (Chilperico) fihus iiatus est, quern in villa Victoriacensi nutrire 
praecepit, dicens * ne forte, dtim publics videlur, aiiquid mali in~ 
currai et moriatur/ Greg* Tur. 6, 4L MHG. twerke ougen* On 
the evil eye, see N. Pr. prov* bl. 1, 391 — 3 ; der blick slangen 
toetet, wolve schrecket, ströz-eiger (ostrich -eggs) bruetet, üzsatz 
(leprosy) erwecket, u* ander krefte hat gar vil, Renn. 18016 ; 
men spit in a pretty girl's face for fear of the evil eye, Ir. march, 
2, 64. 

p. HOL] Sä ze hant ir röter munt einen tüsent stunt (times) 
80 schoenen (rosen, underst.) laclißt, MS. 1, 11*. The name 
Roaenhicher is in Michelsen^s Lub. oberh. 271. Baur's Artisb. 
158; conf. 'ad Ruozinlachan,' Notizbl, 6, 68. * To laugh roses,* 
Athen. 5, 4Ü8, It is derived fr, heathen beings of light, Mann- 
hdt's Germ, mythen 149. 439; camiUen'bluornen etrouwen^ swen 
so lieplich lachen wil ir munt, MSH. 3, 212^. 

p. 1102.] A kis« makes you forget everything, Müllenh, p. 
400* Pentam. Liebr. 1, 231 ; so does a bile of the apple , Norske 
folke-ev. 2, 47. Helen, like Grimhild, makes a magic potion, 
mingling spices with the wine. Od. 4, 220 — 230 ; so does Circe 
10, 235. The Färoese still call the draught of oblivion ouminni, 
Qvad. p. 178. 180. The Servians make their voda zaboraima of 
mountain-herbs, Vuk 2, 612-3. Conf. (f>t\rpov, love-potion; 
mein- bland in a mio'Sr, Vols, saga c. 25 ; scheidel-tranc gebrüwen. 



Amgb* 15*. Inoendia inter eptilas nominata aqais sub men&is 

pro fa sis ab-ominamur^ Plitiy 28, 2. 

p. 1103.] Silence 13 a aafeguard against magic: Saxo's'ne 
huatdo effamine maleficiis locum iDstriierent * (p. 659). Incanta- 
tiona are in Serv. urotzi, gen, nroka, Bob. aarok, conf. Jungm* 
sub V. ne-urocny, ne-uroka [reka^ I speak],. The Slav, formula 
againat bewitching is 'kamen-mira' [stone of peace?]; conL 
»eines Zeichens, ihres ^eicliens, Schmidt*9 Weaterw. id. 335^ and 
the phrases : salva venia ! God forefend (save the mark) ! 
When a man looks startled, the Serv. formula is ; ' zatchudio-se 
prebijenoi golieni/ he's amazed at his broken leg, Vnk sub v. 

jjBatchaditi-se, and Sprich w, p. 87. When sooiefching painful or 
mischievoua is said, the answer is ; ^ u nashega tchabra gvozdene 
ushi,' our tub has iron ears (handles), Sprichw. p. 334.« On 

wSpitiing as a protection from ma^ic, see Schwenk'» Rom. myth. 
899. The cyclop, when admiring his own beauty, spits in his lap 
three times^ to avoid baskania : ct»? fii} ßao'Kavdü} Bi, Tpw fi? 

iifiov eiTTvaa /coXirov ravra yap apyatd ߀ Korvrrapl^ efeS/- 
Bu^€Vr Theocr, 6, 39* The cock-pigeon spits on its young to keep 
off sorcery, Athen. 3, 4öG*8 ; et eum morbura mihi esse, ut qui 

me opus sit insfutaiier 7 Plaut. Capt. iii. 4, 21. An ear of 

corn protects from magic : ar^s viS fiölk^ngi, Saeni. 27'*. In the 
threshold of the honse-door you bore a hole, put in fuifiowed herbs, 
and peg them in with a harrow* s tooth, Mone 6, 460 (p» 1078). 
Throw & fire-steel over anything ghostly, and you are master of it, 
Dybeck '44, 104 — 6; conf, the power of the M-Ml over the 
giant, CavalL 1,39; ikUstaahi, Folke-ev. 2, 82; ^ flint^eld ia 
atnick over the cow, Dyb. 4, 27 and over enchantresses 4, 29 ; or 
a knife is fluug '44, 63. 4, 33, A magic circh is drawn : gladio 
circa illos clrculum fecit, monens sub interminatiooe mortis, at 
infra circulum se cohiberent, Cces, Heist, 5, 4. On Indian sorcery, 
conf. Centrai-blatt '53, 255. 



p. 1105,] Gr. h€i^thaiyi,mv superatitious, BeiaiSai/iopia super- 
stition. Tac. Germ. 45 speaks of the superstitio of the Aestyans. 
Pott 1, 157 derives the word fr, stare super, to stand by or befors 



the god or altar. Wend, vüra faith^ ffiviera^ psiviefa super- 
stition [Ru89, 8uye-verie]. With the Swed, vidske-jjelne agrees 
in part the OHG, umcaf superstitio, unscajlihho superstitiose, 
GraÖ* 6, 453 ; there are also unpiderpi 5, 219 and uhirfenkida, GL 
Sletst. 25j 327 both = sopergtitio ] ubairiüinielingnji Biiperstitiose, 
Mone's Anz. '35, 89, AS. oferiaele ßuperatitiosuö, Lye. Later 
words : gtlonlwJm, Krolewifcz 3753 ; swacher ghube, nngelouhe. 
Er. 8122-39. We have also kolder-glaube, collier^a faith, and in 
the Quickborn hÖ7ier-globe. Superati tiones religionis rubigines, 
Garg. 187** On auperstitioD, Bee Nilason 6j 3, Hes. 0pp. 705 — 

p. 1105 n.] Klemm 3, 201-3 divides magic into explorative 
and active* A foretokeOj presage, is in Lat. portentum from 
portendo, ontentum from oaten do, vionMrum from monetro 
[raoneo?], Cic, Div. 1, 42 and Forcellini ; prodigia coelestia, 
prope quotidianas in nrbe agrisque ostentantia minas, Livy 2, 42. 
OHG^fora^poHchanj fore-hesLCon, f or a-zetck an ^ foretoken; blzeicJi^n^ 
Windb. Ps* 323. 367. Signs appear before the Judgment-day, 
bef. a death, a dearth, a war. To curse all signs, Hebel 332. 

p. 1107.] OHG. drewa oraculum, droa fulmen, Graff 6, 246. 
AS» hwat omen, divinatio, also hwaiungt OHG. hvm (p. 951), 
conf, hwätsiid iris (p. 1216 n.) ; ^^el-/<t/;a^e divinatio per aves, 
AS. hwetfcon hige, hael scedivedon (on the voyage), Beow, 407 ; 
0B6. heil'scowunge augurium, Graff 6, 556 ; hel-scouminge, Par- 
tonop. 20, 13; //e%e scoweds auguriiim, SumerL 2, 41; hel- 
scowinge^ Bilderdyk's "V eracheideüh. 3, 143. FrauenL p, 142 
uses künden for prognosticate. Ag^in Mes&fi, choose = look out 
for (in ref. to weather, Gramm. 4, 848), conf. Swed. tjusa (p. 
1037). Children esp. are used in divination and casting lots; 
conf. pure chiMren, Supers t H, cap, 55-6-7. 83. 

p. 1107.] A remarkable method of acquiring the gift of divi- 
nation occurs in the Swed* ärs-gängf Hpt's Ztschr, 4, 508 seq* 
Both that and thepowerofhealing are passed on from women to i 
me7i, from mefi to women, conf. Firmen. 1, 318. Sommer's Sagea | 
p. 171. As in Superst. I, 996, so in Miillenh. 399 the gift of 
Bpirit-seeing is transferred by treading on the left foot and 
looking over the right shoulder. Prevision is the faculty of 
presentiment intensified to actual seeing and hearing: ekforeseer, 
forepeeper beholds funerals, armies in march, battles, also unim- 



portant tbings^ soch as a harvest- wagon that will upset in the 
yard in ten years* titne, the figares and clothing of servants yet 
uoborn who are lifting him off the ground, the marks on a foal 
or calf that shies to one side ; he hears the tap of the hammer on 
coffin lids, or the tramp of horse. These vorklekers always 
perceive with only mie sense, either sight or hearing: they cannot 
hear what they see, nor see what they hear. They are witch- 

0eer$, god-seers, devil-seers. In ON. a ghost-seer is ofreskr, 

Landn. 3, 14 4, 12. 5, 5 (p. 3i4) ; or does * o/resfar menn ß& 
l^at' in these passages mean that even o-fresk men could see 
it f for Biöm Haldorson (sub w, freskr, öfreakr) maintains that 
frmkr is the seer, and ofreskr the non-seer; which seems right 
enougbj provided that freskr means cat-sighted, from fres (felis). 
Oar nursery-tales tell of these cat-eyed men with an eye for 
mice, KM*^ 3, 198; then there is the giant who gets cat's eyes 
pot into his head. Another term is frojisk, som natten til en 
hoitids dag, isär Jule-natt, kan forud-sige det tU-komraenile, 
Molb. Dial lex. 138, Frem-sijn is to be acquired by smearing 
with riUormsod, or by looking at a funeral procession through 
a skagle^ottft, Moe^s note, 

p* 1109.] On neve-rtinniuijf see Miillenh. no. 272. Tett. and 
Tern. Preuss. sag. p. 284. Erbe-sib crispula, a plant*s name, 
BumerL 56, 37. To detect the thief, a hoop is driven ^ Panzer's 
Beitr. I, 210; three plates are laid for him, containing bread, salt 
and lard, Hpt 7, 538 ; dishes shaken, and froth observed ^ Tett. 
and Tcmm. p. 260. Bait. stud. xii. 1, 37-8; 'when in a sword 
he sees the stolen thing/ Troj. kr. 27412 (the sword holds in it a 
spirit, FrauenL p. 142-3 : ich bäte in eime swerte von äventinre 
einen geist, daz or mir solde künden). Prophesying from icicles, 
Pansser 2, 549 j by throwing a Bible open (an early practice), 
Greg. Tur. 4, 16. 

p. 1 1 JO,] The lot is cast ; leton tfln wisian )>d se tan gehwearf 
Andr. 1099. The * temere ac fortuito spargcre' of Tacitus is 
like ON, ' hrista teina,' to shake the twigs, as in Smm. 52*; 
hristo teina, ok ä hlaut sä. M.Neth. si worpnn caveleUf Jesus c. 
229, conf, *jaccre talos in fontem,' tSaeton. Tib. 14. Kudorff 15, 
218. Goth, hlauts imma mrann, iXax^, Luke 1, 9. GDS. 159; 
ez was in so gevallen, Livl. chr. 5724, ez was im wol gevallmi 
1094, in was der span gevallen wol 2183, in viel dicke wol ir span 



7239; dab lot rid, Maerl. 2, 169, die caveh viel 2, 60. We say 
* to whom the happy lot h&s fallen J 

The Scythians too divioed by sticks, Herod. 4, 07 and Nicander 
(Or. Sk. p. 659) J the Alani, Amm. Marcel. 31, 2; the early 
SaxoDSj Beda 5, 11 (mittunt sorter, hluton mid idiuint) ; the 
FrisianSj whose Lex Fria. tit. 14 gays : teiii lana munda ohoolufi. 
So the Greek suppliants bear in their hands XevKoaT€if>€t^ 
leoSpiirrovi kXaBov^, Aesch. Suppl. 333, a-vv TOILS' Ueräfv 
iy-^eipiSiot^; epioaTiTTTOtat fcXaSotai 22, XevKoa-Te^ftv ifcnjpia^ 
191, /cXaSotcrt yeoBpowoi^ 354 («\dS-09 ia hlaut-a, hloz) • dpitp 
a'Ti4i€iv, Plato Rep, 3, p. 398. Hermann's Gottesd. alt. p. 105-8 
(raw wool is laid on the stone. Paus. x. 24, 5). The Slavs cast 
lots with black and lohiie sticks, Siixo (MüÜ. 827), and divined by 

the odd or even lines in ashes, ibid.^ -Drawing lots with wilhw- 

leaves, Ettn. Maiilaffe 703 j with dalkif of corn, Vnk no, 254. 
RA, p. 126; sortiri ex siteUa (bucket), Plaut, Casina, see ForcelK 
sub V. sitella ; ' sors Scotorura,^ Dronke'a Ql. Fuld. 12. There 
were lot-hooks to divine by : diz losg'hiiot'h ist unrehte (jelesen 
(wrongly read), Wiener mer-vart 556; a loz-lnwck in Cod. Vind, 
2970 (HoflTin. 209). 2953 (H, 366) ; hss-hüchlem, Ph. v. Sittew,; 
lössebi and lössel-huch, Schni. 2, 504; losseUnachte^ Frisch 1, 
623 ; losslerelj llmlent}. 

p, 1111.] On this motion of houghs, from which the Armenians 
divined, see N. Cap, 20. Machen viur uz den spacheit (p. 1121 
mid.) ; conf. Snperst, H, c. 80, in dem fewre sehen; D, 38r. and 
140r,, /lir-aehen. With 'der tisch in der hani^ conf. ' metisa 
volae,' Finn, onnenpöyiä^ luck^s table, fr. onni = fortuna. 

p. 1112.] The Romans also spoke of drawin<j water in a sieve: 
cribro aquam, Plaut. Ps, i, 1, 100; imbrem in cribro, Pliny 28,2. 
Our * emptying the pond with a sieve/ Sominer's Sag, pp. 13, 

The Gauls prophesied from the aipaSaa-^o^ (convulsions) of one 
devoted to death, when his hack was pierced with a sword, Strabo ' 
4, p. 198; the Cimbrians from the blood and entrails of their 
sacrificed prisoners 7, p, 294, Lat exti-spicinm. The Malays 
also divine from the entrails of slaughtered beasts^ Ausland 
'57, p. 603^ 

p, 1 113,] An ein schulder-hcin er sach (looked), 

des quam sin herze in ungemach (became uneasy)» 

Er sprach : ' diö Littouwen liden not, 

min bruoder ist geslagen t6t, 

ein her (array) in mioem hove lac (has lain) 

sib gester bis an disen tac I * 

Daz bein h&t manigem sit gelogen (lied). 

LivL ehr. 3019, Ocello3 habens in spatulig — humeri^, Pertz 8, 
385 j expositione ossiam «patulae ala in snia »paiulUj Fridericus 
imp. De arte ven, 1, 26. Inspection of shoulderbladea ia known 
to Kalmyks (Klemni 3, IÖ9), Tungnses and Bedouins (3, 109). 

p. 11]5>] The Romans also divided pieces into aqnamoHt Siud 
lion squamosi, Festas p. 2o3. W, Goethe's Diss. p. 19< In 
Levifc. 11, 9 and Dent, 14, 9 fish that have /i«« and Si^aies are 
proD. eatable; conf. Griesh, 146. 

p* 1 1 1 7.] The rat wishes the cat joy when she »neezeSf Avada- 
nas 2, 149, 160; irrap^o*; ix rmv Be^imv, Herrn. Gottesd. alt. 
p, 136; *E/>ci>T€5 iireirrapov. Theoer. 7, 96; haec nt dixit, Amor, 
sinistra ut antea^ dextra stemuit approbationem, CatulL 44, 17; 
atque, ut primam e regione mulieris, pone tergura eius raaritus 
acceperat sonuni uterHutaHonls . • . solito sermone mihiiem ei 
fuerat imprecatuSj et iterato rarsura, ApuL Met* lib. 2, p.m. 211. 
The ' Got helfe dir I ' is also in Myst. i. 103, 10 ; swer ze vremden 
niesen sich rimpfet (crumples up), daz ist ouch verlorn^ Ettn. 
Frauenh p. 70. 

p, 1117.] Ringing in the ears: ißop^ßet rä atra vfiiv^ Lnc* 
Dial. mer. 9 ; aures tinniunt, Pertz 9, 265; sine oren songhen, 
Walew. 9911. — — SupercUium äalit, a good omen, ForcelL sub v. 
Buperc. On prophetic jfirks in the limbs among Orientals^ see 
Fleischer in Hep. of Leipz. acad. d, w, '49, p. 244, 

p. 1119.] The spells in Burns's Halloween are for discovering 
one's future lover. On Christmas Eve the sleeping fowls begia 
crowing, if a girl is to be married soon, Firmen, 2» 377. Wifut 
may be poured instead of lead. Moneys Anz, 7, 423 : ceram in 
aquam fiindere, Lasicz 56. 

p. 1119.] Angang^ what meets you on setting out, cwÖcf, 
mane, iv up^jj, iv ßvpat^^ iirl ttj ^pmrrj i^öSm, is signifieaiit. 
M. Neth, fin tjoei tjliettioetj Rose 2715; gude a. bone motten Gefk, 
Beil. 100. Swed. nud, mote; itjktt'mott evil meeting. Gr. Bv^~ 
avTTjTOs [itl-met by moonlight, proud Titania] = boding ill; so 

1638 süPEBSTinoN. 

Sv^'KkrfBdvtaro^ [fr. /ckffBciy, omen]. A titolos in the Salic Law 
treats ' de superventis vel exspoliationibos/ 

p. 1124.] On an gang among the Thugs^ see Convers. lex. d. 
geg. iy. 2, 55; on the Greek belief in it, Lacian's Pseadol. 17 (ed. 
Bip. 8, 72) and Eunuch. 6 (Bip. 5, 208). Theophr. Charact. c. 
16 (conf. Kopp De amuletis p. 42). ' Consider too, that tine flight 
and song of all the birds look favourable ; if these be not joyful 
signs, 1 have clean forgot the art; no bird of black feather, no 
raven, starling, crow nor ouzel have I seen. Three merry men 
have met me, three men named John, Not once have I stumbled, 
and wellnigh do I believe the stones move out of my way or 
flatten them before me. The folds of my garment hinder me 
not, neither am I weary, every mother^s son greeteth me, no dog 
hath barked against me, Wirsung's Cal. J 2^. To run across one's 
path is always bad, Biittner's Lett, lieder p. 255. 

p. 1126.] Meeting an old woman is called karing-möte, Afzel. 
2, 148. ' Unlucky to meet a red-liaired woman bef. any one 
else in the morning,' O'Kearney 132. 'The first thing that 
meets me, were it even a parson, a beggar or an old woman,' 
Goethe in Weimar jrb. 5, 458 ; wizzet, wem der (unsaelige lip) 
anegenget an dem morgen fruo, deme git ungelücke zuo, Walth. 
118, 16 (conf. 'also wol ir g^ anegenget was,' Diemer 206,23). 
Doch hdn ich ie gehoeret wol, daz man die priesier schiuhen sol 
(should shun) ze sö-getänen Sachen, Heinz v. Kost. Eitter n. pf. 
308 ; on the other hand : swer in zuo einem male gesach, der 
w&ude sin vtirwar (hoped verily to be) deste saeliger ein j&r, Oute 
frau 970. Who looks at early morn under the fair one's eyes is 

safe from sorrow all that day, Hätzl. 148^. For hunters the 

skogs-ra, for fishers the hafs-fru is unlucky meeting, Afzel. 2, 148. 
150. No woman with spindle or distaff may tarry in my lord's 
mill (bann-müle), Weisth. 2, 25. To meet one that is lame of the 
right foot, or gelded, or effeminate, is unlucky, Lucian 5, 208 ; 
conf. Brodaei Misc. in GraBvii Thes. 2, 509; (eunuchus) pro- 
cedentibus omen, Claudian in Eutrop. 1, 125. Parsons' Journeys 
are a sign of rain, Praetor. Alectr. 163. About meeting a black 
or a ivhite monk, see Spinnr. evang. Friday 10; about a «u;orc{ 
being handed by a woman, ibid. Wednesd. 20. 

p. 1128.] The Lapps carefully observe what beasts they meet. 
Klemm 8, 90. There are beasts which are not to be named in 



the morning : al<7X^^ 6if}plw¥ rmv Trpatfa^ mpa^ ovopMCOijvai Sua- 
ie\i)Soma-jfi>Vt Luc. Ataores 39, Meeting with a hare bodes no 
good, WolPa Deut, aag. no. 370 j turn thee home if a hare run 
across thy path, Keisersb. Vom lewea 63^. On the hare and the 

wolff Lappeoberg'a Eulensp. p. 144, The enconnter of a wolf 

estimated variously : ' Sed gravius men tea caesorum ostenta f«- 
porwm horrificant; duo quippe lupi sab principia ora, dam 
campis exeroet equos^ violenter adorti agmen^ et excepti telis^ 
im mane relatu, prodigium miramque notam duxere futuri/ Claad* 

B. Get. 249. * Sei weren einen wuif op dem wege van gen 

(caught), det quam utem holte gegangen^ des freneden sei sik all 
int gemein/ all rejoiced, Soester fehde p* 607; ' the colonel held 
this brush with the imlves to be a good ovien that they should 
yet further come upon unlooked for booty/ SimpL 2, 74. Men 
wish the wanderiTtg fox luck on his journey, Ettn. Unw; doct. 
240. Do wart en catte lopende vor dem here (army), Detm. 1, 

The weasel is changed into a fair lady, Babr. 32 ; it is called 
j/v^^irfa, Lobeck's Path. 8Ö0 ; other names in Nemujch sub. v, 
tnnstela. Does froie in Beinh. elxxii. answer to It. donnola, or 
is it conn. w. M. Neth. i;ra6te=palcra, venosta ? conf. damoiseUe 
helette, Lafont. 3, 17, In the ttenart it is cMed petit porchaz, in 
the Reinaertf dene bejach, ON* hreuikottr is ermine. Auspicio 
bodie optnmo exivi foras, mvstela murem abstulit prseter pedes. 
Plant. Stich, iii. 2, 6. A legend of the mastela in Marie 1, 474. 

p. 1129.] "O/Jt/i? came to mean any auspicium, whether of 

birds or not, Aristoph. Birds 719 — 721. A bird-gazer olmpiarri^, 

> II. 2, 85S; opviBa^ ypoyvat,. Od. 1^ 159; Siayvtüuat Trrrjtraf Qpvidmu, 

I Paus, i, 34, 3; olmv&y ad<f>a elSo)^, Od. 1, 202; opyt9a<i xpivmv, 

Hes, Op. 826. ' Telemua Etirymides, quem nulla f felt trat ales,' 

Ov* Met. 13, 770; nunc ave deceptus falsa 5, 147; Bv^-ouavtaTo^, 

Luc. Eunuch. 6. OUG, fogalrarta auguriura, Jogairarton 

augariari, Graflf 2, 536 ; fogilrartod auspiciutn, GL Sletst, 22, 3. 
AS. fugeUhwdte augurium (Sappl. to 1107). Boh. koh, koba, 
divination by flight of birds ; ffohat kuba, falcon. Not every bird 
1 18 adapted for divination : opvide^ ii re iroXXoi vtt aifja^ i^fXtoio 
^oiTmc\ ovSi T€ wdvT€^ ivaiatfioif Od. 2, 181 ; fugl fro^-hngadr, 
Siem. 141*; parra, eornix, plena, pica are augu rales, Aufrecht in 
D. Zeitachr. 1, 280, Men watched the flight a» well as the 


song, Holtzm. Ind. ßag. 2, 44 ; quae voces aTium? qnanti i>er 
inane yolatas T Claud. 4 cons. Hon. 142 ; die ferU dero fogelo, 
unde dero singenton rarta, unde die heilesoda dero in rihte fare 
Bih fliegenton, N. Cap. 17; ir vogel in vil wol sanc^ Livl. 7240. 
The Malays prophesy from the flight and cry of birds^ AosL '57^ p. 

603-4, and war and husbandry are determined by them. Uf 

einem tadi (roof) stnont ein krä, si schrei vast ' ha ha ha ha, narre 
bistu da ! ' fool that you are, V. d. Hagen's 6. Abent. 2, 449 ; ez 
hab ein swerziu krd gelogen (lied), MS. 2, 80»; chant sinistre et 
criard du corbeau, Villemarq. Bard. bret. 167. On the langoage 
of ravens and crows, and on birds divided into castes like men, 
see Monats-ber. d. acad. '59, p. 158-9. Bulletin de P^tersb. '59, 

p. 438. Auspicio, a vi sinistra, Plant. Epid. ii. 2, 2; ;ua ego 

huDc amorem mihi esse avi dicam datum ? Plant. Cas. iii. 4, 26 ; 
dira avis, Sueton. Claud. 22. Pnlcherrimum augurinm, octo 
aquilae petere silvas et intrare visae (signif. 8 legions), Tao. Ann. 
2, 17; a Servian song addresses the high-soaring far-seeing 
eagles, Yuk 1, 43 no. 70 (Wesely p. 64). Fata notant, stellaeqne 
vocant aviumque volaius, totius et subito malleus orbis arc, 
Bicherius 4, 9. Böhmer's Font. 3, 51. Luther says somewhere: 
If thou see a little bird, pull off thy hat, and wish him joy, 
Schuppius 1121; ichn' weiz waz vogels kegn in vlog, J eroBchia 

p. 1131.] A flight to your right is lucky, to your left nnlucky, 
GDS. 982 seq. Parra dexiera, comix dextra,picus sinister, Grotef. 
Inscr. Umbr. 6, 5. 7. 

TVV7J S' olcjvolai Tavuirrepvyeaat xeXevei^ 

ireideaOai, t(ov ovtl /leTaTpeirofi ouS' oKeyi^to, 

€iT iirl he^C Itoai wpo^ ^Hco t 'Hi\i6v re, 

eiT iir äpiarepä Toiye ttotI ^o^ov fiepoevra, II. 12, 237. 

The Greeks often mention the eagle: 

iTreTTTaro Sefto? (right hand) opvi^, 
at€T09 (eagle) apyrjv %^va <l)€pwv ovvyeaai, ireKfopov 
rifiepov i^ avXrjf;. Od. 15, 160. 

ainäp 6 rolaiv äpiaTep6<; (left hand) rjXvOev 6pvi^, 
at€T09 vylnTreTf)^, ey^e he rp-qptova TriXeiav» Od. 20, 242. 

Tft) S' aierw (two eagles) evpvoira Zev^ 



El v-^oOev €K Kopvif>TJs op€o^ 'rrpoir}K€ Trer^aSui, Od, 2j 146; 
and tlien : h€^ta> (right hand) iqll^av htd r oUia, tc,T*K 154. 
AgaicLi the hawk : 
eTriirraro Scfto? opvt^, 
tc/pMOf; (hawk) , ^AwoXKoivo^ ra-^v^ a77€Xoc, iv hi ^tröhecai 
I Tt\X€ ^eXftav tx^^* Karä hk wr^pa j(j^v€v €pa^€ 
^traiffvti VTfos t€ tcal avrov TifK€pÄ')(oio. Od. 15, 528. 

The flight of the monse-hawk is carefully scanned by the Kal- 
muks» Klemm S, 202. We read of Sffto^ iptahio^ (heron) in 
Hipponax, Fragm. 50, of Sfft^ o-iVriy (woodpecker}j Fragm, 62; 
ardeolae (herons), altero ocolo carentes, optimi auguni, Pliny 11 
37. 52. Ilrafn fl^gr aitsian af hit meiSi (tree), ok eptir honora 
om iBioDi; peim gef ek erni (to that eagle) efstum brä^Sir, sA 
iniin ä bIßSi bergja ininu, Hervar. cap, 5 ; hrafn qvaS at hrafni, 
sat 4 ham meibi, ^mm, 149^ Simikrly : )?& qrat^ )?at kraha 
(crow), sat qiristi k (on bough), Ssem. lOö*" ; carnU avis diirina 
imbrium imminentiura, Hor* Od. iii. 27, 10, Herrn. Gottesd. alt. 
^ S8 ; rostro recnrvo turpis, et infernis teiiebris obscurior alas, 
auspkium veteri sedit ferale sepulcro, Claud, in Eutrop. 2, 230; 
nuper Tarpeio quae sedit culmine cornix, - est bene ' noo potnit 

dicere, dixit 'erit/ Saet. Domit, 23. Martens vögelkeji, Fir^ 

menich 1, 139* 140; Sunte Mtuirtens veugeUje zat al op een 
heuveltje met zijn rood rood rokje, Halbertsma's TongvalleQ p, 
45; Engl, martin, hirundo minor, Nemn, p. 164; Fr. martinet, 
le petit martinet. There was a society of MarUns-vögel in Swabia 
in 1367, Landau's Ritter-ges. p. 15.* Dos vogerl aum tannabam 
(fir) i^teht auf mi um fuss, hat a zetterl im schnaberl, von meinm 
dearndel (girl) ann grass, Seidl Aimer I, 24 The chaiaha drinks 
nothing but rain, catching the drops as he flies; he briDgs luck 
when he flies on your ftf/7, whereas most birds signify good on the 
right, Max Müll. Meghadfita, p. 59, 

p, 1132.] *H ffirrr) (a pecker) fcal €? rt toiovtov opveov Se^iä 
wpo^ €pu>ra<; ^aiverai. *Eyüt fiiu, & Aeutciinrf, Se^irf airrrf f 
Didymus apud schol. Aristoph. Av, 704 ; weToß^aßd re yap xal 
70t<nv (pw<Ti amea-fiiv, Av, 704, conf. Meine ke'd Choliambi p^ 
122-3. Pies en nombre impair ^ signe de malheur, Bosquet 219. 

* nfu£ hant, Vindl<^ in Hpt 9, 79 ; uf die atUn hant xterlich geoiftcbt, Gdts ▼. 
Berlicb. ed. Zopfl p. li ; kunigm bin ich der newen hanä^ J. v. MorftbeiiD, beginn. 


On the starling's flight, Ettn. Maulaffe 704. Alban, eapice 
d'oiseau de proie, prob, de vantour, Faariel's Albig. p. 664. 

The heathen Arabs bef. Mahomet : one who has gone oat ioniB 
back immed. on seeing a raven. Yet it is a good sign if a pair 
of ravens, messaud and messavda (m. and f . for lucky) cross one's 
path in equal flight ; else a croaking raven is called the bird of 
parting, bee. he foretells a separation. There is a bird whose crj, 
beard from the right, brings blessing to a hoose: it is called 
iakuni, kakunta, afterw. kapnyaia, Kahn on Vrihadd^vatft p. 117. 

p. 1133.] The over-flight of some birds is sig^iflcant : 

Zwoa schnee-weissi täuherli (dovelings) 

sant übawärts g'flogn, 

nnd hiaz hat mich mein dearndl (girl) 

schon wiedä bitrogn (fooled me again). Seidl Aimer 34. 

Pigeons also fan the king while he dines, Athen. 2, 487«» 
Again : 

Ob im vant er einen am (eagle), 

des schoene was seltsaene ; 

er was im, in waene (I ween), 

gesant von Goto ze gemache (comfort) : 

mit einem vetache (wing) 

treip er im den luft dar (fanned the air), 

mit dem andern er im schate bar. Servat. 1330. 

Albert. Magn. De falcon, c. 4 : ' Ego enim jam vidi qui sine 
ligatnris intrabant et exibant, et nobis comedentibns snper 
mensam veniebant, in radio solis se extendentes coram nobis, quasi 
blandirentur nobis.' While Marcian sleeps, an ea^le flies above 
him, giving shade, Procop. 1, 326. A shading peacock's tail is 
worn by ladies, Vilk. saga c. 213 and Vuk 4, 10; & peacock fan, 
Claud, in Eutr. 1, 109 ; pfaeioine huote, Kolocz. 184 [on 'peacock 
hats from England,' see Hehn's Plants and Anim., Lend. '85]. 
With ominnis hegri connect 'iwer iegeslichen h&t diu heher 
(OHG. hehara) an geschriet ime walde,' the jay has cried a speU 
over you all, Wh. 407, 11. 

p. 1 134.] A sihle shiging on your right brings, luck, BtLttn. 
Lett. lied. pp. 248. 266. The sight of the first wagtail is signifi- 
cant. Klemm 2, 329, and to Ealmuks that of the snake Z, 202-3. 



The neighing of horses, Bneezing of cats, howling of dogs, 'each 
is an omen : dir het dia katze niht genorti, Helbl. 1, 1392 (Sappl. 
to 1 115) ; OB the howling of dogs, see Capitotinus in Maxim, jun. 
c. 5» Pausan* iv. 13, 1. 

p. 1136,] Leo in Thür. mitth. iv. 2, 98 connect the Goth. 
hrdiva-dubo with divan and dauhit, deaf [Hehn's Plants and 
Anim. 258]* * Buho habet notnen a voce sua, ©t rooratur in 
cavernis petrosis vel muris antiquia, et diflfert a noctaa solum in 
magnitudioe, quia est major ea, et bubo dicitur let aim vel inor» 
tali«, quia mortem annuniiat, unde dicunt quidam naturales, quod 
sit animal babens dilectionem naturalem ad bominem, et prop- 
terea ponit se supra vestigium hominis, et post mortem festinat 
ad amandum cadaver, et dicunt aliqui quod generetur ex medulla 
Spinae in dorao hominis/ Stephanas Stofl. 118. 

Ter omen 
funereus bubo leiali carmine fecit. Ov. Met, 10, 453. 

Tectoque profanus 
incubuit huho, thalamique in cmlmine sedit, 6, 43L 

Infausto buhonej Claud, in Eatr. 2, 407; a bubo prophesies to 
Agrippa, Joseph, 1 8, 6* 1 9, 8 (Horkel p. 494) ; bubo, cartfie funchriA 
laior, Mar bod's Carm, 1577. Hipponax in Meineke's Choliambi 
p. 112 calls its KpijT} (screeching) V€fcpa}v ayyeXo^ t€ teal K-Pjpv^. 
As the Lett* uhpi^, hoopoo, is a bird of ill-omen, our hilwe (bubo) 
heralds a speedy deaih in the Herod story. Pass. 157, 51 — 72. 
159, 76 — 83 J der lei die huwctere, der naht-hüwer, Albrech t's 
Ovid 177*». 345«; trftric als ein vnßaetec hüwe, Renn. 17993. 
The screech-owl, kauz or käuzlein, cries : ' Come along» come 
along ! ' that's twice the denth^hird has called to me, Kehrein's 
Nassau 41 [To Russian children the owl cries shubu, (I'll have 
your) fur-coat]. The same kind of thing is the scuwut on the 
tree, Maerl. 2, 323. 348 and the voghin kreide-weiss (chalk- 
white), Musaens 5, 28. The word khg-mutter reminds of 

Berhta, of the white lady, the fy Igja and the banshee, bansighe 
(pp. 279. 280). On the Wendish waüer, God's little chair, see 
Weod. %'olk8l 2,269»*. Somm. p. 169. A death is foretold by 
* la poule qui chante en coq,' Bosq. 219. Other omens of death 
are : When the dead in churches are seen or heard at night 
by the living, it bodes a new event to these, esp, death : quando- 




conque a viventibua haec audiunfctir vel viJentar, novum aliqtikd 
sigoat, Pertz 5. 738. The same if yoa hear a gnmling or Bawhvj 
at Dight 5, 738-9 ; conf, deathwatch, next paragr. 

p. 1136.] The wood-worm we call todten-uhr is termes palsa 
torias, the Engl, deaihwaich Rcarabaeua galeatua pulsator, Hane'i 
Yrbk 823; ich hör ein wiirmlin Mop/en^ Garg, 278''; the death- 
smith who thumps in window frames and wallsj Geliert 3, 148 
Finn, ifunil and selnäratäio, wall-smith ; conf. the tupping home 

p. 1136.] Sivarms of bees betoken a fire: moHtasque examen 
apes passim que crematas, perbacchata domoa nullis tncendttL 
cansis, Cland, B, Get. 241. Bees that fasten on you, Aelian's 
Var. 12, 40. Plioy 8, 42; bee-swartns and spiders, Bötticher's 
Hell. temp. 127 ; ea hora tantae aranmrU'm telae in medio popnli 
cecidernnt, ut omnes mirarentur ; ac per hocsignificatum est, quod 
sordes hereticae pravitatis depulsae siut, Paul, dittc* 6, 4, A 
flight of »7naU birds, a shoal of salmon, are a sign of gueBU, 
Justinger 271. 379, The ahler-heeih flying south is lucky, north 
unlucky, Kalewipoeg, note on 2, 218. 

p. 1137.] Other omens of death are bhüdij weapons, a rusting 
knife, KM. no, 60; but ^im flowers, Akd. w. 2, 187. Hpt 3, H 
364. Oorpse-cftmUes, mists in churchyards, prefigure a dead ^^ 
body, Hone's Daybk 2, 1019 ; an expiring lamp is a sign of 
death, Altd. w, 2, 186 (weather also was foretold by divinatio ex 
Inf.ernw, Apuleius ed. Rohnk. lib. 2, p. 116). Ehtu/s ßre, Sant- 
elmo, hlttwe liechier, Staden's Reise p. 102 ; üf dem mäste dar 
enboben [enhobenf] ein vackeln-licht so schöne quam, Marienleg. 
p. 87. A cniekling flame may denote a blessing : 

Et succensa sacris crepltet bene laiireafiommU, 
omine quo felix et sacer annus erit, TibuiL ii. 5, 82. 

So to Kalmuks the fizzing of meat when roasting, and the self^ 
lighting of an extinguished fire. Klemm 3, 203 ; retulerunt qui- 
dam de ipso (abbate Sangallensi) agonizante, quod nudierant 
Viices plmtgentium et btiUiiionem eahlartorum {yr 1220), 

The room-door opetig of itself when there is a death, Lueae 
260-9* When a board or shelf tips over, it is called death-fall, 
Bair. kinderlehre 23* ON. fall er farar heill ; in lapsa faustum 
ominutns evontum, Saxo Gr. 73. On the other hand, stumbling, 




tlie foot catching, is of ill-omen in Eiirip. Heracl 726 seq. j ter 
2^edis offetittt signo eat revocata, Ov, Met. 10, 452 ; Bed, iifc fieri 
assolet, sinistro pede profectum me spes compeudii frustrata est, 
Apuleius p. m. 80* Getting np too early, wrongly, is : at 
wären ze vruo des morgens iif' gent tin, die mnosten Ak daz leben 
\kn (lose), LivL 1255; sumelich ze vruu hate des morgens uf- 
gmian, der mnoste d4 ze pfände län den lip 3859* 

p. 1137.] The notion that several ears on one fttalk signify 
peace, is apparently derived fr* the Bible, Gen, 41, 22 j a stalk 
with 15 eargf Weller*s Anm. 1, 221. A double ear is Lett. 
yummüf, dim, yummite, Büttner 2818* Good bap or ill is fore- 

I «een by tying together two ear« of standing corH, and seeing 
which will shoot up higher, Dybeck '45, p. 52. Pilgrimages to 
Oar Ltuhj of tJte Three EarSf Keisersb. BroaamL 56**. 

p» 1188.] Things found are esp, operative for good or harm, 
e,g. four-cornered^ four-leaved clover, Simplic. 1, 334. L. Sax. 
sagen no. 190 ; a whole grain in the loaf, Serenas samon. 935. 
Things inherited^ Mullenh. no. 315; begged, Wolffs NdrL sag. 
p. 414; worn (pp. 602-3* 1093) ; rings made of gibbet irons, Luc. 
Philops, 17. 24 ; fingers of a babe unborn {p. 1073n.). 

p* 1139.] Goth, ditgmu vitdifo ^die^ observat^, Gal. 4, 10. 

riJ^t'pa fiiXatva, /A17 KaOapd, a7ro<^pa^ (fr. <^pd^m)y eeo Lucian's 
Budologista (17 irepl rfj? airo^pdho^)i couf. ed. Bip. 8, 434; so 

tufTQ^pdhe^ TTvkat, Porta Seelerata 8, 58. Dies fasiun^ Jiefoitu^, 

' fiefandug, nefarius, infandu8, per quern iiefas fari praetorem ; 
dies ina\uipic4diis, aier. Henry IV. died on a Tuesday, dU 

^Ma/rtisj qua etiam cuncta sua praelia, pngawico nimirum auspieio, 

[perpetrare consneviti Pertz 8, 240. Napoleon avoided Fridayg^ 

[Wieselgr. 473. AS. nellaS heora |nng wanian on Mofiandceg for 

[anginne f^eere wucan, AS. bom. 100. 

p. I140n,] With W^mmf<7aw5F conf. Wisantes-steiga, Wissntes 

iwanc (Neugart)* Should we read WoJf-bizo (-bit), or WoJf-bizo 
(-biter), like baren- beisser, bullen-beisser (-dog) ? Cattle hilled 
or biiien bg wolves^ are wholesome fare, Spinnr. evaug., Friday 9. 

^Gr. XvKoßpwTo^i, and Plutarch discusses 'why wolf-eatmi mutton is 
sweeter,' Symp. 2, 9. Wotfleip Graft' 1, 850 ; Wolfleibuch, Kopp*« 
Gesch. d. Eidgen. 2, 557 ; Wulßevtnge, GosL berggesetze p. 339 • 
U Incus dictus Wolßeipuch, der Wolßeipsclw, Ch. yrs 12(50 — üo. 

r Neugart nos, 972. 981. 990-5 ; btpi praeda^ Marcellus no. öS. 




p. 114L] Juvenes . * . missürum se esse, in quas Jii de- 
di&sent augur Us sedes, ostendit, Livy 5, 34. The Hirpini were 
led by the wolfj hirpus, the Pit'entini by the pecker , picas, the 
Opici by tlie hull, ops ? Wackern, in Hpt 2, 559* Mommsen'ai 
Rom* gesch* 1, 76. Bull aod sow as guides, Klausen's Aen.) 
1 107 ; cows iodicate where a church is to be bnilt, Wieaelgr. 408 ; ' 
milch'Cows show the site of the future church, a black bull that 
of the castle, MüUenh. p, 1 12-3 ; a hcifer leads Cadmus to the 
spot where he is to settle [two milch-kine bring the ark, 1 Sam. 

6, 7]. The Franks are shown their way by the Buns^ GuitecL 

2, 35 ; a while hart walks before tliem as God^s messenger, Ogier 
1, 12; and a Westphal. family-name ESasford (Deeds in Moser) 
points to a similar event. A Delaware climbed through the 
mouth of an nndergroiind lake into daylight, killed a stag and 
took it home, then the whole tribe moved to the sunny land. 
Klemm 2, 159. A horse points out the place for a church, Mnllenh. 
p. 111^2. Mules show where the consent of Maulbronu in the 
Black Forest is to be founded. A hare guides, Paus, iii. 22| 9. 

Ravens are indicators, Miillenh. p» 113; the three in the 

Icelandic narrative, flying off one after another, strongly remind 
us of Noah. The dote guides, Hroavitha Gandesh. 253. 261 — 6. 
A vision reveals that a bird sitting on the top of the hill will fly 
up, and must be followed : it fiies on before, then alights, and 
pecks the ground on the spot where stones may be quarried to 
build the church with, Pertz 6, 310j doves guide Aeneas to the 
goldeu bough, Aen. 6, 191 — 211. The larA, Pans, iv* 34, 5; the 
cluckhitj hen at Bremen, Brem, sag. no. 1 ; the heathcoch rising, 
Kchiiren's Chron, p. 3j fribolnm de ansere quasi dominam suam 
deducente, Pertz 8, 215 yr 1096, couf. Raumer'a First Crus. 1,69. 

p^ 1144] In a dike threatened by the sea a child is buried 
alive, Müllenh. no. 331. Thiele in Dan marks folkes, 2, 63. 
Honsdam iu Flanders, V. d. Bergh 261 (Kl. sehr. 2, 73). Fair 
weather was obtained by walling up a peck of barley and a hotül 
of water, Rocken -phi los. 6, 88* A Königsberg story tells how 
they took a fallen woman's child, a year and a half old, set it 
down in a hollow stone, with a slice of bread-aod-butter in each 
baud, and then walled it in, leaving only an opening at the top ; 
iu the morning the child was gone, but after that the building 
of the wall went on unhindered^ N, Preuss* prov. bh 465. At a 




place called the Nine -ways, as many boys and girls were buried 
alive by the Persians, Herod. 7, 114, Vortigorn's tower keeps 
falliog down : ye shall wet the found at ion-stone with the blood of 
a hoij born of woman without man, Merlin Ij 67, 72*6; under it 
lie two dragons» 1, 91 i conf. Thib. de Navarre 2, 160. Like the 
girl inclosed in Copenhagen wall is the child who is set before a 
table with apples, and kept shut up in the oave for a year^ 

Miillenh. p, 35 k It is an oft-recurring featiirCj that what is 

built in the day is pulled down in the night, as in the Baoaberg 
legend of the cathedral toads, Bait, stud 10, 32-4. Hanusch 186. 
Miillenh. pp. 112-3, 128. 177. 542; troll ned-refvo orn nätterne 
hvad som byggdes om dagen, Wieselgr. p. 408 j a wall is torn 
down 15 times, Somm. p. 9 ; much the same is told of the tower 
at Enger, Redeker's Sagen p, 41. 'Tradition says, that as fast 
as the workmen built it up by day, it would at night be carried 
off by invisible hands, and placed on the spot where it now 
stands' (a Devonshire leg,), Chambers's Pop. rhymes 14*. Con- 
versely, a wall broken down by day grows again overnight, 
Miillenh. p, 349 ; conf, the tree that is cut down, and sprouts 
again (p. 960)* 

p, 1145.] O. SL *"w'', Serv. san, Rnss. «on, Pol. Boh. Men, 
Lith. ßapnas, dream. Lith* mega»^ Lett, meegs^ Pruas, maiggu^, 
Bomuus, Auss. migdti, wink, ON. dur levis somnus, nubes 
somni; höfogr hlundr, sopor, Sasm. 93*; er J^er ^efn höfugt? 
Laxd. 120, * Troufue ttint irilge' says the proverb in the Hats- 

lerin 126-7; traum trug, FrankL 2K 46. OHG. troum^sceido, 

'Bceidarij -interpreter, lit. divider, Graff 6, 439 ; conf. imo/cpi^ 
paaOai, Od. 19, 535. 555; ia/nan dreymir fyrir veSrum, Vols. 
Baga c. 25, and dreams are still made to refer to rain, A 8. 
gwefen^racu, -interpretation, swefen-raceere, -expounder. Slav, 
gaddti, guess, somnia coojicere; SweA. gvfsa dniramen ; 'elveus 

'aldste datier 'is to guess the dream, DV. 3, 4 ; nu hefi ek pgddan 
draum )?inn, Gunnl s, ormst, c. 2 ; den troum hetiuten — deuten, 
HS. 2, 115', Griesh, 1, 98; ontbinden, untie. Rose 6134; con^ 
ciura, PlftuL Kud. iii. U 20. Cure. ii. 1, 31, 
p. 1140.] A dream come$ out, appears; rann up en sdmn, 

^Sr. vis. 1, 299; wie der troum wolte uzgcn, Griesh. 2, 133; 
der traum ist aiw, Ayrer 177**, Fichard's Frankf. arch, 1, 130, 

[There is a gate of dreams, Hpt 2, 535; iv ivetp^ifftn wuXjiai, 

1643 suFEBsnnos'. 

Od. 4, 31» ; ^ Tn\Mi^ ir€iO€imK, Bibr. *>. S ; conf- tlie mjth in 
«>L 19, 5o2— y. A dr^c-visivi:, Wnc, o:ni€S repcmtedly and 
dies awmr, He?r^. 7. 12. 14-5. 17-?-9. A drcttm mppeus, 
Griesh. 1, &5. F.vre 1 1'l'i ; ffrsrÄrtt^ mzr'x we enoce, Reinh. 73; 
besice " einen triani er -/-»irk/ SLsrcor. -5473. trcam •f«Ä€i» 2921. 
AS- kfne •^fwr'to, there me^ kicx, te dreamE. Caedm. 223, 20; 
^fm^'Cfd we^rS 22-?, 21 ; fU*iKi: capiä. CacI 1> b. Gildon. 329n. 
■ Der trcaai ^rw^^/ cmzne ab*:-«?. Ksrcfcr. oil ; *din troam 

•>>>" <!•> r.f irt7< / ' nim o« well. lo7o : we »j ' comes trae.* 
Ok« «too, a.W' rzv«?, doc dream, bsi :mui. CKL 19, ->47. 20, 90 ; 
rrw cf owoer. Prndsr; iwer tr«:aa ^rl sich «^iJ*«, Flore 111/. 
A drean is a zc^äae&ger ot' God : sii^ie is, an srefne, slapandiam 
UL rAr:, r.>io r^r.-Arv*, Heliacd 2!. 12. DreassLS »re keary mnd 
.*^v : <:irke dr^:!iaie, DV. S. 3 : ' rb ia na rix-j^r getroumei/ 
müder, beccar, Ben. *SS. A beaciif:!! dr*=*=i is Keii/mJicke, feast- 

itg *ie eje. Ls. 1, lol : n%cve%: s=* ir«r-=:e * Ksrciir. 2943. 

Dsedksi» cf f'ri* are »p, rreqaecc : cit Ucee iss gecroamet 
zisiie "-»51 iisri: . w» »IIt^i caz .'O*/'^^ ^ di*=e Linde waere tAt, 
Sib, 144^. o. V:i. c. SSo : nir trcc=:e Ei-:e in dirre naht, 
r»r'% /j-'i^^ tI::^- dir if d:e L&z.*. 5f :r:I: 2:r7ö : a dr>c«m of m 
r*r-** »sd an -iiyi«?, Oseadel Eksi. r* v2. *ni li-f i:ke in Gannl. 
Sw o«TE*3- c- 2. F:r=ali. kV. 1.4il. Fr-'rL:» ireÄXSs of an 
^\:'i k--'--.r^ •er r^: ^^=ese* Oi. Ir. I-ic : ^^:--. Ar<cn. Per«» 205. 
Dfcrrü ntfrxe :=. r:- *:,V^% :: er-r^ »i- g*rir:%ii::e«, :.e. bad 
dr^r4cs. US. 2. 1-52* ; $wfr *:jr r=: lar^^ wclie siziea. deme 

n-nne t":- f/r-^ trrcmer, T^rl. Wr. ^7v Pre^ras cf b^ar 

as i ':-*j - r ^ T.:. l> 7 7- S : : : » r« ■ ; -. Kr*: r-r lt\ -? 7. a In^c n , 
Bar. 12->-4. I>:^*=ir=c c: :r:^x nij re :r»v>ed :j G^iardian- 
sr--—.:* az.i Tr^kTLsn-iT»::^:-. satt* F. Vair".. Ecia-I. 4, 146. 
I»r«»zi* ci a 7'^i ^•■■'"■' V ''i - S-:o*. l:r. ir'. . ■:: a t\-.i '-^-c. Krone 
i2±2o. a :'i,r^iTr \:\*f. Lwin. yi~e:-. ^^. lf*y. a ^riJae, 
Kl- «err. L. 4I-», a :.v:l j".'.l,%z yt.:. Ke-5^rT^^c. Br:«5. -k^*; mir'st 
gecr:c=:rT -: i,-^ /%;.>%. M>. 2, lie*. 

r. II47.3 •rWr r>-'';.r« ^r^: :'ji z_i:^^r*, -"Se >i=. asx ,jf a 
rrar-ji f :: ire- slirrn^cz rraLu jr^.fpf: -rjyz, ^ax imo «rdr 
irv'-r. =:.' "::r irf*=ieci irrir. X. C^r. lo. ."re irettrr •under a 
iTf^ ir. itar. 1:?. 21 n^j 'r^ ::r rr:TT:'.r'> i^ie il'-n-e : ' als einem 
3A=. irr da pf.::. r*f^.frci n:: swirtn irvcrrf. slarezid unter 
ei-en "c-jciiiTr/ .■*:'! Tr:zr:. rc-rr. Vii^. c-^JJi. A dreazi in a 



pujstye comes true, Porom, a, 10, 169, The first dream in a new 

hoiufe is importaDt, Gaother 64.0, Night is descr. as äveßy- 

gataan, draum-niorunf Ssdm. 51*. Dreams before the dawn are 
true : Lenore starts up at dawn fr. heavy dreams ; ' ir getroamde ' 
at * toffe-rätf' after * han-krät/ En* 52S4 ; ' troumen gein dem 
tage/ towards day, Bit, 9630 ; 'in the morning hour\ that is called 
the time o( golden sleep,' Faatn. sp. 1302; mir troumde nach 
miitemacht, wie mir der düme swaere (that ray thumb festered), 
und der nagel ab© waere, Eracl. 3712; conf, ivapjH Sveipov 
vv/cTo^ afioXy^, Od. 4, 841. Lilia dreams on her wedding 'nighty 
Gesta reg. Francor. in Mone's Änz. 4, 15; der ernte träum treugt 
nit, er pflegt wol wahr zu werden^ C. Brehmen's Gedichte J 1^ 

p, 1147.] On dreaming of a treasure on the hryige^ see KL 
fichr. 3, 414 seq. One is waked> out of a dream by cry of dismal 
crow, Walth. 95, 1, by the crowing cock, the calling servant, Ls. 
1, 149* Do taget ea, und muos ich wachen, Walth. 75, 24: ende 
ic ontspranc, ende doe wart dach, Rose 14224; and with that I 
woke, Agricola 624^ and after that it dawned 625 ; do kräte der 
ban, ez was tac, Altsw. 67, 3. To «peak out of a dream : ich en- 
sprich ez niht uz eime troumen Farz. 782, 13 ; ir redet üz eime 
troume, Reinh. p. 202, He fought (in a dream), Lachm. Ndrrh. 
ged* p. 18-9, 



p. 1150.] Apollo is called taTpo-^avriq^ Aescb. Eumen. 62 ; 
Apollo OraniiUß was invoked by the sick, Stalin 1, 67, 112. 
Wise leeches were Ktmiapa, Holtzm. 3, 164-5; lapin lasidea, 
Aen» 12, 391 ; Meges, Miyifti^ Forcell. sub v.; Dianoecht^ Keller on 
Irish MSS. p. 93. The Greeks venerated the Scythian Toxaris 
after his death as fej^o? Iarp6<t, Lttcian's Scytha 2 ; ZaßoX^iBo^s 
larpoi, Plato's Charniides p. 156. The grey smith appears to the 
sick man in bis sleep, and with his pincers pulls the nails and 
spear out of his hand, foot and side, Hpt's Ztschr, 1, 103* An 
angel reveals the remedy in a dream, Engelh. 5979. 5436 ; an 
angel visits the sleeper, and gives a willow-bongh to stop the 
murrain, Miillenh, 23*5. Saints heal (p. 1163 end ; Pref. xrxviii.) 



GDS. 149. Women are often skilled in leectcraft : Ängitia 

instructs in herbs and healing, Klausen 1039. As Wate became 
a leech through a wilder wip, a herbalist traces his art op to 
' madarne Trole de Salernej qui fait cuevre-chief de ses oreiltes, 
et li sorciz li penden a chaaines dargent par deans les epaules *; 
she sends her men to all countries in search of herbs, 'en la 
forest d'Ärdanne por ocirre les bestes sauvages^ et por traire les 
oignemenz/ Rutebeuf 1, 256 {Another herb man calls himself 
haltet of Arden-wood I, 470), 'Undo commiioiter Trotula 
vocata estj quasi 7mrgtMra operis ; cum enim quaedam puella 
debens inctdi propt-er hujusmodi ventositatem, quasi ex ruptara 
laborassetj cum earn vidisset Trolulaj admirata fuit, etc/ Medici 
antiqui (Venet, 1547) 75' j she is named in Chaucer^s CT, 6259. 
Ace. to Joch er she was a physician of SalernOj but the book De 
morbis mulierum was written by a doctor who used her name, 
— Othinus puts on female disguise, calls himself Vecha, and 
passes for a she-doctor, Saxo Gram. ed. M. 128; conf. AS. wi4^c€,^ 
saga {p. 1033). Three h^w^^Aä prepare a healing streugthening 
food for Balder, Saxo Gr. ed. M. 123 (v^igoris epulum 194), 
Queen Erka is a leech, Vilk. saga c, 277 ; and Cre8C4ftU!a is en- 
dowed with heaÜDg power (p. 1152), The tneer-frau in the Abor, 
like the Scotch mermaid, gathers the healing herb on a mountain, , 
Hpt, 5 J 8. Fdmurydn knows herbs, makes plasters and salves. 
Er, 5212. 7226, Iw, 3424, There was a leech named 3far^aii 
iudj saye L, Guest 3, 163; but that is the name of a healing plant 
3, 164 ; conf. Ben, note to Iw, 3424. Isotj diu künegin voa 
Irlande, diu erkennet maneger hande würze u, aller kriute kraft ] 
n, arzätliche meisterchaft, Trist. 175, 32, The was&er- Jungfer i 
knows healing herbs, Firmenich 1, 23 ; a meer-weih gives help in 
childbed, Müllenh. p. 340, En gumma sade, hon kände viil de 
gamles skräckj men trodde dem ej ; lion viste hum man kunde fa 
hjelp af dem, men atfc dot var syndigt, Frieses Udfl, 1, 108. The 
wildefräulein knows the root that will heal a wound. Ecke 1 73— 
5. At Staffeibach the wood-maidens came out of the wood, and 
cried to the people : ^ esst bimellen und baldriau, so geht euch 
die pest nicht an ''i therefore at harvest a bunch is left standing 
for the wood-mannikin. The vila of the woods is a liekaritza, 
and demands a heavy fee, she is angry if you refuse, and poisons , 
joUß Vuk no, 321 ; conl 2, 50 and the jwre-ju7uju'er with her 



healing fountain, Abatia *55j p, 216 (a pliico lo Thuring^ia was 
called *in süezer heilinge* Gratf 4, 867). The name of the 
Norse Elr reminds one of ^Ipo^, *Jpo? ^Aipo^ [so called because 
he carried messages]. Od. 18, 6. 7. 73, and of Vpt? the divine 
messenger. To Efi/fja^herg corresponds the Finn, Kipu^rnuki, 

Kipu-vvton, KipU'hfir'm, mount of pain.^ Women heal, they 

bind up wounds, Roquefort ou Marie 2, 198 — 202 ; frowen die 
die tiefen wunden ir lieben vriunden bunden^ Servat, 1 779 ; 
do nSnten (segenten, blessed) im die wanden die frouwen al 8© 
lianfc, Rosen-g. 1997 ; dede si sin© wonden wel besien ere jong- 
frouwen, diere vroet ane was, Lane. 22651 ; a virgin knows 'der 
omde cracht/ power of herbs 11999; a woman gives a magic 
salve. Ecke lr55-6. Herdsmen, shepherds can heal men, for they 
are expert in treating cattle, Varro RR. 2, I, When a patient 
dies, his doctors are killed, Greg. Tur, 5, 35. 

p. 1152.] A physician was in Fris. called letze ; ON. likna ok 
laekna = \enive et mederi, Sa^m. 2Ti6" j Gael, liagh, whence Leo 

Ein Malb. Gl. 1, viii derives all the others; Scot. Jighiehe, physi- 
cian; OHG. Itichituotti, medicine. AS. /mm, niedicus, Matth. 9, 
12; conf. OHG. /rtun/ thaz wib, heal the woman, 0. iii. 10, 19, 
thia fruma neman 14, 50, frnma firstelan 14, 39. OHG. gtavo, 
chirurgus, GrafT 4, 313; Fris. grem, Richth. 786. MHG. tc^iVe 
viarii V. d. Hagen*s Ges. Abent. 2, 121. On our arzt^ annci, 
see Graff 1, 477; arzenare, N. Boefch. 217; rtr^af^r, medicos, 
Lane. 42631, ersaire von wonden 1988; arzatinne, Trist. 33, 38 
(what is <I{ei^arzi, Garg. 72» ?) ; arm-dw, Ksrchr. 7483-93 ; 
m-ssente, Wh. 60, 23, Leo in Malb. Gl. 2, 38 derives OHG. 
Ifippi from Gael, luihh, herba; si machent ftz krüt ein (jestUppe 
(pulverem), daz ist guot ze der liippe, HiitÄl. 217*: Swed. lo/ja, 
liika; lofjor, raedicament-a ; Uj/jernka^ vis qvinna, Almqv. 890; 
Itiblerin, venefica, Mone 7, 424. Diu zouaerlicha hantf herbi- 
potent manus, N. Boeth. 197 ; diu chriuhr unde diu glft-hant der 
Ciroe 198; hanUgifl, Mone 7, 423-4. Tit. 4518; so gloubent 
eteliche an boese hantgiß, Berth. 58; der Saelden A., Silv. 534; 
edel L geben, Troj. 11188; sAre h, 25043; dais goede hantgi/ie, 
Rein. 6906; elsewhere hanfgiß is strena, etrenne; leidiu h,, Troj, 
12334. The Lex Salica 19 says : si quia alten herbaa dederii 
bthere, at moriatur. The sense of 'poison' is evolved out of 
each of these three words, from hcrba (labi?), from dare (gift). 




from blb^rts (patio) ; for potiu, liter, a driak, has becointJ tha 
Pr. poison ; conf* ' a en herber (to paisoo) m^aprist jadis une 

Juise/ Berte p. 103. Ducauge sub v. inherbare. ^A herbmaa 

or quack was called iu Bavaria wald-hanslj wald-mann, Schin. 4, 
^yS-i ; würzler umb Bingen, Garg. 172'*, ATawiniVer 188^ teufels* 
gerittene wm^el-telberin, abgeribene kraid-graserin 189% alraun^ 
ihlberin 104*. 'Swiss women get tlieir 100 herbs on Domiersherg 
ia the Palatinate, said they were Btrooger there than in Swiss^ 
hind/ Eliz. of Orleans p, 283 ; ich waiz ain mainn^ diu vil mit 
4em kraut wiirkt, Megenb, 386, 32. Old wives pick Jierbs on 
Joha^ö day betw. 12 and 1, for then only have they power; with 
the stroke of 1 it is gone ; they grow on Pilgorberg alone, 
Müllenh. p. 222. Knit tempern^ Harttn. biichL 1, 1307. Troj. 
10635; ein temperie als wir gemischet nemen, Wh, 420, 2 j Inlt 
tempern n, mischen, MS. 1, 87*. Another verb is OHG. lochvn, 
prop, mulcere, fbvere : ir eigafc siuchi gllokot, 0; v. 20j 76; conf. 
Idofiat, lauo), fovere, orig. said of wounds. 

p. 1152.] Our kropf (goitre?) is called king's evil, because it 
was cured by the king^s touch ; * thoöe who have it, on drlnldrtg 
Ironi the Count of Habs burghs hand, are made whole/ Reber'a 
Hem merlin p. 240. Schimpf u» E, 1, 27. It seems a godfather 
could cure his godchild of some diseases: ' godfather SLudfoaV^ 
foofh iu urgent cases are too weak' (p. 658 d.). Among' 
American Indians the knowledge of healing herbs descends from 
father to son, Klemm 2j 169; the family of Diokles can cure 
disease and disablement, Pans. iv. 30, 2. Health is regained by 
touching the hem, also by magic saugi Serv. bai/ati, incantare 
n)orbum, dolorem. To feel the pulse is In MHG. die ihletyi btgri- 
fen^ MS. 2, 23''; conf, em tidern grlfen^ lleinh* 2018; si murhte 
mit dem vinger siu dder-slän (throbbing), Erach 3033; der kraß- 
dder^i Hlae, BarL 188, 22, 

p. 1153,] * Nomina morbornm vei'nacula ' in J. Fr. Low ab 
Hrlesfeld's Univ. medicina pract., Norimb. 1724. Sickness ia 
Muche, Uolr. 1038. 1109. En, 10833; MLG. snke ; MHG. 
sieehtuom, din suht, Fundgr. 2, 4ö ; gesühie, Warn. 2192; siech 
von ungesii hie, Walth. 20, 4, Fragm. 46^'; ersochte, Hpt S, 167; 
werlt'siech, En, 12Ü08; die siechen u, die weielten, G, schm. 494^ 
conf. ON. veikr, infirmus. veikt inßrmitas, AS. wac, Engl, weak» 
Siec ende ongedaen, Lane. 15338, Unmahii, invaletudines^ 0* iii. 



5j 2, unmahti, iafirmi 9» 5; OHG. nl mtc ni hue, non vtilet; 
MUG, niht efi-mae, aegrotel, Hagen'a Ges, Ab. 3, 63; daz ich 
me ne vmc, Ksrchr. 821 i urnjewalt, invaletudo, En, 10230-551; 

r61a7. ne-dug, morbus ; Boh. ne-motth^ Ru9S. ne-motch^ iDQrtnitas. 

ünvartide, aeger^ TürL Wh. 60''. The contrary : wolvarnde 

ü. gesunt, Iw, 3430. OHG. klHÜni, MHG. gesunl, M. Neth, 
gehont (sound, well), hence ungeifnnt, Poor Heinr. 375. Unganzi, 
iiitiruiitas, O. iii. 4, 34, ganz, integer, 2, 22. 32 ; M* Neth. gauM, 
whole, gantteii, to heal, Maerl, 1, 313, 2, 359. Jesna p. 136; 
genestiHf and gauseti side by side, Maerl. 1, 313. The grand word 
for sanus ia Goth, fmih, OHG. heil, ON. fieiU, OS. hel, AS. hdl^ 

i£Dgl. whole ; sanari is Goth, hails mVa», gahdilnan, while sal^ari 

is Goth. OHG. ganigan, AS, genßnan with Ace. {p. 1244 u.). 

* Gheneseii ende becomm,' Maerl. 3, 97 ; OHG. chuviig, in6rma8, 
ehumida, morbus. M. Neth. evel, our iibel [öo, king's einl], A*S* 
idl ne yldo, Beow. 3460, from ad, are, heat? (Suppl. to 1106 

^eod); dill o'bSe {ren 3692; ädl oJSSe ecg 3523; adlig, aeger, 
Dan* uminden, umänsn, au indefinite disease^ Molb. Dial. lex. 
p. 630, conf. ON, omynd, monsbrum, forma laasa. What means 
M&gi datvaloiiti,' 0. iii. 2, 7, moriens? (Graff 5, 346). Dole ich 

tdis gebende, Ksrchn 12704; conf. ON. afbendi, tenesmus, Dan. 

\hind9el, constipation. ^ More general ai-e OllG. jrMcri(/o = 8uei-o; 

\onc*siteTQ^ vtaga-muei^o, Graff 6, 888. OHG. ivewo, woe, pain; 
tuanegen wen vertreip, Servat, 1077. AS. ece, ache, taff-eee, 
AS. eoÖ^, rode, morbus, peatis ; bdn-cotTa, m., Cod» Exon, 163, 23. 
HHG, * er lent,* he is laid up, Parz* 251, 16; die göügrigen, 

Unfirmi, Mohr's R<^g, Frauenb. noa, 328, 235 ; die suht ligeti, 

[Hpt4, 296. Gramm. 4, 620; mi kgar bifeng, Hel. 135, 12; 

jlegar-faHi 121, 16; bette*rise, ligerlinc, Grieeb. 116. 124; bet-rise, 

'Urstende 123, 69. Servat, 3180 (is pet-riUo m the Straab. spell 
the same thing?) ; an rese-bdie ligen, St. Louis 90, 13 ; le gUani^ 
jaoena, Lafont. 5, 12; conf. 'so ntüende ich w/ von dirre not, u. 
waere iemer m6 geauut, Walth. 54, 9, I'eculiar is OHG. winnen, 
furere» laborare morbo, gewinnen (the fe?er), conf. ON. tnnna, 

.In Cassel they say aufaUiizig for ill ; ein pferd auf stutzig wordeOj 
Cay. im irgarten 53. 

p. 1154.] Sickness appears as a dimne dispefuatian in vouao^ 

[^iQ9| Od, 9, 41 1 ; ir wAre diu suht gesce/ien, Fundgr. 2, 46. Sick- 
ness seizes: apft^cTo^ is infirmus ; our an-gegriffen ; mich luU 



ein siech-tage begriffen, Diocl. 6016 ; in ergreif diu misel-saht. 
Poor Heinr. 119; angriffen von einem boesen wind, von einem 
tenfels kind, Mone 6, 470; gesuhte best St nns (tackles ns), Hpt 
1, 272; d6 begunde ein snche rämen der vrowen. Pass. K. 425« 
20; u!€trc ingewod, morbas invasit. Cod. Exon. 163, 29; him 
faoringa &dl ingewod 158, 21. Our an/all (attack), morbus; 
anwUig, infectious, Mone 8, 499. Groth. ' vas ana-habaida brinn6n 
miküai,' Luke 4, 38 ; da wolt' mich hAn ergrummen, ich ureiz nihi 
•car, Hugdietr. Fromm. 146 ; in siiez an einin kelte, Fragm. 19* ; 
in Mecklenbg, if a man is taken ill at harvest time, thej say 
* the harvest-goat has gestaszen (butted at) him ' ; den hete der 

siechtuom so begint (rhy. kint), Uolr. 1523. The contrary: 

den siechtuom übencinden (win over), WigaL 5991 ; nnz der 
siechtuom vom im ßöch, Hpt 5, 278; diu suht entweich (ran 
away) 8, 188. Iw. 3446; so muozen dir inttciehen dine sahie, 
Ksrchr. 833 ; daz gesuht begnnd in ßiehen. Ecke 176; dia soht 

von ime^rfJr, Diemer 325, 7. The rouo-cM approach men avro- 

fäOTOiy and o-tyj, era ^^rrfr i^iKero fAffriera Zev^, Hes. Opp. 
102. Mulierculae plures .... a daemoniis rexanfnr (yr 1075), 
Pertz 5. 128. The witch cooks, brews diseases ; so does the 
Finn. Kirutar (Suppl. to 1046) ; she is called * kipiä neito/ 
Schröter 34, * kipu tvlio, kipulan nato,' Peterson 75, * kipanen 
eukko/ Kalev. 25, 96. 179; worrying grey .h\j* howl around her. 
Pet. 74; she wears gloves and shoes of pain, Kal. 25. 183-4. In 
Lith. they say * ligga ne s*fsfu/ the sickness is no sister, does noi 

p. 115-5/; Febris for fervebris, ferbris; G^el. li.tbhtr : MHG. 
hiecer, Freid. 74, 9. Dffa Febril, Aug. Civ. D. 2. 14. 3, 12. 25. 
AS- ddl ^eari, h>li and heorogrim. Cod. Exon. lo«). 30; bdn- 
cofa adle on-^led 159, 15; ddl me innan twU loo, 5 : conf. Gs^. 
tetM*ach^ febris. fir. tea.f, calor, fervor. Dei heizen tieber Ijucht er 
d6 \he leashes them ?), Diem. 32Ö. 5 ; S''> brimL morbi aesuis« 
Egilss. 637. Hippocra^s often has irvo for irvo^rtk : irap^cvor 

vvp €\a߀ S, 6 {jxnraiJta piyo^ fXa^^ 1, 5 . The OHG. rito is 

Xorw. rid, Aasen 379'*; are we to conn, it wi:h ON. Äricf, pro^ 
cella? Lye too, by the side of rid'frjj'^ febril, gives hriif^idL 
iri^ing, febris^ ÄnVÄt»«, febricitare ; conf. * in bestuoc:; der minne 
9tk»r/ Purs. 587, IS, and Herbert 12>;36 calls «he minne an 
ntiT9: BiUn winnanti, febre lab'^rans, Graff 1. 876; rite 



^^oühßeher^ Dint. 3, 45; der rittigSf febricitans, Griesh. 115; «6 
hat ir ßre den rufe«, Hpfc 1, 437. M, Neth. rede and redifie, 
Mone's Ndrl. lit. 335. Belg. miis. 10, 52 ; bevaen met eoen redej 
MaerL 3, 188. 168. 237-8; viel in den r. 3, 269; quam mi an de 
r. 3, 78 ; hadde enen groten r. 2, 79 ; genasen van den r., Hpt. 
Ij 104: den vierden r* (febr. quartan.), Franc. 2882. Nu rauze 
der leide ride Fnk&Tde velten 1 Karlm. Lachm. 110; schütte in 
der 7*ite! Pass, 45, 32; habe den riden u, die snkt umb dtnen 
hals! Morolf715; das sie der jar-rit schüt I Garg. 242'; die 
corU rideiie ! Walew. 6164; conf, GL to Lekensp. p. 573; das 
dich g6 der schnUer an ! H* Sachs iÜ. 3^ S^ ; kam sie an der 
frorer J Altd. hi. Ij 56; 'break the neck of the lever/ Ettn. Unw. 
d. 792. Fever rides a man, as poverty does, H, Sachs i. 3, 245^^, 
In Botier^s fable the rite is made a butterfly ( = alp, night- 
mare), no doubt, that he may the better converse with the flea; 
conf. Fastn. 36, 55. Keller's Erz. 330. Like Petrarch, H. Sachs 
i. 483 has a dialogue betw. the zlpperletn (gout) and the apider 
(KL sehr. 5, 400 seq.). The spell in Bodm. Rheing. alt. p. 710 
speaks of ' 72 riten '; that in Mone 7, 421 of * 77 ritten' ; Knlda 

132 of '99 fevers.^ Other names for fever: M. Neth. koorts, 

febris, saghe, Rein. 391. AS. gedrif; drif, MHG. der begirt 
Flore 1005; to die of a schlirige fever , Garg, 241', conf. »chlir, 
ulcer 259*, schlir^geschim'ir 236**. AtLouvain fever is called quade 
mhier, OHG. it-glac, febr. recidiva, Graff 6, 773, if.-»lahi 111 y 
avar-gturz, relapse; conf. ' modica pulmttm febre,^ Greg. Tur, 2, 
5. * Winter and Burner^ are a disease (cold and hot fits of ague 
alternating?), St. Louis (Rückert) 59,28. 80, 21. Lat» quer- 
qnera, shivering fit. MHG. quartanie, febr. quart., MSH. 3, 
178''; kartanie, W&nb. kv. str. 51. Gr. 77^0X09, Luc, Phi lops. 
19. In 0. Fr. they said ' trembler la tievre/ Meon 3, 88. Rute- 
beuf 1, 290. R6napt 10150. Lith. paszta-kiele, fever-bird (kiele, 
siskin). Lett, ärudsi^ vinnn yahi, fever rides him, Bergm. 68, 
Der roiei ni^fw, Myst. 1, 104. Flores heaiac Mariae, erysipelas, 
Ducange sub v. flores j Ital. rosalia. 

p. 1156.] Gout, OHO, gild, fnrgiht, Gniff 4, 142; vor zorne 
si daa giht brach, Mai 09, 2 ; daz mich diu giht zubrochin hat, 
Ksrchr, 2776. 4293, conf. ' die alten do der huoste (cough) brach, 
V, d* Hag, Ges, Ab, 2, 290 ; swen negt (whom gnaws) daz gihi, 
Kenn. 9897; swie daz giht in stunge, Helb. 1, 70; dar ist si 




muende daz fffigihte, Ulr. Trist. 1612; indie gicJiier fallen, Eliz. 
of Orl. 41 ; vt^rgiht, Todes geh. 548. Servat. 728. 786. 1573. Hpt 
6, 493- Austr. * kalt rcr^icAi/ arthritis vaga ; icht^ Hpt 1, 104* 
Nethl. ji'iWii; die jode, Maerl. 2, 79 ; jitcMtch^ paralyticus 2^ 112. 
317, 338; do vil era di^tjodnle in de been, Detm. 2, 482; ia this 
gout or terror? (the huh, angina nvularis, is allayed by the spell : 
* Hode-jodutk I I catioot gulp the pot-hook down/ Lisch's Meckl 
jrb* 6, 191 ; the heisch, or the keller-ggchosa bumps against me, 
H. Sachs iv. 8^76*=; den heschen gewinnen, Socbenw. 18,238; 
hesche schlucken) ; udz in do aluoc daz podagm, Ksrchr. 5854, 
ON, vkla-eldr, Fornm. s. 3, 200 ; AS. ecihm, mcelma, poda^ 
deaggede, deag-w^ miede , podagricus, deaw-ivyrmf podagra. Ko- 
sguties, petits cousins, Belg. mus. 8, 183* Boh, dna, gout; Pol 
dma, prop, blast, breathing upon. 

p* 1 157, line t>, a short paragr. was omitted from the text, viz. ; 
" A burning tumour at the fioger-nail (wapmutfxif;) is called the 
wonn, the runahont wotju, the unnamed (bee. one was shy o£ 
uttering the creature's name), the evil thin^f ; Engl, rifigwo] 
[mistake for whitlow ?], Scot, rlngwood, for which Tl. Chambers 
quotes two spelts (see Suppl.),'^] The flying gout travels: fou 
farendum &nd fon/re/ma, Richth. 246, 14. Daz wilde v iure, ignis 
sacer, is called Auf 07iien f euer ^ An toni feuere Ettn. Unw. d, ]36-7, 
TÖ7ige8'feuer {Tony's f,), Fischart, Antonien rack, pl(^g% erysipelas, 
skin-inflammatioo; bee. the Saint and bis monks received such 
patients into their hospital? conf. Keisersb, Omeiss 52. AS. 
bdn-coÖ^e^ ossium morbus, ignis sacer, Goth\. ßang-ild, erysip. on 
the face, Almqv. 423% conf. ON. flog. M, Neth. de rode giichte, 
Maerl. 2, 290, gutta rosea; now rvze dritp, our rath 'lauf, St. 

A.'s fire. Typhus carbu ocularis acutissimus ia called landslip, 

deviVs shot. ' Of sacred fire are seveml kinds : one about a 
man's waist is called zoster (girdle), and kills if it begirdle him/ 
Pliny 25, 11 (26, 74j. For this gout we find the names mane- 
wunn^ lidr-wm^it Fundgr. 2, 238. The name of gichier (gouts) 
ia also given to cramps and spasms, Staid. 1« 443. A tumour 
at the tinger-nail is io Pkttd. ^i [ivhit-low, white fire?], der 
ungenannt wurm, Mone 6, 462; AS. tu]/ r?n, see Gramm, 1, 416 
ang-nägle, ougneil; die ungenannten, Staid. 2, 423; böä thier I, 
207. Elves suck at children's Kngers and toes by night, Dyb. 
llima '48, p. 33, 




p» 1157,] Apoplexy is in Grk TrXf^yrj Oeou. Lith» stabaa. Got 
g^be den heiden Binen »lae ! Livt. chr» 5220 ; het dogktne Oods 
plaghe, MaerL 2, 348 ; plag di de röring f Müllenh, p. ]91 ; daz 
berlin (fr. bem, to Btrike?) ; der tropf, Karaj, KU denkm, 46j 14. 
51, 4; das dicb die drüa (glanders) riir ! H. Sachs v, 364*^; hab 
dir dnis il das herzeleid ! v, 3t>7 ; hab dir die drtis in's herz 
hineiQ 1 v, 344': oonf. dros (p, 1003 raid.). 

p. 1168.] Epilepsy: diu vnlltinde ituht, Servafc. 1572. Uolr. 
1092. Ksrcbr. 6491; diu vallende ^uht bracb, Hpt 8, 185 ; fanra 
lerh A fall a7i da ewele, Ricbth. 246; dat grofe evel, Hpt 1, 104; 
das höchste, Ettn, Maul. 307. On the Rhön Mts, das arm wer'k^ 
Schm. 4, 139, Sloven, ftvetiga Bdlanfa holdzen^ St. Valentine's 
evil. Litb. yiumirrulis, falling sickness. In the Wettemu, das 
ihun. Aüstr. die frah, whence Serv. tn\is. OHG. winnanii, 
epilepticuH, Graff 1 , 876. Das dich der tropf schlag I Fiscbart. 
Nethl. drop, dnip, marks-tropf, Mone 6, 470. Icel. ßog (SuppL 

to 1234). Ooute ne avertinz, Ratebeufl, 257; avertin de chief 

1, 471 ; male goute les eulz li crieve (put out his eyes) I Trist. 
1919. Ben. 1702 ; male goie te crieve loil I Ren, 21198. 25268 ; 
la male gote aiez as dens! 14322. Ducange snb y. gutta quotes 
many kiuds ; averting esvertln^ Mcon 1, 891. OHG, mdnothuiltno^ 
moon-sick J lunaticus, Graff 1,443 (out of its place), Concidere 
ad lunae iocrementa^ KaraTTiirrtiv irpo^ rrjp aeX^vify^ Lucianos 
Toxan 24. Nasci = lentigo, Grafi' 2, 1105. As there are 77 
DÖschen, so ' 77 sorts of zabn-rosen/ Hpt 4, 390 ; * 77 shot and 
77 plagues,' Superst. spell xxxix. ; ' 77 worms/ Mone 6, 462 ; 
sihen suhte darzao nemen, Kschr. 6076, wielde 0095. What is 
the unnatned dUt^ase ? Mone's Schau sp. 2, 373, 

Our ohn- macht, fainting fit, is called un-maht, Er. 8825. Roth. 
3015; si kam in untnahif Flore 1055, vor vnm. si nider-seic 
(sank) 1223; in unm. vallen, Reinh, 593 ; OKG, m'n* unmahiei, 
N. Boeth. 131 ; si vielen in mikraft, Kl. 1562; haer begaven at 
die lede, bo dat si in onmaclU tech, Karel 1, 128 ; theite begaf haer 
alte male, so dat si sAch in ommaeht 1,241 ; viel in onmahf, Lane. 
17215; viel in ommaeht, Maerl. 2,222; von dmalU si niderseic, 
Flore 1224; si kam in dm. 1230; diu dm. vastd mit im ranc 
(wrestled bard), Hpt 5, 277; am., Engelh. 6303; zwo dmehte 81 

enpfienc. Gute frau 1650; ahkrafi, H. Sachs v. 349^ Viel in 

marmelif, Troj. 10742; matmeU hingeleit, OberL de Conr. herbip. 


52. Si l&gen ia unsinne, El. 1978. 1566-71 ; vergaz der sinne 
1563; do verlos ich alle miae sinne, MSH. 3, 207*»; unversunnen 
lac, Kl. 2092. Wh. 46, 27. 61, 19; si viel hin unversunnen, 
Parz. 105^ 8. Se p&mer, pasmer^ Ferabr. 2801^ se plasmet 3640, 
plasmage 2962. We say, mj senses forsook me ; animus hanc 
reliqaerat. Plant. Mil. gl. iv. 8^ 37. Si lac in einem twalme, Er. 
6593 ; daz im vor den engen einen veryie (passed away) stmne 
nnde tac, Lanrin Ettm. 829 ; er viel vor leide in unmaht, er-n' 
weste ob ez waere tac oder nacht,Bsinh» 595. Sendschreiben p. 53; 

er was üz siner gewalt, Herb. 10500, conf. 10604. Mir ge^ 

swindet, Gramm. 4, 231 ; daz ir geswand, Schreiber 2, 64 ; ir was 
geswunden, Fragm. 42^ ; im geswant, Flore 2178. 2241 ; swinden, 
Jüngl. 656. Beschioeimen : AS. sioima, deliquinm. Engl, swoon ; 
hedfod'Sioima, my head stvinis. Wan in daz honbet diazet Yon 
gesühte. Warn. 2192; ime entsweich, Reinh. 564; beswalt^ 
Partonop. 18, 13. 34, 14; ontmaect, Lanc. 12042. The con- 
trary: er kam zuo sih, Flore 1066, zuo ir selber kam 1232, 
Schreiber 2, 64; zuo im selben quam, Gr. ßud. H** 13; zuo ime 
selvin bequam, Roth. 3035, conf. Lanz. 1747; biz er bequam, 
Wigal. 5796 ; doe hi bequam, Maerl. 2, 222. Lanc. 17216 ; waa 
vercomen weder, KaybI l, 158; sin herze im widertrat. Pass. 192, 
65; lierze gewinnen, Servat. 3431; sich versinnen, Parz. 109, 18. 
Wh. 61, 29 ; sich widere versau. Er. 8836 ; er wart vei^ht^ 
Flore 2230, kam ze gerechen 2231 ; do si wart ze witzen, Kschr. 
11925. Our * bei sich sein '; sumne ego apud me ? Plaut. M.G. 
iv. 8, 36. 

p. 1159.] ON. qveisa, colica, conf. Goth. qaisv, coS/? (SuppL to 
1212 end; grimme muoter, Mone 8, 495; bär muter, Garg. 182**, 
bärvatter 69^; ivärwund, Stald. 2, 435. Dysentery, der rote suche, 
Myst. 1, 105 ; er gewan den diirchgang, Diocl. 4645 ; NethU 
roode-loop, dysent. (not our roth-lauf). On üzsuht, see Gramm. 
2, 794; der rothe schaden, Stald. 2, 306. Gotthelf's Sag. 5, 
160-1; M. Neth. menisoene, melisoene, Maerl. 3, 177; O. Fr. 
menoison. Lung disease : daz swvnde? Myst. 1, 104. Schm. 3, 
539; OHG. serweii, tabescere, Graff 6, 271. 281 ; Swiss serbet, 
Stald. 2, 371; schwieriig, Yonhun in Wolf's Zts. 2, 54; swin^ 
segen, Mone 6, 461; schwtn, schwein; verzehrendes wesen, con* 
sumption, Leipz. avant. 1, 142. 

Stitch in the side, pleurisy : ON. tac, OS. stechetho, Hpt. 5, 



""200. Our dft 

ide (twisting of bowels), coof. Lith* klynas, 

nir dftrm^wmo 
iliaca passio; mimerere, 

Dropsj : Swed. manads-kalf, rmln-haff, conf, the story of the 
' frater Salerüitaniis/ Aegid. de medic, p. 167. 

p. 1159.] Abortus: ON. hannuni hystiz hofn, foetoa solve- 
batur, abortQin fecit^ Bavar. hinachllngen is snid of a cow, Schm. 
3, 452 ; die frau hat mit dem fünften kinde umgeworfen, Claudius 
in Herder's Remains 1, 423. Goth, ßtan, our kreiasen, to have 
throes: zimbeni, parturire, Hag. Ges. Ab. 1, 12. Throes are 
called toSti'e'f or ßoXai, throws of Artemis, Procop. 2, 576 (SuppL 
to 1177 mid.). 'To give birth to ' we express by 'come down 
with, bring into the world/ or simply brifui^ Schweinichen 1, 88; 
Swiss frohlen, trolhnf zerfallen, fall in pieces (come in two), 
Staid. 1, 307; MRG. Zf, kemeuiif en gdn, Hugd. 107, Mar. 163, 
22 } ON. at hniffij Vilk. sag. c. 31 ; die frau soil zu stuhl [Exod. 
1,16]. Es fieog an zu kracken^ üarg. 102^; die halken knackten 
schon, da ßel das ganze htius, C. Brehmeu's Ged. {Lpz. 1637) 
H 3*. J Z^ ; conf. O. Fris. henene btirch, bone castle (womb), 
Richth. 623**; falhn und in zwei »tück brechen, Diet» sub v. 
fniueubftuch ; se is dalbrahen^ broken down. Schütze's Holst, id. 
1, 196; glückliche niederhrtchung, safe delivery, Claudius in 
Herd. Rem. 1, 383; si ist entbunden von ir not, Mai 129, 2. 
Schüiteri, werfen^ used of animals* 

p. 1160.] If the newborn infant cries, it has the heart -disease, 
and is passed three times between the rungs of a ladder, Temme^s 
Altmark p. 82; hlatt und gesper, blatl u. herzen-gesper , Mone 6, 
468-9; ir tuo daz herze vil we, Hag. Ges. Ab. 2, 178; der Mam, 
Kolocz, 185, angina ? fr. klemmen, to pinch, * Der herz-wurm 
hat sich beseicht' of cardialgy and nausea; stories of the heart- 
worm in Frisch 447'*. Ettn. Hebamme 890. O'Kearney 180. 
A Stockholm MS. informs us ; ' Wannen ein vrowe entfangen 
he vet, 80 pleget gemeinliken bi der vrncht to wassene (grow) ein 
worm, del hevet vlogele alse ein vledermues (bat) unde einen snavel 
as ein vogel, unde dei worme wesset op mit (der) vmht ; unde 
wan dei vrowe geberet hevet, al-to-hant over deine dagen stiget 
(climbs) hei op to deine herien der vrowen, unde dan to lesten so 
hellet (holds) hei der vrowen herte, also wan men menit dat dei 
vrowe genesen si, so stervet dei vrowe rokelose, dat men nielit 
en-weit wat er scheltet (ails her).' If expelled with the foetus : 



' dei oppe äeme ansehe laesset, dei vruclife lieifc gemeioliken Jadfen- 

isloteU-^ Si viennent li ver is cora, qui montent josquau euer, 

et font morir d^ane maladie cV)ü ftpele Tnort-sobitainnf, Ruteb. 1, 
257, ' Grew in hi» heart tlie ztufe-warmj^ ghrink-worm, Biirc, 
Waldis 174*; die ivui^ine ezzeut una divz her'zef Diemer 290, 10; 

the miser's heart-worm, Feativ. of Conan 180. Bnlhnus, vermis 

laeertae in stomacho homiDis habitans, Oehler's AS. gl. p. 276 ; 
bulimiis, wer/ia, Diut. 168. fFwr*w^ wuohsen in irae houbet (in 
their heads), Kschr, 715. 852; 'the wor^m in man or beast, that 
we c&Wfazfun (?),' Mone 8, 406. 

Toothache, MHG. za^uswpr, Freid. 74, 10 {Kl. sehr. 2, 115), 
Headache caused by cross black elves, Hpt i, 389. iSpasins in 
head and breast with cough are called tane-weezel, J. LiadenbL 
p. 167 (yr 1404) J conf. hatwr-wHzel, Gi\ ßi}^. Tima-weschel ia 
personified in Faetn. sp. 468. ON. qvef, cough, culd in head. In 
the Wetterau : kramrnsl im halSj rasping in throat ; looul^ violent 
catarrh, conf. OHG. ivuol (1181-2). 

p. 11 60.] Gelmnht u. fich, Diut. 3, 45. Marcellu^ no. 100 ; fik 
in the chest, Mone 8, 493 ; bleeding, running vüj 8, 409. ON. 
fjida^ morbus regius, jaundice; raorbo regio nt>c€w/f effect us, Gren 

Tur. 5, 4, MHG, misd-suhi, Servat. 728. 1570; musihuhQ 

Ksrchr. 4293 ; hiez (bade) die misels. itbe-gdn 726. 4067 ; misel- 
mech, Urst. 123, 69. ON. lik^prd, lepra, Fornald, 8. 3, 642. 
Biorgyn p. 107; Ukpmr^ leprosus. M. Nefch. packers, leprosus, 
Maerl. 2, 227; lasei-s, lazers, Kausler^s Altn. denkm. 1,482-3; 
OHG. honigibruoder^ leproai, Graflf 3, 301 ; MHG. made viliic^ 
7naiIe'Wt4iic, aissel-mllic, Myst 1, 418; O.Slav, prokaza, lepra, 
Miklos. 34 ; Gael, lohharachj fnuueach, leprosus. The Lex Roth, 
180 has 'leprosoa aut daemon iacus,' and 233 ' mancipium lepr. 

aut daem*' The SI. trtnl is iu Jungtn. tetter, ringworm, in 

MikloB. 94 dysenteria, hydropisis. OHG. hnib, scabies, conf. 
Graff 4, 1155; AS. hnif, ON. km/a. Cüir4ui vel mdige. Gl 
Sletst. 25, 169; cUaroh, Graff 4, 1155; tetra-fic, Hattemer 1, 
262''; zetern, flechte, Epfc 4, 390; ÄS. ieier, Engt tetter, 
impetigo ; Austr. ziUericlK Gr. Xeix^v impetigo, Öl. lishdi, 
Serv. litai, A kind of itch is in Austr. brtm-hakl, woodpecker. 

ON. shirbiugrf Dan, iskjorbvg ; »dtoj^bock,Gurg, 149*; schar- 

hockf seorbtd^ scorbutus. AS, peor on fer, in eagum. The burzel 
is a contagious disease, Augsb. ehr, yr 1387. Mono 6, 257 ; 


bürzel, guubürzel, Frisch 1, 157* 383. SL kratel, an ailmeBt 
thafc Diakes one leg shorter, Vuk aab v. ; MHG. ir beiu (legs) 
diu habent die mitchm, FrauenK p. 192, cur mauke, malauders, 
Frisch, A bleeding boil is called hmul achtitiler, Panzer 2» 305 ; 
daz yn daz knallen-uhsl an gee [ Fries*8 Pfeiferger. p. 118 (yr 

p. 1160.] Entr^ sui on mal (f)i, Aspi\ 15** 

p. 1163.] Smallpox: Ser\r. /crr/i<fe. Die blatte ro (pocks) fahren 
auf J Lpz. avanL I, 27 L Urschlechfenf ursehltchtf^ti blatter fi, conf. 

nrslaht, Gramm. 2, 790. The story of a daemonuim tneridi^ 

anum la told by Gees. Heisterb. 5, 2. The ' des true tiou that 
wasteth at noonday' is trans, in AS. psalms ed, Thorpe p, 25S 
o?i miihie dmge moire deoful ; in Wiggert^s Fi^agm. p. 3 von theme 
I fiiuuele rnittentageUchen ; in Winrlberg pa, p, 431 vone aneloufe 
unde tiuveie deme mit f er to geliehen ; in Trier ps. von aneloufe 
unde deme divele mttdendegeUcheme ; couf. the midday maunikin, 
evening matiiiikin, Borner 249, Pidupüluitza^ Wend. volkaL 2, 
268; conf, metil and kuga {p. 1188). At nooti the gods take 
their siesta, the ghosts can rtinge freely then, and hurt mankind : 
a shepherd in Theocritus will not blow his reed while Fan takes 
his noonday nap. With the spell of ' the hiinache and the dragon,* 
conf. ' rotlauf und drach/ Hpt 7, 534. * God send thee the fever, 
or the boils, or the hiinnch ! * so prays the peasant against his 
fellow man, Keisersb. Sins of the lips 38*. 

p. 1163.] There are healing drinks, magic drinks: drinc of 
main, potns corroborans, Erceldun'a Tristram 2, 40-2 ; drinc of 
tnttjht, philtrnm 2, 48. 51; conf. uminnis dryckr (p. 1101); // 
iüoendrU, Trist, ed. Michel 2106 (for 3 jears) ; EngL love-drink, 
Fr. boivre damour 2185. A sick man is ßddted ba^^k to health, 
supra (p. 331) ; into hia trifling wound she W<fw, GeUert 3, 426. 
A blind king is cured by washing in the tvatei' of a cha^tie wi/e, 
Herod. 2, 11 L H. Estienue's ApoL pour Herodote. Keisersb. 
Omeiss 52**. (Pref. xxxviii). 

p. 1165.] Ich kau die leuto jnessen, Gryphius's Do run 90 ; 
mettrfi, Gefk. BeiL 167 : 'the third woman declared he had lost 
the measure, and she mnst measure him again/ Drei erzu. p. 361 ; 
beroQchen n. mezzen. Hag. Gea. Ab. 3, 70. Is this alluded to in 
' ich viizze ebener dan Gets, diu nie deheiu man iibermaz * ? 
Helbl. 3, 327 ; messerinneii, Ettu. Maul. 657. Carrying & jtmelUd 

VOL. IT. c c 



chain about one is a remedy, Bit. 7050 — oo (SuppL to 1218 

p. 1166] Wliether a nian is troubled with the lahite folk, is 
determined thus : Take 3 cherrif twi^s, and cut them ioto small 
pieceif, saying, * one not one, two not two, etc.* up to nine, till you 
have 81 pieces ; throw these into a bowl of water, and if they 
float, the patient is free of the white folk ; but if some sink, he 
is still aflSicted with them in the proportion of the sunken sticks 
to the swimming ones. In Masuria, N. Preuss. prov, bl. 4, 

p. 1166.] We pour water on one who has fainted: daz man 
tnit hrunnen si vergoß, nnde natzte-se under*n ougen, KL 1566 j 
si lac in unsiune unz (senseless till) man mit tcazzer si vergdz 
1978. Wet grass is laid on those that swoon, Ls. 2, 283, To 
£tnke Bfire, or to puff it, is good for a burn in the foot, erysipelas 
and sore eyes, Miilleuh. p. 210* 

p. 1168.] Poenit. Ecgb. (Thorpe p. 380): (]>a cUJ) rot wega 
gel^etmn ]>xLrh pa eorÖ^au fihiF, Creeping through hollow atones, 
Antiqv* ann. 3, 27; conf, Kuhn on Vrihaddeirata in Weber's Ind. 
stud. 1, 118-9. Hollow 7'ouiul stones are fairy cups and dishes, 
Scott's Minstr. 2, 163. These are often ment. in old records 
ad durvchelcn stein (yr 10-J9) MB. 29*, 143; peira pettiisa, Procop 
2, 609 ; pierre percee, Schreib. Tasclienb, 4, 262-3 (Kl, sehr. 2, 42) . 

At Lauenstein a ruptured child is pulled through a split oak 

bij its ijodfaihers bet sunrise ; the more carefully the tree is then 
tied up, the better will the rupture heal; but no one will have 
that oak, for fear of getting the rupture. The same thing is don( 
with a young maitleii ashj Barnes p* 326, Sometimes the hair 
merely is cut off aud passed through, Meier^s Schwab, sag. 528. 
A horse is cured by putting a silver penny inside the split of 

an aspen or hazel, Mone 6, 476. In England they often pull 

a sick child through an ash, Athuoi *46, Sept. 5, no, 984. They 
tie the tree up with thick string, or drive nai7^ into it. Trees so 
nailed together are often met with in the woods : one was found 
full of nails, Hone's Tablebk 2, 466 ; couf* the Vienna ' stock am 
eisen/ Ziska's March, p. 105. If you have the toothache, walk 
silently iuto a wood on a Thursday morning, take a nail with you, 
pick your teeth with it, then drive it into a tree^ Nilss. 4, 45, 
There is a tree near Mausfeld studded all over with nails, DS. 






no. 487* In Englnnd a child that tas the hooping cough is 
drawn three Hates through an opening in a hawthorn hedge. 
ApÄlä, afflicted with a skin- disease, ofifera a Sotoa-sacrifice to 
In dm, who in token of gratitude heals her by drawing her 
through three openings m his car^ Weber^s Ind, itnd* 1, 118, 4j 8, 
p. 1172.] When a headache will not go, they wind a string 
three tirnes round the man's head, and hang it up in a tree as a 
noose ; if a bird flies throngb it, he takes the headache along 
■ with him, Temme^s Altmk p* 83. If yon lafj a child's chemise, 
I in which it has auffered the schwere noth (fit of epilepsy), on the 
I crosB'Wayg, the disease will pass over to him who walks, rides or 
I drives that way, Medic* maulaffe 167. A hatchet- wound is healed 
I by tifing up the tool that dealt the dint. 

I Herre, mit Gotes helfe 

I wil ich, daz reine weife 

^^K luwer kint wol generen (keep alive). Diocl. 4504. 

Jaundice can be transferred to the lizard, Mone 7, 609, Sick 
men are wrapt in the hide of a newly killed statj^ Landulph. in 
Muratori 4, 81. Wilman's Otto 3, 244. A sickly child is ffwafltsd 
in the skin of a newly slaughtered sheep (in Shamyl's camp), 
Allgem. Ztg '56, p, 3323^, The siqwrimposition of warm flesh 
occurs in a witch-trial. Schreib, Taschenb, 5, 213, 

p. 1172.] The deer-strap must be cot o£f the live animal^ 
Agric, Vom hirsche p.m, 238-9 ; conl ^ man sol den erhcl-rtcmen 
(lor um nauseae) smd^n dem der smacke (sapor) wil verderben. 
Tit, 2621. The tooth of a weasel killed in a particular way is 
picked up from the ground with the left hand, wrapt in the hide 
of a newly killed lion (or maiden hind), And laid on the gouty 
feetj Luc, Philops. 7. On the healing virtue of a rhamois-bullei, 
doronieon, see Ettn. Unw. d. 180. A skin-inflammation is called 

Der siechtnom ist des ersten klein, 
und kumt den herren in diu bein, 
und ist geheizen der wolf Ottok. 91**. 

p, 1173.] KL sehr. 2, 146. Certain worms or beetles are 
recomm, for dog- madness. ' Maz-leide buoz^inthe note ^ cure 
for queasiness (meat-loathing). There is a health-giving dish, 



into which the slaver of biack and white snakes has trickled, Sax<3 
Gr. ed. M. p. 193-4. Ein iglich tier (every beast) daz wurde' 
gesunt, der im gaebe (if one gave it) kundes-hhiot, Henn. 19406 ; 
blood heals wounds, Lane. 25397-428, In the Engelhart and 
Poor Henry, leprosy is cnred by the blood of innocent babes ; 
* man s wendet drnosen mit nüechterner speicheln/ fasting men's 
spittle, Renn. 5884. 

p, 1173.] A yellow bird by his look removes jaundice; it is 
also cured by drinking out of a waxen goblet with a raven- ducat 
Ijing at the bottom, Unw* doct, 147. Biting is good for a bite: 
bdti (mordax aliqnid) vi?S bitsothnnt Ssem. 27''. The hnk is 
healed by poUhook^t Lisch 's MeckL jrb. 6, 191^ hip-gout (?) by 
gelding J Greg. Tur. 1Ü, 15. 

p. 1175.] To the M, Latin ligavi^ntHtn answers the Gr, 
wapaprrffia, appendage, Luc. Philops. 8 ; breviis ac Ugafitn^, 
MB. 16, 241 (yr 1491); ohligaiores, Ducange sub v, Pertz 3, 
100. Were wolfs teeth hung on people like the foaPs tooth 
p. 658 n. ? 

Ob ieman wolle tum ben spot 
und einen boesen luohes zan 
mit ergerunge henkea dran. Pass. 3, 70, 
Ir truogt (wore) den eite^'-wolvcs zan. Parz, 255, 14. 

Daz ich rainne, ist mir niht an-gebundenj ez ist mir an -ge born, 
MSH. 3, 283'*. Parentes vero ejus, intelligentes eum diaboli 
immissione turbari, ut 7nos rHsticorum habet, a sorti legis et ariolis 
ligamenta ei et potiones deferebant, Greg. Tur, Mirac. S. Mart. 1, 
26. Accidentibus ariolis et dicentibus, earn mendiani daeinofjii 
incursum pati, iujamina herbariim atqoe incantationum verba 
proferebant 4, 36. Ilia de sinu Ucium protulit varii colons filis 
intortum, cervieeuiqne vinxit meom, Petron. c. 13 L Finn, tt/rä, 
prop, testicnlns, then ' globulus magicus nocivus, instar testicn- 
lorum, hominibiis et peciidibus hnmitti solitns.* Fromm, on Herb, 
p. 230 quotes : inujgo argentea, per incantationum modos multique 
artificii virtu te consfcructa, quae ad vers us incantatiooes jam factas 
est valde potissima. 

p. 1177.] In Arabic a conjurer is called breather ofi the knot», 
who ties the nestel, and breathes or spits on it, to complete 
the charm, Rückertr^s Hariri 1, 45L Sura 113 of Koran. Flnoch, 



(a curse) I der mine wambe hesperrei (bars up). Mar. 153^ 38. The 

witch throws the padlock over a loving pair at their wedding, to 
breed hatred betw. them, Bechst. Thür. sag. 3, 219. People choose 
the same day for being bled, Trist* 380, 3 [this appar. belongs 
to 1 139 ?], A lighted wick dipt in one^s drink, and so quenched, 
lessens the drinker^s enjoyment of love, Marc^lL no. 94* Kl. 

fichr. 2, 142, Labour is obstructed by nine wUch'-knots in the 

hair, ' the kaima (combs) of care/ Minstrelsy 2, 400. A sliaggy 
cap is good for women in child-hands (-birth), Herold in Oechsle*8 
Bauernkr. p. 35. A difficult labour is lightened by making two 
babies of wax; or are they merely to deceive the sorceress? 
DV* 1, 274-9. A mau clasps his hands over his knees, and the 
labour is stopt j they make believe it is over, he lets go, and it 
[goes on again, Asb. Huldr. 1, 20, Belts relieve the labour, 
lOssian, Ahlw* 3, 43Ö. 450 • ]>ä tuk Hrani heli-ii, ok lag&l urn hana, 
ck litlu siSar (soon after) varS hun Ifittari, Forum, s, 4, 32. 

The Lettish Laima spemh the sheet under those in labour; the 
zlotd baba watches over births, Hanusch 337. 356. "Aprefn^ 
ßoXaaifi, Procop. 2, 576; at xviatcouaat €wtKa\€ttr0€ rrfv "Aprt^ip, 
a^iova0a& a-irfyvm/Aij^ 5ti Bi€Koptjd7)T€t Sch. on Theocr, 2, 66^ 
Juno Lficina^ fer opem, serva me obsecro, Ter, Adelphi iii. 4, 4L 

Swelh wib diu drill liet (3 canticles) hat, 

86 sie ze keminäten gfit (takes to her chamber) ^ 

in if zestven. beüangeu (clasped in her right), 

sie Itdet (will suflfer) unlangen 

kumber von dem sere, 

wand in unser Fro wen fir© 

g'nist sie (she*Il recover) dea kindes gnaedeclJchen , . . 

Sw& din bam^hel drin sint behalten, 

diu Maget wil der walten (Virgin will manage), 

daz da nehein kint 

werde krumb noch Mint, Wernher^s Maria 128-9. 

p. 11 77.] The cure for poisoning is descr. in Megenberg 27S, 
27. To the foot of one bitten by an adder is tied a stone from a 
virgin's grave, Luc. Philops* 11. 

p, 11 79 J 'Man sol genaedige fteilige verre in vremden landen 
snochea/ MSB. 3, 45** [Chaucer's 'seeken straunge strondes, to 
ferne halwes '] , The sick are healed on the grave of the pious 


priest, Pertz 2, 82* The myth of the herb that grows up to the 
skirt of the statue's garment is also in Walth. v. Rh. 138, 21-58 
(p. 1191 mid). Relics bring Inck^ Al. Kaufmannes Ceesarins 
p, 28, and the M. Neth. poem of Charles, Hpt, 1, 104. Miracles 
are also wrought on Pinte's grave, Renart 2948 L 

p. 1180.] Coins were laid at the feet of a statue which had 
cured, or was to cure, fever ; silver coins were stuck on its loins 
with wax, Luc. Philops. 20. 

Stabat in his ingens annoso robore quercus, 

una nemus ; tnttae mediam ynemoresque tahellae 

geriafpuf cingebaat, voti aT gmnent^ patent U. Ov. Met* 8, 743, 

A woman cured of toothache thankfully hangs waxen gnms on 
the grave, Pertz 10, 522 ; a man whom the saint has delivered 
from chains bangs up a chain, ibid. ; so in Cses. Heisterb. 7, 29. 
Liberated prisoners hang their chains on the trees in the 
goddess's grove, Pausan. ii. 13, 3 ; those in Ma. on the saint's 
tomb, St Louis 96, 2 ; conf. Scheible 6, 988-9. 997 and RA. 674. 
^ My mother made a vow that she would hang a votive tablet in 
the chapel if I recovered my hearing,^ Broimer's Life 1, 40. 
Hooks to which diseased cattle had been tied, also crutches after 
a cure were left lying in the chapel, MüUenh. p* 105, and at 
healing springs, Ir. march. 2, 78, hi some places the inscription 
may still be read : 'hat geholfen,' hath holpen, M. Koch's Beise 
203. A waxen house is vowed, that the dwelling house may not 
be burnt down, il»t. Louis 84, 19. 

p. 1182.] To OHG, sterpo, pestis, lues, corresp. the AS» 
sieorfa. The schdm I explain fr, schwert, GDS. p. 235-6 : der 
Schelme gesluoc, Hpt 5, 552; der schalm slüeg liberal, LS. 2, 
314; eh dich der schelm schlecht, Garg< 102^; der seh, schlägt. 
Moneys Bad. gesch. 1, 219; sehe! men- grübe, -f/a^sp, -a-cker 1, 215 
seq. Leopr. 75-6 ; ketb und ^chcfm, Mono's Anz. 6, 467-8, mhelmig 

u. kehig 8, 407* OHG. suhtluomi, pesfcilena, corruptus, Graff 

2, 212; staramiio, stramih 6, 712. Diut, 1,279; der brechen, 
plague,' Panz. Beitr. 1, 23 j dying of the brechen, H. Sachs 3, 64*^ 
(cholera?); pisleht, pestis, Graff G, 778 ( — sieht, clades, Diut. 1, 
183) ; der gehe toi in Pass. 316, 90 is apoplexy ; der schwarze tod 
Miillenk no. 329 ; ' how a pestilence could thus fall fr. the stars, 
and overrun the world/ Ph. v. Sittew. Zauber-becher p. 238 > 




die pestelenz atoszt an, Platter's Life 66. 71-2. Tlie Serv. 

kraiel is a fabulous disease tluit kills in one night, worse than the 
plague ; the dead man has one foot fihnrfer than the other, henca 
the name {kriitak, curt, Sapph to ilöO eud). Huttfij is a personif. 
plague that robs mothers of their children, Paus, i. 44, 7* With 
Apollo conf, OSinu in Seem. 5* : fleijg&i OSinn, ok i folk urn 
shiui (shot). The Lettous think it an omen of pestilence, if the 
auskats shears the backs of the sheep in the night, Bergm. 142. 

p. 1183.] The au^el that smites all in Ezek. 9 is called der 
nhihewJe engel^ Diemer 327-8. 2 Sam. 2 1, 10-7* Deliverance 
from the plagne is effected by a snow-white angel^ Greg. Tur. 4^ 5* 
Angels and devils go about duriog the plague, Sommer p. 55; 
der sterbe erhlzet (bites fx> death, an angel with drawn sword), 
Grriesh. 2, 28; raging death rldeH through the city on a pale 
horse, Judas 1, 327; in times of pestileuce, Hel (ra.) rlth^t about 
on a three-legged horse, bateheriog men, Mülleuh» p, 244; ich 
hör auch das menltn kum, pestileuz, es fahet an (begins), Keisersb, 

rOm. 24.^ 

p. 1184.] The black death rises as a />?arfc /ck/, Mnllerih, no. 

*829 ; the plague comes iu sight as a hlne miftt, 8omm. p. 73, as 
a elotul, a viper ^ Villeraarq- Bard. bret. 12t*. The plague, in the 
shape of a fog, winds into a wasps* hole, aud gets plngrfed in, 

IKulpa ID l>*Elv. 11Ü; she comes in at the window, a black shape^ 

[passes into a bored hole, and is jtegged in, Kehrein's Nassau 54. 

y^olßo<! aKepa^tcofjLTi^ \otfAOv v€(f>€Kffv dfrepvfceif Luc, Alex, 36. 

K. Marc. Cup. 30. The plague proceeds from the throats of 

pnraued wolves, Forcell. sub t* Hirpi. Et uata fertnr pestilentia 
in Babylonia, ubi de templo Apolliois, ex arcnla tntreaf quam 
miles forte iuciderat, spiritus pestilens evasit, atquo inde Parthos 
orbemqae implesae, Capitolinus in Vero 8. With the pLague that 
is coöjured into a lime-tree, agrees the Mj/ider that is bunged in 
and let out again, which also runs about the country as a ^tsrhtst, 

iGotthelfs Erzähl. 1, 84. 

p, 1189.] The Great Plague is called pestis^itJci, Welsh y fad 
feUn, San Marte's Arthur-s. 29. 323, With the leg. of Elliant 

^oonf. Volksmiirch. aus Bret. p. 185 — 8, Souvestre 20t>-7. On 

I DomuM Thitderici, Thi<«tTQ, M«ii»eb. i, 21 ; *A8fiu^9& w^pym^ rd^f. Prooop. B. 
Goth. 2, 22; rtirrii Cre^centii or Diftrich*-hmu to tho teg. of CreBc^et]tiB And th« 
Two Dietrichi. In Wackem* Lb. 'J90, Ditterich buUd* the lünget^itorg ; it ia calltnl 
Sorten burg in Mjrst. 1, 1U3. 


the Lith. Oiltine, see N. Preass. prov. bl. 8, 471-2. German 
plague-stories may be seen in Woeste's Volks-überl. 44, Panz. 
Beitr. I, 29 and Wolfs Ztschr. 2, 83. The pest-frau is dressed in 
white, Bskder no. 431. The plagae creeps, crawls in the dark, 
Schmidt's Westerw. id. 89. The Swed. Plagae-boy reminds of 
the girl who in Denmark indicates deaths to the kindred with 
a twig, Molb. Hist, tidskr. 4, 121 ; three plagae- women walk 
through the town with scythes. The plague- maiden appears in 

wet garments and with a little red dog, Bunge's Arch. 6, 88. 

When pestilence rises out of Mit-othin's grave, the body is dug 
up and hedged in with stakes, Saxo 6r. ed. Müll. 43 (Soppl. to 
609). The abating of plagues by burying in a hill occurs in 
Sagebibl. 3, 288. The cow's-deaih, an enormous bull, approaches 
like the plague, Müllenh. no. 328. In time of plague, the first 
hectd of cattle that falls is buried with a young shoot or a willow 
planted in its mouth, Soperst. I, 838. Müllenh. no. 327 ; or a 
bull is buried alive, Panzer 2, 180, a calf or cow sacrificed (pp. 
608. 1142). At Beutelsbach near Stuttgart, an old woman 
during a cattle plague advised that the hummel (parish-bull) 
should be buried alive : wreathed in flowers they led him in state 
to a deep pit ; three times the mighty beast broke his way out, 
but the third time he choked. Hence the Beutelsbacher are 

named Hummelbacher. The plague flies at people's necks as a 

butterfly, ^//e We, Woeste's Volks-überl. 44-5. The Kuga, like 
Berhta, can't bear to see the dishes not washed up. A strange 
bird sings from the tree : ' Eat pimpernel, and you'll all be well ! ' 
Herrlein's Spessart 217. Rochholz 2, 390-1 ; somewhat differently 
iu Schöppner no. 962. Leoprechting 101. Bader no. 270. 
Panzer 2, 161. Schönwerth 2, 380. 3, 21. 



p. 1190.] Ace. to Galen (De fac. simpl. 6, 792-3) a Greek, 
Pamphilus, about the time of Claudius, wrote of herbs in alpha- 
betic order, collecting their names and the superstitions about 
their virtues in sacrifices and incantations. Were the book 
extant, it would be valuable for mythology and language* 



Possibly the names of plants iaterpolated in MSS. of Dioscorides 
are oat of Pamphilua. 

1. Herbs, 

p» 1191.] Kein dine hit M der erden an kreften also rieben 
bort (of powers so rieb a store) so steine, krluter und« wort, Troj* 
1 0860 ; sieiiie, knit sint an tagenden richej lüort wil icb darobe 
(above them} an kreften prfaen, MS. 1, 12**; quae carmine sanet 
et Iwrbuf, Ov, Met. 10^ 397. Würzen kraft u. aller steine meister- 
Bcbaft, MS, 1, 195^; würze des waldea u, crze (ores) des gohles u. 
I elliu abgriinde, din sint dir Herre künde, MS. 2, 230 ; der steine 
kraft, der würze wkz, Wh. 2, 14. What is the diatinction betw. 
hrut and würz ? Ein hnXt^ des würze (whose aromaj er wunden 
helfen jach (asserted), Parz. 516, 24, conf, 516, 27 : er grmb$e, 
i.e. the würz ( = wurzel, root). Krant is picked, wurzel dug out; 
flowers too are picked (Walfch. 39, 16. Hpfc 7, 320) or gathered 

(Walth. 39. 1). Also : crüt lesen, Lane. 2930 L Ein edel krüt, 

Hpt4, 521; umdel hluot (ignoble blood) 7,321 (p. 1195); durch 
sine edH ez (daz knU) tragen, Warn. 1944; tugent-friildic kriiitel^ 
MS. 1, 88* ; ich brich each edle kreuter, Mone 6, 460 ; (ßapfiateov 
itrffXiv, Od. 10, 287. 292; ein edle« kraut patientia samt dem 
kreutlein benevolentia, die gaben also süszen rach^ das es mein 
Ijerz u. sei durchkruch. Healing herbs are ' herbes ilentanitfres/ 
Ren. 19257-69; $urdae, hoc est igiutbiles herbae, Pliny 22, 2, not 

iowy, e»g, grass. Heil-wurz is fetched from an ifiaecetmble 

omUain by the wild merwoman, Hpt 5, 8 (Sappl. to 1192 mid.], 
as dictamnns is by Venus from Ida, Aen. 12, 412. The Idotan bed 
o/ßowei-n is also in Petron, 127; the Homeric veofffjXia^ iroiri^ 
is in Hesiod too, Theog. 576; a woodland bed [of flowers?] is 
Erek's and Eoid^s betie-wdi (-curtain), Er. p. 216, Vuk 1, no, 
224; rait rösen was ich nmbestact, Tragemund. Where the 
maiden stood in tbe garden, bloom tbe fairest Sowers, Rhesa 
dainos 296 ; die bourne beguuden krachen^ die rosen sere lachen, 
Ges, Abent, 1, 464, Another phmta e capite statuae naacens 
is in AtheneBüs 5, 497, Liebrecbi^s Gervas, 124. Gesta Rom. 
K. 138. Moss growing in a deuffin head is supposed to have 
magic power. There is a superstition about petxs sown inside a 

p, 1192.] Plants are dear to God; He called them forth. 



Whether to pick beaufciful flowers, or dur Got stau Idn (for God 'si 
love let them stand) ? Hpfc 4^ 500. The inarrubmm indeed iBi 
gates-very eten, gutiü-t\, yofz-vergessen, Mone 4, 240*8. 8, 493. 
407; gotU-vergeszene, SummerK 57, 51. &€^t/ aypajari^, tu 
Kp0vo<: KarifTTTupe' Glaiicug, having found and eatea it, becomes 

immortal, Athen. 3, 83-k Al^a^Apem^ (blood of Ares), nardng 

montana, Dioscor* 1, 8, lilium 3, 100; al^a 'Epfiov, verbena 4, 
60; alpLU jiOrjva^ chamaepitys 3, 165; atßa ' H pa tcXiav^, crocnB\ 
1, 25, ceutaurium minus 3, 7 ; alfj,a rirdvovj robus 4, 37. So: 
y6vo<i 'HpaKXeov^ij inyrtus silv, 4, 144, elleborutn alb. 4, 148; 
yovQ^ 'Epfiou, anethuuj 3, 60, buphthalmus 3, 14^>; yovo^ »ypaio^, 
polygonum 4, 4 (is 70^*0^ here semen, or as the Lat, version lias it, 
genitura?). The flower Ata^ first springs up after the hero's 
death, Pans. i. 35, 3. Plants often originate from drops of blood 
(p, 827), as the flower on Sempach field shoots up where Leopold 
has fallen, Reber's Hemmerlin p. 240. The poison-plant dtcovnov 
grows out of Cerberus's drivel (Ov. Met, 7, 415. Serv. ad Virg. 
Geo, 2, 152), as the herb imchünte does from dragon's blood, Parz* 
483, 6. — —Apta-ToXox^a (cormp. into Osterluzei) has reference to 
"Apre^t^ Xo^eta» and is given to women in childbed, Herba 
Chiranis alsing, Mone's Quellen 289*; herba 8, Petri^ ibid. The 
PoL Dziewmina is both Diana and verbascum thapsas ; Boh, 
divizna (wonder- flower) is our himmel brand (SuppL to 1190). 
Baldrs bra stands on a par with supercilium Veneris, Diosc. 4, 
113 ^aidjjifHjß'aueii aufj-hrmme (virgin's eyebrow), acbillea mille- 
folium, Nemnich ; eonf, iviM-fraulein-kraut, achillea moschata, 
Staid. 2, 45L AS. Sdiar-ldSe (p. 247). Woms-kruid, angelica ? 
Coremans 53, Vimnnfrrnß, son of summer, of the sun ? (SuppL 

to 1212 end). The centaury was first pointed out by the 

centaur Chiron; a herb is named achillea, bee. discovered by 
Chiron's pupil AchiUeji, Vtmnn culls dictamnns on Ida for her 
wounded Aeneas, Aen. 12, 412. The /iwXi/ plucked out by 
Hermes is, ace. to Dioscor. 3, 46-7, rnta silvestris and leucoium 
silvestre. An augel in a dream reveals the sowthistle (p. 1208) ; 
the wounded Albert is shown the remedial herb in a dream, 
Felsenb, 1, 232-4; an angel tells of a remedy in a dream, Bugelh. 
5437 seq. One herb the Mother of Ood has covered with her 
cloak^ Klose's Breslau p. 102 ; the empereriz having fallen asleep 
on a rook in the seaj Mary appears and bids her pull up the herb 



that grow*f under her heitdj M^on N, rec, 2, 71-3. Maerl. 2, 226. 
Wackero. Lb. 995^ 29. Fran Bahehilt digs tip and grates herbs 
for wounds, Ecken-I. 178 — 6. The tmrmaid urges tbe use of 
mugwort, the vila of odalian (pp. 1208. 1212). The Vila gathers 
herb» (bare bUye) for Marko, Vuk 2, 218 (ed. %h). 

p. 1194,] In the leg. of Glaucua and Poljidug h miaJce brings 
the herb that reanimates the dead^ Apollod, Bibl. 3, 3 ; conf, 
KM.^ 3, 26. A weasel io the wood calls the red flower that 
quickens^ Marie 1, 474. Birda pick herbs, and teach their uses 
to maiii e.g. the spring- wiirzel (p. 973). A raven comes flying 
with the wound-healing leaf^ Vols, saga c, 8, If a swallow's chick 
grows blind, she fetches a berbj lays it on, and restores the sight; 
hence the herb's name of cheiidonlum, celandine, Dioscor. 2, 211. 
GDS- 204; and Megeoberg tells the same tale of gcheU-wurz 
(celandine).* Harts shew the hart- wort {hirscb-wurz, -heil), 
Megenb. 398, 22—25. With Norweg. Tyri-hialm (Tiwes-helm) 
coincides jipeof; Kwrj, Babr. 68, 4. Does OHG. wat-wurz, Graff 
1, 768 stand for Watin-worz ? 

p. 1195.] Mary has the most herbs named after her, see 
Fries's Udfl. 1, 87. Similar to the wine Liebfrauen'milch is 
Ü^poSiTJ?? jäXa, Aristoph, in a lost play p. m. 154*; rfBu^ ye 
wiveiv olvoff A<f>poS, ydXa, Athen. 10, 444**. Marle'ii-müch how- 
ever is poly podium vulg., said to have grown out of the drops of 
milk that Mary scattered over the land, F. Magnus. 36 1 note ; 
conf. the Span, leche de los viejos, leche de Maria = wine. Maritit 
hM'Situh is Engl, iady^s bedsiraw, lady in the straw. Hone's 

Yrbk 814. Frua*mänieUj malva rotnndifolia, WolPsZts. 2, 54* 

Vrowe7i'hdr, Minnen-hiXr, capillus Veneris, Mone 4, 241 ; conf, 
Venus's eyebrow (Supph to 1192 mid.). Nemnich sub w. 
cypripediom, adiantum, Marien'ihraiie, -tear, resembles ''Hpa^ 
SuKpvQv, verbena, Diosc. 4, 00. Lab rum, lavacrum, concha Vene* 
ri^==dipsacu9 sitibundus, bee, it gathers dewdrops, MargardhcU' 
schockla, -shoe, put in a box, becomes a black worm. 

* k üeld-fiower« eaphrasim or myoBotis^ is called augen-trott {eyi!*s ouiiiforl), 
Nciiil. oghtn-iromt ; nX^o auifen-dieiut (Blumetitrost, n fumily namo at MiilhauHen) : 
codI. ' den ich in mliian oageo gero« barge/ VVolfr. 8, 4 ; xe sumere die ouxeu 
irdaitu flcho«n« niae (fair meadu euchant the eye) ; Lovely ladies ^ere d^aVun^ 
dXyifS^tt eye*8maris. BatgtB eAge, primok \er%B [?], M. EtigL datea eyghe. 
dMUj, Alex. 7^11. C]ov«r loo it oai]^ migen hrefiende, but Engt, eye-bright lt^ 
euphrasia. lob luon dir in den oogeQ wol, Winsbekin 4» 4 ; er itrl mir in don 
ou^et] niht em dorn, MS. 1, 16^ 2« UH«; ob 02 ir etelicLeu taeto in den otig^n w^, 
MS. 1, 6«», ÜUS, 2irJ I cont friedeUM oußa, Mone 8. 405. Hpt, (i, 8»*i, 




p. 1195.] FJowers are picked and presented to ladies, Hpt 7, 
320. Some herbs engender strife, esp. among women : ononis 
spinosa, weiher-krieg, women*s war, Lat. altercnm ; Rerv, bilye od 
omraze, herbs of hate, that makes friends fall out, Vuk 1, 305 (ed. 
'24). Boh. hthj is one particular plant, tnssilago. Herbs wero^H 
broken off with the pommel of a sword, Lane. 12013, picked with^^ 
the Uifi Ä ami, bare- footed (see selago). They are gathered ace* 
to days of the week : on Sunday fiolseqnium, Monday lunaria» 
Tueed. verbena, Wednesd. mercurialis, ITiursd. barba Jovis, Frid. 
capillus Veoerii*, Satard. crowfoot {? p. 247). Superst. H, cap. 

p. 1196.] Pliny 26. 5, 14 calls condurdum herba solstitialis, 
flore rubro, quae e coUo suspensa strumas coraprimit ; conf. Plant, 
PseodoL i, 1, 4: quasi soUtitialitt herba paulisper fui, repente! 

exorfcus sum, repentino occidi.^ Herba Bntanmca is called in 

Diosc. 1, 120 akifio^, ol Be ßperawiKij, in 4, 2 ßperavvnctj i) 
ßerTQPifcijy couL Diefenb- Celt. 3, 112, Cannegieter de Briten- 
burgo, Hag. Com. 1734. Abr. Münting de vera herba Brit. 
Anist. 16^8. C. Sprengers Diosc. 2, 571. GDS. 679* An 
OHCr, gl. of the 12th cent, has 'herba Brit., himeUhrani^' Mone 
8j 95; perh. ^ hllmihr and a — mmneWsk' in Graff 3, 309 stands for 
himilbranda. Hlmmel-hraiuit -Äer^e — verbascum thapsus, white^ 
mullein, Schm. 2, 196; and h if de-brandy verb, nigrum > 2, 17& 
Himmelhrand, brenn-kraui, feld-kerze, unholden-kerze — verb 
thapsQS, says Hof er 2, 52 ; nnhoLlen'kraut, Boh. divlzna, Jüngm 
Ij 371' (Suppl. to 1192 mid,). Instead of * hmwen-hyaelej bri* 
tannica/ Moneys Quellen 320* has the forms htewen-ht/ldele, hmwen- 
ydele ; may hylde, bilde be akin to beide, heolode (hiding, 

hidden) ?^ Tonnolrey fleur du tonnerre, coquelioot, poppy, 

Grandgagnage's Voc* 26; douner-bart (-beard) ia sednm tele- 
phi um. A fuDgns irov in Thrace grew during t him der, Athen« 
1, 238; subdued thunder generates mushroomR, Meghaduta, p. 4.^^ 

On lotus see Klemm Ij 112-3; lotus caerulea^ Bopp's Gl. 39^:j^H 
46, SprengeFe Diosc« 2, 622; white and blue lotas, Fries's^^ 
Udfl. 1, 107. 

p. 1199.]. Mir wart ein krut in mtn haut, Ls, 1, 211; does 
that mean ' stole in unperceived * ? conf. c^5 cv x^^pt, Passow 2, 
1042. Si sluoc daz krut mir uz der hant^ Ls. 1, 218. Of the 
aster atticus^ Dioscorides 5, 118 says : ^Tfpov Se auaip^Bky r§ 



apio-repa x^^'P'^ "^^^ äXyovvTo<i, in the patient's hft hatifL Of the 
bark of the wild ligfcree, Pliny 23. 7, 64 : caprifico quoque medi- 
cinae nniu3 miractilutn additur, corficem ejus impuhescenfp^in 2mer 
impuht» si defracto ramo delrahat denfibus, medullam ipsam 
atJailifjatam ante »olia ürtum prohibere atrumas. Three rose^ are 
picked off in five i^ick», Amgb* 48** (conf. wishing for 3 roses 
on 07ie stalk, two rosea on i7ne branch, UhL Volksl. pp. 23. 116* 
Reosch no, 12. Meinert's Kuhl. 95; offerings roses, Uhl. p. 

257-8). A Swed. account of digging up the rann (rowan) in 

Dyb. '45j 63. Am abend soltn sie (the vervain) umkreissen mit 
siihei' n, mit golde u. mit siden (silk), Mone 6, 474. When the 
root is pulled out^ the hole is filled up with corn, to propitiate 
the earth (Suppl. to 1241}, The plant is phirked »uddenly, and 
eoverfid with the hami (Suppl. to 1214): du solfc ez (the shoot) 
ÜZ der erden geziehen vil lihte, En, 2806 and 2820 — o, where 
Virgil has no shoot to be pulled up, but a branch to be torn off. 
La sainte herbe qu'a son chief trueve • . , tai en orant I'ei^he a 
coillie, Meon N. rec. 2, 73. 

p. 1202.] The grasses growing through a sieve remind one of 
the words * p^irh acrti in-ivif^^d^' (p. 1244), It is curious too, 
that an elder should be considered curative when it grows in a 
hollow willow- tree out of seeds that thrushes had swallowed, 
Ettn. Unw, d. 161-2. There are herbs, the sight of which allays 
hunger : esuriesque sitis vlsis reparabitur herbis, Ecbas. 592. 

p. 1204,] The mightiest of magic roots is mandrake : abollena 
alrun, SamerL 54, 37, How to pull it out is also descr in 
Oeuvres de Rutebeuf 1, 474: Ceate dame het'be (conf. la mere 
des herbes, artemisia, Suppl. to 1212 beg.)> il ne la irest ne giex 
(Jew) ne paiens ne Sarrazins ne crestiens, ains hi tresi une beste 
mue, et iantoist eonte ele eat irai'te, bI coeient 'iiiorir cele beste. In 
like manner the root Baaros is pulled up by means of a dog, 
Joseph. 7, 25* Armenian ' mam*akot' or loi^hlak, a man -like root, 
is pulled out by a [dog?] to which it is tied; in coming out it 
moans in a human voice/ Artemius of Vagarshapat, transl, by 

Basse {Halle '21) p. 106. Mandragora grows in Paradise, 

where the elrfttnt goes to look for it, Karajan. MapSpayopa^. 
Tlo0ayipa^ äy0pti>7r6fAop<f>Qif, *PmfjLaiot ßdXa xavipa, Diosc- 4, 76. 
The alraun is carved out of a root (p, 513n.). Panz. Beitr, 1, 250, 
Un vergier a li peres Floire, u plantes est li mandpgloire^ Flore 


244. Mandragora tvalm, Mone 8, 95 ; von senfte der alr&nen 
wart mich slafen, Franenl. 6, 26 ; inro ßjLarBpayopa KoBeuBeuf, 
Lac. Timon 2 (ed. Bip. 1, 331 — 3) ; ix ßj^avSpayopov xaOeuSet^v, 

Luc. Demosth. enc. 36. On the alruiie in Franenlob's Minne- 

leich 15, 2, Ettmüller says p. 286 : 'they seem to have believed 
that mandrakes facilitated birth.' This is confirmed by Adam 
Lonicems in his Krenterbach (1582) bl. 106*. ^Alraun rinden 
dienet zu aagen-arzneyen. Dieser rinden drey heller gewicht 
schwer, for der frawen gemacht (women's chamber) gehalten, 
bringet ihnen ihre zeit, treibet anss die todte gebart.' Älr&nen 
heizit er virbem (he is said to have about him) : swenne er wil, 
so ist er ein kindelin, swenne er wil, sd mac er alt mn. Cod. Pal. 
361, 12^ 'He must keep an araunl by him, that tells him all 
he wants to know,' H. Jorgel 20, 3. The mandragora is put into 
a white dress, and served twice a day with food and drink, Spinnr. 
evangel. Tuesday 2 ; con£ the tale of the gallows mannikin, 
Simpl. 3,811. 

p. 1204.] OSinn sticks the thorn into Brynhild's garment 
only, and throws her into a sleep (Kl. sehr. 2, 276). In Tirol 
the schlaf-kunz is called schlaf-putze, Zingerle 552. ' Hennannns 
dictus Slepe^ose/ Hamb. lib. actor. 127, 6 (circ. 1270). The 
hawthorn is sentis canina, lignea canis, Athen. 1, 271. Breton 
gars spem, thorn-bush, in the story of a fair maiden. Nilsson 6, 
4.5 maintains that on barrows of the bronze age a hawthorn was 
planted and held sacred; and the same among Celts (Kl. sehr. 2, 
254. 279). 

p. 1207.] Mistletoe grows on the hazel, lime, birch, fir, willow, 
and esp. oak, Dyb. Buna 2, 16. AS. dc-mistelf viscum quer- 
neum. Mistila, a woman's name, Mone 5, 492. Trad. Fuld. 1 , 
130. Schannat 445. Many places named after it: Mistlegau 
near Baireuth; Mistelouwa, Mistlau, near Crailsheim, Stalin 1, 
599; Mistelhach, Frauend. 272, 18. Kaltenb. Pantaid. 184«»; 
ad Misteleberge, Lacomblet (yr. 1054) no. 189; Mistelveld, 
Lang's Reg. 2, 397 (yr 1248). 3, 55 (yr 1255). Bamb. calend. 
p. 142; Mispilswalde, Lindenbl. p. 24; Mlsterhtdt i Smaland, 
Dybeck '45, 80. A sword belonging to Semingr is called 

-lf/«W/<eiwn in Hervarars. (Fornald. sog. 1, 416). M{stil = 

tuscus (1. viscus), Hpt 5, 326. 364. In some parts of Germany 
they call mistletoe henster, kiiister. Walloon hamnstai, Itamu- 



staine. Grand gag nage 1, 270 and henintai, hinistrai= k instar, 
canister, Grandg. Voc. 23-4. Engl* ^nUseUoe, rnuleioe^ Hone's 
Dajbk 1, 1637-8. And maren-tacke is mialetoe, bristly plant 

(p. 1247, 1. 11)* Nilsson would trace all the Scand, mistletoe 

coitus to tho Draidict Dybeck '45, 79. 80. Ein fuisilmn pater- 

nosier, MB. 18, 547 (jr. 1469); mimhtlui pafenioHter, mispel and 

aick-muiilin jiaternmier^ Ruland*a Handluugs-b. yrs 1445-6-7. 

(PreL viii.) Mistletoe must be cut on a Midsummef^ni^hl^s eve^ 

wbeu sun and moon are in tbe sign of their power (conjunction?), 

I Djb. '44, p. 22. For the oak mistletoe to have any power, it 

I must be shot off the tree, or knocked down with stones, Dyb. '45, 

I p. 80. lu Virgirs descr. of the sacred bough, Aeu. vi,, 

ft 137. aureu/i et foliis et lento vimine ramm, 

K 141. auriromos quam qais decerpserit arbore /eftt^, 

^^B 144. nurenSf et aimili fronclescit virga metalh, 

^^^ 187< et nunc se nobis ille an renn arbore ramm^ 

I this aureus fetus is merely compared to (not ident. with) the 
I croceus fetus of the mistletoe; conf. Athen. 3, 455-7. An oak with 
I a golden bough occars in a Lett, song, Büttner no. 2723. Armor 
haelrar, aft. heller; Wei. uchelawfj, uchel/a, nchelfar, nchelfelj 
hMluicli, Jones p. 39 1**. Lett, ohga tvehja ^hhta, oak -mis tie toe, 
from ohsols, oak, KuAßflahta^ broom, plume; wehja jflohta is a plant 
of which brooms are made. Does wehja mean holy ? conf. 
wehja wannags (Suppl. to 675). Serv, lepak, vise um album, 
also tnela, of which Vuk p. 394 says ; If a mistletoe be found on 
a hazel, there lies under that hazel a snake with a gem on his 
head, or another treasure by the side of it, 

p. 1208.] Welsh fjwhjdd usn. means mild, tender, gwwlijdd 
is violet. Vitteriim is in Finn, rifttoyuurif plague- wort ; another 
Boh. name is kozljk, A rare word for valerian is iennemarch, 
Nemiiich. Mone 8, 140». Hpt 6, 331. Worthy of note is the 
Swed. tale about the mooring of Tivebark and Vend^hrot, Dyb. 
'45, p. 50, The Serv, name odolidn resembles a Polish name of 
a plant, dui^ga, for dolt^ka means upper hand; conf. Vuk's (iU>S8. 
sub, V. odnmiljen. Odlll&nua is & man's name, Thietmar 4, 37 ; 
so is Boh. OdoUn (Kl. sehr. 2, 393). Nardm is fragrant, esp. 
the Indica; nardus Celtica is saliunco. JVapßo? TnaTiKrj TroXirri/iO?, 
JoUn 12, 3 is in Goth, nardus pintikeins hlu-galaubs. 



p. 1208.] ÄCC. to Martin's Relig. d. Gaules, BeUnunfia comes 
fr. Belenas (Diefenb. Celt. 1, 203, Zeuss p* 34), and is a herba 
Apollinaris ; Apollo is said to have found it, Forcell. sub v. 
Russ. helena, PoK hielun^ Boh. blen, hljn, Hung, beleufi/u, Engl. 
he7ihanef gallinae mors. 

p. 1208.] On eherwurZj see Reuss's Waiafr, Strab, Hortulus 
p, 66. Great power is attrib. to the carliDa, Dyb. '4b, p. 72. 
Another tbistle is in Sweden called jull-horstef ibid., remindiDjfJ 
us of the boar GidUn'hursH and of eberwurz. Aa ChEirles*»! 
arrow falls on the sow-thiatle, so does Cupid s on a flower to 
which it imparts miraculous power, love-in-idleness, Mid5. N, 
Dr. 2j 2 ; and other healing herbs are revealed in dreams. In 
another dream a grey smith appears to the same king Karel, 
and with his pincers pulls nails out of his hands and feet, Hpt 
1, 103. 

p. 1209.] An AS. Herbal says of Betouica : |jeos wyrt, ^e 
man betonicmn nemneli, lieo bi?S ceuned on maedum and on 
claenum dftnlandnm and on gefri^edum slowum, seo deah 
gehwaecSer ge l?aes mannes sawle ge his lichoman (benefits soul 
and body), hio hyne scylde'^ wi"8 (shields him against) unbyruni 
niht-gengnm and \v\^ egeaUcum tjealh&um and swefnum. sea 
wyrt bj'S swySe hllligu, and f^us }>il hi scealt niman on Agustes 
mßn^e bütan Uerne (without iron), etc. MH6. hatonie (rhy. 
Saxönie), Tit. 1947: beioene (rhy. schoene), Hatzl. 163, 86. 
Kea-rpov 'Pmpiatoi overTOPttcjjv tcaXovaif Diosc. 4, 1. 

Verbena is akin to veru and Virbius, says Schwenck pp. 489, 
491 ; it stands for herbena, says Bergk. It is sacred^ and there- 
fore called lepoßQrdvT} aud herba pura, qua coronabantur bella 
indicturi, Pliny 22. 2,3. 25,9, 59. Wolfg. Goethe's Dissert/ 
p. 30-1. ft is called wepia'r^petoVf bee, pigeons like to sit by it; 
b\so /erntna, Diosc. 4, 60: t} ciST^piri^ 4, 33-4-5. OHG. Uama, 
iHemnn, Graff 3, 864. 1, 491 ; Umcletfa 4, 555. Sumerl 24, 9 j 
&e<fiian'e, Sumerl, 40, 54; Uerenbart 66, 40. MHG. isenhart. 
Moneys Adz* 4, 250 and Quellen 309^* Ehen-krautj as we still 
Cull it, is thrown into St. Johu's fire (p. 618}| couf. 'Lay aside 
the Johnswort and the ven^aln/ Whitelaw p. 112. Nethl. izm'* 
kruJ, Swed. jern-ört, Dan. jetm-urt. There was a spell fur dig- 
ging Ujf vervain f Mone 6, 474. AS. aisC'imjrf^ Hpt. 5, 204^ 
€PJ^€'ßi*oie, Lye sub v. GDS. 124. 




p. 1209.] Madelger ist ain gut crut wurtz. swer si grabn wil^ 
der grab si an Sant Joliana tag ze j^un-beoden (solstice) an dem 
abent, uod beswer si also dri-stund (adjure it 3 times thus) : * Ich 
beswer dich, Madelger, Ain wurtz 90 Iwr^ Ich manen dich dea 
gehaiz don dir Sani Peiinvs gehiez. Do er sinen stab dri-stund 
durch dich stiez, Der dich usgrub üod dich haim trüg : Wen er mit 
dir umb-iauht (whom he with thee begirds), ez sy fraw oder man. 
Der niug ez in lieb oder in mina nimer gelaun. In ßotz oamenj 
Amen/ wibe si mit andern crutera, Kränter-heilkunde (yr 
UOO) in the Giessen Papierhs. no. 992, hl. 143. 

p. 121 L] Fet^n, hi^acken. Gr. irripi^ fr. ita feathery foliage,* 
Lat, /i^ur, Ifc. /ö/ce, Sp. helecho^ Fr. fongere. Filix herba, palmes 
Mercurii (Suppl. to 159} ; filiciaa, filix miuuta, AS. vftfor-fearn. 
Celt, ratw, Wel. rhedyn, Bret, radetiy Ir. ralth, raUhneach^ Gael. 
ralneach (conf. reinefano), Pott 2, 102. Adelnng's Mifchr. 2, %^ 
from MarcelL c* 25 (Kl. sehr. 2, 123). Ftnu. sana-t/alka (word- 
foot), Esth. sona-yalg, Bücler^s Abergl. gebr. d, Esten 144. 
Lith, bit'krcüle {bee's chair) = tanacetuui vulg., Nesselm, 226, 
331. Serv. pouratish, tansy, tanacetum crispum (fr. po- 
vratlti, to tarn back ? ON. burkni, filix, polypodinm, Swed* 
broken, Vesterb. Jrnkenj Dan. bregne. Again, ON, einstajti, 
JonssoD^s Oldn. ordboc, Norw. elnstabbe, einstnpe, Aasen 79**. 

Nemnich sab v. pteria. Swed< ormhunke, Den wilden varm 

Ireteo, Parz. 444, 7, 458, 17; latentis odii^^^'x excrevit, Dietmar 
in Pertz 5, 736 ; ßb2x iniquitatis exaruit 5, 742. Fernseed mah^ 
inni^ihle^ Wolfs Ztscbr 2, 30 : we have the receipt ot fenisced, 
we walk invisible, 1 Henry IV. 2, 1 ; Swed. om/nligbvts gräa. 
As fem seed in Conrad is thrown to the shad (schaid-visch^ 
Beheim 281, 28), so bugloss, which is aaid to bhnd all animals 
born blind, is scattered to fishes, Rudi. 12, 13. P, 28. 32 — 48. 
After walking naked to the cross-roads and spreading out a 

pockethandkerchief, one expects fentseed^ Zehn eben 235. On 

Christmas night, high and low iiaed to walk in the/<rmf«e(I/ 
there you might wish for anything in the world, the devil had to 
bring it. The Wend, volksl. 2, 271* makes it blossom at Mid- 
summer naon : get hold of the blossom, and all the treasures of 

• So, from ih© Slav, par^tt, to fly, perö, wing, feather, H©hn deriveß not only the 
r^opL BUv. and Litb« pa-part, pa-prat, but the Teut. fam tuid even the Celt. ratU 
which Btandfl (more Celtioo) for pralis. Hebii'a Plant» and Anim. p. 484«— TiunrsL. 


O D 


6ftrth lie open before voa. Conf . the Sloven, riddle : ' kaj tsreie 
frrez tfKia ? ' what blossoms without blossom ? Answ. praproi. 
In Tirol, if yon step on an irr-icurz, yon immed. find yourself 
plunged in a bog or a carrion-pit. A story of the irr-^kraui in 
Stober's NenjahrstoUen 32-3 ; conf. Lett, songs in Büttner nos. 
1593. 1912. 

p. 12 12. J AHettiifiKMy Fr. armoise, O. Fr. er inoiz^, is called in 
Champagne marrelore or msjrreborc (^marmbium?;, which is snpp. 
to mean la mere des herbes (Batebenf 1, 257 , as in fact arte- 
misia is called herbamm mater in Macer. BntebeuFs Dit 
de I'erberie 1, 257 makes emioize the first of heaHng herbs : Les 
fames sen ceignent le soir de la S. Jehan, et en font chapianx 
<eur lor chiez« et dient qne goate ne arertinz ne les pnet panre 
n'en chiez, n'en braz, n'en pie, n'en main ; mais je me merreil 
quant les testes ne lor brisent,, et que li cors ne rompent parmi, 

tant a Terbe de rertu en soi. ^The Germ, word for it occurs as 

a man's name Pe^jl^yt .yr 1330', Bamberjrer verein 10, 107, and 
Bi^p^yz (yrs 1346-57; 10, 129. 136-S. Wo, Eren Sc'nannat no. 
:\id has the name RiUyz (see KI. sehr. 2. 399. Dronke's Trad. 
Fold. 420); and * {'»:y/7'.*^=arcemesia ' in Vocab. Theuton. 
Xuremb. 14S2) d. 7*. At last, in Vocab. ex quo Eltuil 1469, 
• attamesia = fc vncy^V and also * incus = eyn anfusse/ the /in both 
beidg appar. Mid. Bhenish.* ' BUrrMi^n, artemisia, est nomen 
herbe, Tolgariter bffit* in ander sprach bock,' Voc. incip. Teuton. 
'Bib^jf ist ain crut : wer fer welle gaan» der soli es tragen, so wirt 
er nit rniid sere uf dem weg, der tüfel mag im och nit geschaden ; 
und wo es in dem hos lit, es vertribt den z«-i^ber,' Heilmittelbuch 
of 140^j in the Giess. hs. no. 992, bl. 12S^. 'Artemisia, h^/u^s, 
*ynn«!ntcfmdel/ J. Serranus's Diet. Latino-Germ. ;Xümb. 1539) 
oo'; * in dem f-t/^*,' Moneys Anz. '34, o37. Superstitions about 
it, Buiz. Beitr. 1, 249. " St John's coals (touchstone^} are found 
fr. noon to Tespers of John's day under 'h'f 6«fv,r»<At ; alias non 

inreniuntur per annum,* Mone 7, 42-r>. Artemisia is zimher, 

sinbira in Hattemer 3,597^; herK'tt-JiyLZfil in Nemnich p. -466. 
AS. tagamteg Atf/<i<f=artemisia ^tragantes, for Tpaydjeav0a 1) , 
Moneys QuriL 320» (conf. p. 1 2 16 n.) . OHG. stapa^ururz, stabe-ic, 
dbiotcmamy Graff 1, 1052. SumerL 60, 2; our ^tiibtcvrz, southern- 

of Wi&x into * our aieftnin^«äs bexfoas * is » für example d 
tfat hob » good for the pedesaiaa's/ace.—TmASSL. 



wood. OS. sta/'Umrt, dictamoum, dittaoy^ Diut. 2, 192. Arte» 
raisia is buggila in Hattemer I, 314*^ aod Mone 8, 400; hwjel 

0, 220 ; hutjge 8, 405 ; huggul, Voc. opt, p, 51* ; <}>aa'l Be €v rat^ 
oooiTTopiai^ fiT) TrapaTptßetrOat roi/t; ßovßmva^, ayvov pdßSop ^ 
T^9 apTۧiala<; Kparoufiivr^t (groin uot galled if one carry a 
switcli of agnus castus or artemiaia), Diosc. 2, 212, Gallic irovifi, 
Dacian ^ovoaTT) (conf. ^war^p^ girdle), GDS. 208, Diefenb. Celt. 

1, 172. Ir. mugardf AS. mucg-wyrt, GDS. 708. Boh, c^nio-htfl, 
PoL czfirno-htjij Sloven, zhernob (black herb) ; Serv* bozhye drutze, 
God's little tree. 

To Gothic names of plants, add rigadeinö, rplßoXof^ (SoppL 
|r^ 1215). On equisetutn, see Pott's Comm. 2, 27. OHG. gren- 
Hne, nymphasa, potentilla, claviis Veneris, Graff 4, 333 ; MHG. 
greminc, Mone's Anz. 4, 244-G. In a Stockholm MS. we find the 
ifipell : Unse leve vrowe gink stk to damme, se sochte grensink 
den langen* do 86 en vant, do stitni he ttn berede,, se sprak ; 
'summe den soten Jesiira Crist, wat crndes du bist?' ' Jank- 
firowe, ik hete gretisink, ik bin dtu weldigeste klnL ik kan den 
kettel kolen, ik kan alle dink vorsonen, ik kan den nnschnldigen 
man van den galgen lateu gan ; de mi bespreke un ineges dages 
up broke, dem were God holt nnd alle mannen kunne un golt 
salven.' in den namen des Vaders tm des Sons, etc. la grensinc 
fr. graiuff prora, bee. it grows in front of yonr boat ? 

Clover, tri folium, Dan. klever^ Germ, klee : nilbblätthts klee 
(p. 1079 mid.), Esp. significant is the fonr-leaved (p. 1137 end): 
kUwer re^r, Müllenh. pp« 410. 557 ; clover cinqaefoilf Bret, march, 
89, 93 ; to send trefoil and wine, Arch. v. Unterfranken iv, 3, 
109. Clover is called himnteUkraut in Bavaria: schön bliiet*« 
himel-kraui, Schin. 2, 196, conf. /a wi<?^-^^te, rainbow, hhiel-brand, 
mallein (Suppl. to 1196); h^rgott-H-hrot (-bread), head of clover 
blossom, Schm. 2, 231, conf. bros<tm*kraut, Snperst. I, 369; 

Ootljt'Umjther (-sorrel), alleluja, SnmorL 54, 35, Icel. Hmilri^ 

trifoL album ; Jutl. 8män\ ON. qveUu-gras, trifol. fibrin nm, 
good for colic and hysterica passio (HuppL to 1159 beg.}. Swed. 
rdpling : superstit. of the fgr-vapL, fevi-rapL, Djbeck '48, 
p. 22. Gall. vi9umaru4fj Diefenb, 1, 46 (Suppl. to 1192 mid. 
Kl. sehr, 2, 166. 171), Ir. shamrock, in O'Brien seamrog (Kl. 
sehr. 2, 156), GDS. 302. Welsh meillionen. Armor. m^Uhen, 
melchoti. Clover used in Persian sacrifices, Herod. 1, 132. 


p. 1213.] Oar gunder-männlein, gundeUrebe, is a tiny blue 
flower, whereas 0H6. gunde-reba = acer, maple ; gunderebe, acer, 
balsamita, Mone 7, 600. In a charm: ' guntreben ger (maple 
shoot f ), I toss thee up to the cloads/ Mone 6, 468. 

p. 1213.] Morsus diaboli, devilsbit, see Djbeck '45, 52. AS. 
ragu (ragwort) is glossed by 'mosicum, mossiclnm/ perh. 
mosylionm ; otherw. raga is robigo. Lye has also ' Cristes 
maeles raga, Christi crucis mosicam, herba contra ephialten 
Valens.' Schubert p. 197 : ragwurz, orchis. 

Serv. stidak (shamefaced), caucalis grandiflora : it has a white 
blossom, with a little red in the middle. This red, they say, was 
greater once, but grew less every day, as modesty died oat among 
men. Yak sob v. 

Holder (wolfs-claw ?), when eaten, causes vomiting or purging, 
ace. as it was shelled over or under one, Judas 1, 169. Lycopo- 
dium complanatum, ON. jafni, Dan. jävne, Swed. jemna, Vesterb. 

p. 1214.] A plant of universal healing power is JieiUaller-weÜf 
agrimonia, Mone 8, 103; aller frowen heil, MS. 2, 48*; guotes 
mannes heil, Hpt. 2, 179. Lisch's Meckl. jrb. 7, 230; conf. the 
ointment mannes heil, Iw. 3452. Br. 7230. 

p. 1214.] Dorant seems a corrup. of andor, andern (hore- 
hound) : trail your shirt in blue tharand, N.Pr. prov. bl. 8, 229. 
Gothl. tarald, äggling, ett gras for hvilket trollen tros sky, Almqv. 
464*. Hold up thy skirt, that thou graze not the white orand ! 
M. Neth. orant, Mone 6, 448. Hoist, gäler orant, Müllenh. no. 

425. ' A herb that says. Be woUgemut, (of good cheer) ! ' 

Hoflfm. Gesellschaftsl. 136; die braune ivolgemut, Ambras, lied, 
p. 212. Pol. doh-y mysli, good thoughts. The plant must be 
plucked hastily, and hidden : ififuiTria)^ tov opiyavov iv X^P^ 
Kevdei, Athen. 1, 262 ; oplyavov ßkinecv, look sour, as though 
you had bitten marjoram. 

Porst, porse is strewn under the table, to sharpen a guest's 
appetite, Frios's Udfl. pp. 109. 110; conf. borsa, myrtus, Graff 

p. 1214.] OHGr. harUhouwi (-hay) must, I think, be the 
harten-aue which the girl ' murkles ' to find out if her lover loves 
her, Firmen. 2, 234. Fiedler's Dessauer volksr. 98. In Sweden 
this hypericum perforatum has to be one of the nine sorts of 



■ mi 

flowers that make the Midsum. nosegay ; the picking of it is 
descr. id Rtma ^44, p* 22-3 : yoa lay it uoder your pillow, and 
notice what you dream. Again, that plant with St-John*s- 
blood sap (Miillenh. p. 222) is the hart-hen, Schub* 184, 
Schütze's Holst, id. 1, 117-8. 

OHG. reinfano, Graff 3, 521, 8 wed. renfaue^ tansy, seems to 
be sacred to elves, Fries's UdQ. 1, 109 ; it helps in difficult 
childbirth. Does the name denote a plant that grows on boun- 
daries [rain = strip of grass left betw* hedgeless corutields] f 
conf. rein-fani, Kl. sehr. -, 44. 

p. 1214.] Was widertäii orig. widar-dono, formed like a&lf- 
f^ona ? yet it is wedertam in SumerL 55, 49. The country-mouse 
in Rollenhagen, when visited by the town-mouse, lays down a 
bundle of widdedhan^ that gleams like a red poppy, Widertkon' 
mom (-moss) is polytrichum commune, Schub, p.m. 210, other- 
wise called golden frntien-Jiaar (conf. the holy wood-moss of the 
Samogitians, and the special gods for it, Lasicz 47), Frisch 
calls widertkon a Innaria ; the osmnnda lunaria is named ankehr" 
kraut (sweep to-), and is supp. to give cows good milk : 

Grilsz dich Gott, ankehr-kraui! 
ich brock dich ab, n. tmg dich nach haus ; 
wirf bei meinem kuhel (lay flesh on my cow) finger- 
dick auf. Höfer 1, 36. 

p. 1215.] Wvg'wUe — so\sQ(\n\\xm, in Albr. v. Halb. 129''; 
w ege- w ei« = ci ch o r i u ra i u ty b u a, Nem ni eh ; con f. AS. for^ i redde, 
our wege-tritt. D4 w6mc wege-riches stuont, Parz, 180, 7; 
other names are weg-luge (Staid. 2, 439) from Muogen,' and 
Hänslein bei'tn weg * (or is it * häuslein bei dem weg,' as in 
Fiachart's Onomast» 221?), Serv. bokvitza, plantago, fn bok = 
side; Boh, cekanka, fr. cekati = wait [Russ, popufnik^ podorozhnik, 
fr. piSti, dortäga=way].^^-*Dicitur quod Ire» rami corrigioloß 
(wegetritt) coUectae in nomine Trimtatis et cam oratione domi- 
üica, suspensi in panno lineo, maculum oculi sine dubio tollunt, 
■Mono 7, 424. Das edle kraut weg^wartö macht guten augen- 
hein, Ambras, lied. p. 18; item es spricht alwärtus, die wegwarfr 
wurizeln sol tu niecht essen, so magstu nit wund werden vou 
hauen noch von stechen, Giess. papier-hs. no. 1029 (conf. p. 1244). 
'Advooati consueverunt se muoire sanibuco et pluntdgine at 



vincant in causia * is Bohemian, like that about the child's caul 
(p, 874n,), The above namea remind us of Gotb. tntj(uleinö^= 
tribulus {Sup pi. to 1212 mid,), as the Gi\ ßaro^ ia perhaps from 
ßatpü), and the Lat. aentis akin to Goth. sin)?a, via ; yet conf. Kl. 
Bchr. 5, 451 seq. GDS, 211. 

p. 1215.] Of the leek an ON. riddle says : ' hcifiSi sinu vtsar ft 
helvegu, en fotam til solar sn^r/ his head points to hell, his feet 
to heaven ; to which HeiKrekr answers ' höfüS veit i HldSynjar 
skaufcj en bio?) i lopt/ f'ornaid. s* 1, 469 (conf. the ßoXßoi in 
Aristoph, Clouds 187^193), Sara-lank sioSaj boiling wound- 
leeks, means forging swords 1, 468. With the leek men divine^ 
Dyb- ^45, p. 61 ; it drives evil spirits away^ Frieses Udfl. 1, 109. 
HouseAevkj sempervivum tectornm, Swed. tak-lök^ wards off 
misfortune 1, 110. * Kadis allii victorialis' is nrntn-hommlere in 
Staid, 2f 236 ; in Nemnich Jieun-hemmerleiMy siehen^hemfnerlein, 
OHG. finno^ ^nrro^ m.j cepa, porram, Graff 6, 273, 

p, 1215.] The rowan or rönn (Dyb. '45, 62-3) is called wild 
ashj mountain ash, vogelbeer- bau m, sperber-baum, AS. unce, 
Pkttd. lavieke, Wolf's Ztscbr. 2, "^h. Men like a staff made of 
pHher-baum, sorbus aucuparia, Fossart's EstL 163* ¥mn. pihlava, 
sorbus» is planted in holy places : jnhlayat pyMlle maille, Kalev. 
24, 71. 94. Renvallsub V. 

p, 1216.] Hab-mich^lieh and wol-gemuf {Sappl. to 1214) are 
herbs of which wreaths were twined, HützL 15^; 'ein krenzlt 
von wohjeniuot ist für sendez trdren gnot,' good for love-sick- 
ness 162-3, 

p, 1216.] A wort, that the mermaid dug on the mount that 
might not be touched, makes whoever eats it understand the 
wilil beast tfotoi andßsh, Hpt. 5, 8. 9, A herb accidentally picke 
opens to him that carries it the thought and speech of oUiers, Ls. 
1, 211-8, Herb chervil hliiuh or gives double sight j Garg. 148V 
Ges. Abent. 2, 267. Whoever carries herb assidiose in his hand,i 
commands spirits, Tit. 6047. 'When the dew falls in May on 
the herb parbodibisele, one may harden gold in it. Tit. 3698-9. 
Cattle are made to eat three blaommg flowers, the blue among 
them, so as not to be led astray into the mountains, Hpt 4, 505. 

p. 1216 n.] AS. cdl/'pona is expl. by ßona or pone, palmes, 
pampinns, conf. OHG. upar-dono, sudariom ; is alb-dono then a 
cloth spread by the elves ? If gQlf-|>one be fern, and = OHG. 



alb-dona, dona must be pampinus (our doline, springe or noose)> 
coil> tendril, and so aljrankfi (p. 44-8), Hpfc 5, 182. AS. helde 
is sometimes ambrosia» Is hwdtetid (iris Illyrica) equivalent to 
soothsaying flower ? for Ins is at once messenger of the gods^ 
I and rainbow, and a plant which the Slavs call Perankaj thunder- 
■ flower. Finn, wfwhen mtekka, caprae ensis, is also iris, sword- 
lily. Other notable herb-names in AS. are : Oxan-sltjypa, 

primula veris, E. oxUp, cowglipf Dan. oxe-driv^ ko-driv, Swed, 

toxe-ltlgcf, Hunde^fred, centauria. Eofar-prote, apri guttur, Scilla* 
Lust-moce^ ros solis, Nemmch drosera, Staid, 1, 336 egelkraat, 

Müdere^ venerea, Moneys Quell. 320^; Lye has maddere, 

rubia, E. madder ; Barnes sub v* madders , unit hers, anthemia, 
cotula. Mßteref febril uga, Sumerl. 56^ 58 ; and melissa, metere 

I 67, 59 (Suppl. to 1244-). Mutfere, mntienw, caltha. Staid. 2, 
22<3; Finn, malara, maltitra ; Mus gun mhathatr gun athairj 
flower without mother or father : * a plant resembling flax, which 
grows in springs,* Armstr, SöS^. Weoäo-hend, cyclamen con- 
volvulus, E* woodlnnd, withe-hind, M. Neth. wede-winde, Maerl. 3, 
205 ; conf* weetidungel ; ' ik kenne dat kruud, sede dc diivel, do 
hadde he iveeiidungel freten,' Brem, wtb. 5, 218 (AS. pung, pL 

Jmngns, aconitum, helloborns). Mageffe, mmjoiSe, bnphthalraus; 

eonf, * hay- maiden, a wild flower of the mint tribe/ Barnes. 
Biacon-iveed, cheuopodium, goose-foot, Barues. (Jtoden, caltha ; 
also gladmief glmdene. BoSen, lolium ,- conf. heres-boto, zizania^ 
meres'poto, Graff 3, 81. Leloäre, kpatbum. Oearcwe, raille- 
foliam, yarrow, OHG. garewa. Aflihel-ferding, -fyrding, a 
wound-healing plant, from ferd, fy rd = army, war ? Bt'o&er-tvtjrt, 
herba quaedam striatum pectus efc tussim sanans, Lye. uah-wyrt, 
narcissus, from halst an to make whole ? 

Peculiar OHG. names: ohefiich, Mone's Quell. 285^; ohnic, 
baldimonia, herba tliuris, SumerK 55, 11. 57, 26. Ducange sub 
V. rattiesdra. Graff 2, 512. Striph, stripha, Graff 6, 75K EH- 
^lld, AS, eoriT-geallv, centaurea major, cornflower* Ilrosse^huf, 
Graff 4, 1180, Add the plant-Dames in the Wiesbaden glosses, 
Hpt 0, 323. 

Names still in use: brändli, satyrium nigrum, Staid, 1, 216, 
small, but scented ; it is the Komance wald^er, vaher, Moneys 
Adz. '39, 391 (gerbrandli ?), conf. waUUmtnsterhin , asperula 

pdorata. M. Neth. waUmeHfcr, Moue 6, 448. Herba matrin idhnf\ 


Wallach, mama padura, wood-mother^ wood-wife, Schott 297. 
MannS'Jcraft, geam nrbanum, Hess. Ztschr. 4, 81. Tag und 
nacht 4, 94. Sumerl. 58, 29 ; Ssk. dies et nox in one word, 
Bopp's Gl. 27^; Pol. dzien i noc, melampyrum nemorosam, Linda 
1, 595*. PartunnUkraut, stachys alpina, Hess. Zts. 4, 84. Braut- 
treue, erica, acquires a red tinge, Wächter p. 13; braut im 

haar, Sommer's Sag. p. 61. Berufs-kraut, anthyllis vulneraria, 

Somm. p. 61 ; vemiem-kraut, maidenhair, Schm. 2, 587 ; conf. 
beschrei'hr. (p. 1195). Eisen-breche, sferra-cavallo (p. 974), B. 
moon wort, lunaria. Hone's Yrbk 1551. Maus-öhrlein, mouse-ear, 
herba clavorum, nailwort, makes horses willing to be shod 
1550. jBawgr = teufels-zwirn, clematis, Vifmar in Hess. Zts. 4, 94. 
Druten-mehl, hexen^m^hl, semen lycopodii, is sprinkled over sore 
babies. Wivd-liexe, rolling flax, a steppe weed, Russ. perekati- 
pole (roll over field), whose balls drift like thistledown, Kohl's 
S. Russia 2, 113-4. 

2. Stones. 

p. 1218.] Rare stones are called ' steine, die kein gebirge nie 
getruoc, noch diu erde brfthte fiir,' Troj. kr. 2954. They are 
known to Jews : it is a Jew that can tell Alexander what stone 
it is, Alex. 7075 ; that master of stone-lore, Evax of Arabia, Lanz. 
8531. Boundary -stones, drei-hciTn-steine are pounded to powder, 
and drunk as medicine, Ph. Dieffenb. Wander. 2, 73. Other 
healing stones are ment. in Lohengr. str. 652, defensive helmet- 
stones in Aspremont 20. 40-1. A stone that tells you everything, 
Norske folke-ev. 1, 188; a stone taken in the mouth gives a 
knowledge of foreign tongues, Otnit Ettm. 3, 32 — 25. Rhön 126; 
another, put in the mouth, enables you to travel over water, H. 
Sachs i. 3, 291*^. Simplic. 5, 12 p. 548-9; and there was a stone 
that made you fly, Ges. Abent. 3, 212-7. The stone of fear keeps 
you from being frightened : * he hung a schreck-stein on him, 
Pol. maulaffe 298. 

Quattuor in cunctis sunt insita mythica gem mis, 
durities, virtus, splendorque, colorque perennis 

Gotfr. Viterb. p.m. 367^. 

Bings, fingerMngs derive all their virtue from the stones set in 
them. A vingerlin that repels magic, and makes you aware of 






it. Lane. 21451 seq.; one thali makes invisible (p. 871). So a 
girdle witli a precious stone in it makes wbole, Bit. 70öO — 55, 

The orphamts, wanting in Megenberg, is ment. by Leasing 8, 
175-6. Similar to the orphan is the Bfcone clajtgeHian on the 
helmet, Eotb, 4947 seq. paer se heorhta bedg brogden wundrum 
eorcnanstdnnm eddigra gehwfim hUfad^ ofer hea/de; heafelan lixalS 
}?rymtDÖ bi|'eahfce, Cod. Exon, 238 ; his edgmi ont^üde, liälge 
heiifdes gimmas 180, 7; is seo, eaggeb}Td (ociilus Phoenicia) 
stane gelJcast, gladam gimme 219, 3. Hyaena bestia cujus pu- 
pillae iapUleae sunt, GL ker. 146. Diut. 1, 239; and Reinhart's 
eyes are supp. to be mrhuncles, Reinh. 916 seq* One stone is 

ociilus fclijf^ oculus mundi, bellocchio;, Nemnich 2, 747-8. 

Precious stones take the place of eyes, Martene^s Thes. anecd. 
4, 6 (Wachsmnth's Sitten-gescb. 2, 258) : in the sculptured skull 
of St Servatius, stones blaze instead of eyes, Swed. ögna-sten, 
ögon Hen, eye-stone, means the pupil ; Dan. aie-steeii, ON, anga- 
»teinn; and Alexander's stone, which outweighs pure gold, but 
rises in the scale when covered with a feather and a little earth, 
is an eye-stone, Lampr. Alex, p, 140 — 3; see Schlegel's Mus, 
4, 131-2*3. Gervinus 1, 549 (ed. 3). Pupus^ tcopr) of^BaXpLov^ 
Ducange sub v. It is Oriental too to say 'girl of the eye ' f yet 
also 'maüuikin of the eye,* Gesenius, Pref. xliv, (ed» 2). GDS. 

p. 1218 n.] Scythis surcinnm (amber) sacrium (not satrimn)» 
Pliny 37, 2, 40 ; ubicunque quintti argenti portio inest (auro), 
ehcirum vocatur 33. 4, 23. Ftüni-golt^ eleclrum. Gl. Sletst. 39, 
39 L Amber is in Russ. ijaniarl^ Lith, gentdms, glntärns, Lett* 
dzinters, zihiertt, conf. OHG. si n tar == scoria, GDS. 233; Estb, 
merre^kivvi, sea-stone, Finn. meri-Idin, On tho confusion of 
amber with pearl, see both Schott in Berl. acad. Abh. ^42, p, 
361 and H. Mailer's Griechenth. 43. Pol. btirsztyn, Boh. 
ags i etj n , akste n, M , N e t h . lamw ertifiuten^ 8 u cc i n u s . 

p, 1219.] The pearl; ON. gimr^ m., gemma, Sasm. 134^ also 
gim-steinn ; AS. gim, gim-Htäii* With MHG. mer-griez, conf. 
' daz griezende mer* Fragni. 45*'. The diamond was taken to be 
crystallized water : *a little frozen wasserli,' Anshelm 2, 21 ; fou 
din wirt daz ts da zi (thereby turns the ice into) christAltan ad 
herta, s6 man dazfiur dar-uber machot, nnzi diu christalla irgluot, 
Merigarto 5, 25; conf. iaini Mieitutj ice-stones, O. i. 1, 70 and 


' crystal made of ice/ Diez's Lab. d. troub. 159. 165. On the 
Ssk. marakata, seeBopp's 61.255-9. 266; chandra-karta, gemma 
fabalosa^ quae radiis lunae congelatis nasci creditur 118*. 

p. 1221.] The Xvyyovpiov is also named by Dioscor. 2, 100. 
Of a stag's tears or eyes comes a stone. The dragon's head con- 
tains a diamond, Bosquet 205-6. The toad-stone, which occurs 
e.g. in WolPs Dent. sag. p. 496, is likewise in Neth. padde- 
sten, Boh. zhahye kamen, 0. Fr. crapaudine, Roquef. sub v. ; the 

French still say of diamonds, ' il y a crapaud.' There is a 

serpent's egg, which ' ad victorias litium et regum aditiis mire 
laadatur,' Pliny 29. 3, 12. One Segerus has a 'gemma diversi 
coloris, victoriosos eflSciens qui ea utuntur,' Osbs. Heisterb. 4, 10. 
Sige-stein, Eracl. p. 214. Hahn's Strieker p. 49 ; seghe-sten, 
Bein. 5420 ; sige-ring, Hpt 3, 42 ; hüet dich vor (beware of) alter 
wibe gemein, die kiinnen blasen den sigeUstein, Hätzl. 93^, 34 ; 
sigelstein sniden, Wolkenst. 40, conf. ' ein bickel giezen,' Fragm. 
38^. Renn. 13424, bickeUstmn, Fragm. 21^. Can sigelstein, 
segelstein have been the magnet ? ON. segel-steinn, sailing stone. 

The swallow- stone J which grows in the crop of a firstborn 

swallow, is known to Diosc. 2, 60 ; conf. Schm. 3, 399 : schürf 
(rip) schwalben auf, so vindestu darinne ein roten (red) stain. 

p. 1222.] Georg Agricola (1546) De re metallica libri XII 
(Basil. 1657) calls belemnites alp-schos, p. 703^ ; brontia donner- 
stein, wetterstein, gros krottenstein, ceraunia der glatte donn., 
der glat wett., der glatte gros krott. 704*; omhria donderst., 
wett., grosz krott. 706*. The thunder-bolt has healing power. 
Ph. Dieffenb. Wander. p. 33; the ON. for it is shrug gu-steinn ; 
and we often find porsteinn as a man's name, e.g. Egilss. 476. 
Another Finnic name for the bolt is Ukkoisen nnlkki, U.'s wedge ; 
Lith. Laumespapasy L.'s pap, Nesselm. 277^ 353^, and LG. mare- 
tett, the (night-) mare's teat, N.Pr. prov. bl. 2, 380. Silex is in 
ON. hiegetill, quasi rorem generans. 

p. 1222.] The diamond can only be softened by goat's-blood, 
Pliny 37, 4. August. De civ. D. 21, 4; conf. N. Cap. 69. Er. 
8428. Ms. 1, 180*. Parz. 105, 18. 

The carbuncle is taken from the unicorn's forehead, Parz. 482, 
29 ; hebt den moed van een Espefln, want hi draegt karbonkelen 
in sin hoorn, Ndrl. Heemskindp. m. 12. The carbuncle shines in 
the darkest night, and puts out other stones, Hartm. biichl. 1500. 


Reinh. 920. Morolt 45. Gr, Rud. 8, 10 {Väite-lys are in Dan, 
superstitioTi small stones, which ihe spirits had for lamps, Molb. 
Dial. 663). The carbuncle pales its lustro when the hero dies, 
RoL 196, 19 ; it lies ' ze Loch© in dem Rine/ Ms. l, 15* Sonimer 
on Flore p. xxviL 1667. 

The magnet : ON. leitfar-stehin, Landn. 1,2; E. loailstone 
[i.e. leading, as in loadstar], Pro7. azvnan, ariman, ayittan, Fr, 
aimantf Sp. iman. MHG. age-dein^ Dint, 1, 60-1, Trist 204, 
14. 36. M, Neth. Cjch-stm diese np46ch, Maerl 3, 124. It 
has been used in navigation since the 13th cent.^ Biblo Guiot 
633—653 ; legend of the loadstone, Altd. w. 2, 89. 

Sfojie-coal is called Tiirken-blufc-stem, stein-ol Tarken-blut, 
Staid. 1, 329, 



p. 1224.] On the power of the three words, Kalev. 9, 34. 161 ; 
conf. Arnim's March. 1, 47. [Tibetian and Mongolian writers 
dilate on the force of each syllable in the Buddhist formula 'am 
mani padmi hom.^]. Singing and saying turn to magic : iwtpStf 
larptav^ Plato^s Charmides p. 156-8; deXttnjpiou, charm, incan- 
tation; verba puerpera dixit (Lucina), Ov. Met, 10, 511. OHG. 
pi^galan (be-sing) in the Mersebg spell ; galdr gala, Seem. 97-8-9 ; 
rikt gol Oddr, rami gol Oddrftn^ bitra galdra 240». Fr. ckarme 
is fr, carmen: un hon charme vos aprendre, Ren. 7650; mr- 
minare plagam, to charm a wound (away), Altd. bl. 2, 323; conf. 
■ 'er sprach zer wunden wunden -segen^^ Parz. 507, 23. The 
sorceress is annprecherin, Mone's Anz* 7, 424 ; conf. berufen, 
beschreien, becall, beery, Ettn. Maulaffe 546-7. ON. orö^-hMl, 
Saem. 120^ Finn, sanon, to say^conjure; sanat, conjuration, 

I Blessings are pronounced more es p. at morning and evening; 

Bwer bi Hebe hat gelegen (had a good night), der sol dar senden 
sinen morgen^segen, MS. 2, 169*; gesegenen unde tiefe beswem. 
Mar. 188, 30 (conf, 'hV/e fluochen/ p. 1227) ; benwom sis do vU 
Hurt! Qes. Abent. 3, 53; einem die kmnkheit ahmgnen (bless 


one's illness away), Tharneyser 2, 92. Cursing is MHG. 

verwdzen : yar hin verwäzen, MS. 2, 1 72^ ; nu var von mir 9. 
Ls. 3^ 77 ; nein pfai sie heat v. ! Tit. 600, 2 ; verfluochei o. 
verwdzen wart vil ofte der tac, da sin geburt ane lac (the day 
that his birth was on). Arm. Heinr. 160; and the contrary: 
gehoehet (extolled) si der süeze tac, da din geburt von 6rste an 
lac, Winsbekin 1. To verwäzen answers the O. Fr. dcJii, daliez, 
dehait, dahet, dehez, dehe, daz ait, often preceded by mal or ceni, 
Garin 1, 10. 209. 2, 46. Ren. 404. 1512. 9730. 11022. Meon's 
N. r^c. 1, 202. 232. 4, 12. Orange 1, 202. 2, 151, etc. Trist. 
3072. Aspr. 1". 46»». 23\ Ferabr. lix*. As Walloon haiti 
= sain, and wa/tai^i = malsain (Grandgagn. 1, 265), we may 

suppose a Celtic origin (Suppl. to 952). Einen mit fluoehe 

bem (smite), Mart. 163% mit dem fluoehe seilen 226* (flüeche 
liden, Walth. 73, 5; fluoch bejagen, MS. 2, 137; in sih selben 
luadun (they loaded) mihilan fluah, 0. iv. 24, 30) ; bist nnde 
/loJp, Upstaud. 1837 (the Goth, beist?); dtgen einen, precari, 
imprecari, Gramm. 4, 655. AS. wyrigean, maledicere, Homil. 2, 
30. ON. hölva, diris devovere, Ssem. 186; röggva, a diis mala 
imprecari (lit. to fold ? akin to röggr, röggvar, pallium plicatam?). 
0. Slav, klidti, pres. kPnu, Serv. kleti, pres. knnem [Boss, 
kliasti, klinati] , to curse. 

p. 1224.] The AS., beside hwistUan, has hwisprian, to tohis- 
per. MHG. slangen (snake's) wispel, Diut. 1, 58 ; wispier, who 
sweetly wispelt to the fishes, Gesta Bom. ed. Keller p. 65. OHG. 
xoinison, to mutter. Apuleius p. m. 79 speaks of magicum susur- 
ramen. Piping too has a magical effect: il dit un charme 
que il avoit aprins, trois fois siffla, Garin 2, 104. A shirt laid 
lengthwise on the table is bemxirmured till it stands upright^ 
jumps about, and lies down again ; you judge by this of the 
owner's illness, Ettn. Medic, maulaffe 269, 270. Neth. luisteren 
is both to listen and to speak low ; the witch is a luister-vink, 

p. 1226.] MHG. runen is to whisper : 'daz ir mit ir rünet, 
you whisper to her ' ; 'daz si mit iu niht runen kan/ MS. 2, 83**. 

Runes were also cut on the roots of trees : risti d rotina r&nir, 
riöSra-Si i bloiSi, qvaiS si-Ran yfir galdra, gSck öfug ok andsoelis 
(against the sun) um trot, meiS mörg römm um-msöli ; he then 
throws the wood into the sea, and lets it drift to one^s de- 



stmction, Grettissaga c, 85 ; scera a rotum ris viäar^ Ssm. 29*. 

Ruoe-sticks bad things mrapt and woven round theinj S^em. 

195^ like the Fris. t^oar; lag«i ä «/a/ 94*; heie-rüim bond. Cod. 

Exon, 416, 6; mwii-jiine 279, 7; helU'i'üna, Mke M. Neth. lud- 

nwiughe ? Parton. 20, 13 ; hell-ramie, Matbeaiua 1562, 154*' ; 

osta hd-Hofmn, Saern. 145^', conf. fae^ita feikn-sfafa 4P. For- 

nald. s. 1, 436, AS.fdcn-sttief; brcgSa bhind-stö/um, Sddm, 193^, 

■ at gaman-tHnom 2b-6, % vnl-rittwrn 160^', indl-nhiar 214**, rflnar 

vlltar 252% viU rtsta 252'*. 

kp. 1227.] The might of the Word is extolled by Freidank 67, 1 : 
Durch wort ein wilder slaoge gab (snake goes) 
zem manne, da V sich toeren lät (lets be fooled) ; 
durch wort ein swert verm id et (forbears) 
daz ez nieman versnidet (cuts no one) ; 
durch wort ein Sa en nieman mac 
yerbrennen, glnot ez alien tac. 

Er sprach ein wort mit tjrim, daz sich der bete uf-sldz (opened), 
Altsw. 80; ja moht ich stb einen boum mit mracr bete (prajer), 
sunder wapen, nider geneigen, MS. 1, 51*. A runar*bdti opens 
aoy lock, drives all disease away, Färöiske qväder pp. 228» 286; 
two dwarfs cut vafrlogi with runes 138, 140. Song can burst 
.fetters, Somadeva 1, 134. ON. ßoku-visur call up mist and 
darkness, Fornm* s. 3, 97-8. A letter was tied round the sword, 
WigaL 4427. 7335, as runes had formerly been carved on it. 
Men used to bind certain things by oath, e.g. swords , Altd, bL 
I, 43, Ligamenta aut etiam scripta in contrarietatem alterius 
excogitare. Lex. Visig. vi. 2, 4. 

p. 1228.] Let om? or two good wislieg precede the curses : 

Got miieze im ere meren (add honour) I 

zuo flieze im aller sselden 11 uz, 

niht wildes mtde stnen scbuz (sbun bis shot) ; 

eins hundes louf, sin^ hornes duz (tooting) 

erhelle im u. erscbelle im wol nick ^ren I Walth. 18, 25. 

conf. the curse, Ls. 2, 425. Here is a beautiful blessing : 

Der snmer si so guot (be so kind), 

daz er die sehoene in ainer wunne (bliss) 

14ze wunne cliche leben (let blissful live) I 


Swaz wol den ongen tuot (whatever delights the eye), 
and sich den linten lieben knnne (can please), 
daz müeze ir din SaBlde geben, 
swaz griienez df von erden ge, 

oder tonwes obenan nider risen mnoz (may trickle down), 
leap (foliage)« gras, blnomen und kle (clover) ! 
Der vogel doenen (melody) geb der schoenen 
wiinneclichen gmoz (blissful greeting) ! MS. 2, 188'. 
Again : ze heile erschine im tages' sunne, nahtes mäne, and 
iegslich stem ! MS. 2, 174*; din zunge griiene iemer, din herze 
ersterbe niemer ! Trist. 7797 ; Got laze im wol geschehen I 
MS. 1, 74*»; Got des geve en jummer h61, dat kraket (so that 
it roars), Wizlau 9, 28. 

Curses are far more frequent and varied: mine vlüeche sint 
niht smal, Beneke 377. They operate quickly : ein swinder flaoch, 
MS. 2, 71'"; mit snellem fluoche. Tit. 2588; ein wilder flaoch, 
Wolkenst. 42. They hold men like a vice : uns twinget noch des 
fluoches zange, MS. 2, 166*. They alight, settle, cling : solten alle 
vlüeche kleben, ez müezte lützel liutes leben, Freid. 180, 12 ; der 
fluoch bekleip, Hpt 5, 516; dem muoz der fl. hekliben 5, 550 ; der 
fl. klebet 8, 187. They burn you up, Nalus p. 177. They take 
flight, they turn home as birds to their nest. Berth. 63 ; die fluche 

flehen um die wette, Günther 163. Strong above all is the 

curse of the dying : J/at var trüa J^eirra i fomeskju, at or^feigs 
manns maetti mikit, ef han bölva^i o-vin sinum meänafni (cursed 
his unfriend by name), hence names were suppressed, Saem. 186*. 
Sigfrit, wounded to death, scolds. Nib. 929, 3. 933, 4 (see schelten 
below). A faither's blessin' bigs the toun, A mither's curse can 
ding it doun. A mot Iter's curse is not to be turned aside, 
Holtzm. 3, 144. Effectual too is the pilgrim's curse, Gudr. 933, 
and the priest's, Holtzm. Nib. 117. The curse of aged men that 
fear God works fearful woe, Insel Felsbg I, 22. Carters have 
curses on the tip of their tongue. Philander 2, 345; so have 
officers. Geliert 4, 145. 

OatJis and cuntc-s coll. by Agricola nos. 472 — 502 ; spelUbindings 
in Ls. 1, 410-1. 2, 424—8. SaBm. 85. Fornald. s. 3, 208-4; a 
song of curses on Otto III. in Pertz 2, 153. De Vries of Hoofts 
Warenar 97 — 100; Servian curses in Talvj 2, 385. Vuk nos. 
152-4-7. 162. 219. 393. 



The savage heartiness of the cursing is set forth in a number 
of strong phrases : * his cursing was cruel to hear/ Ettn. Unw. d. 
743; 'he set up a cursing and scol din tj^ no wonder if the castle 
had sunk into the ground^ Schweinichen 2, 70 (dazse diifluochten 
niemen, unde daz Hagenen kint bleip unheacholteUj Gudr. 933, 4} ; 
er fahet an (begins) ze fluchen u, ze schweren, dass das enlfreidi 
moehi undergon (?) ; ' cursing, enough to send stones Jhjing 
into the sky/ Käserei 120; 'he swore fit to make the sky bow 
down/ Wickram's RoUw. 9 ; ' cursing, so that it mifjhf have 
thundered/ Garg* 149*; 'cursing, till the rafters crack/ Diet, sub 
V, balke; 'he curses all signs (omens), till the floor cracks,' 
Hebel 44; to curse all signs j Staid, 2, 463 (p. 1105 end); 
'swearing till the toads jump/ Firmeuich 2, 262 (conf, the 
krotten^segeuj Garg, 230^) ; * he curses one leg o6f the devil^s 
haunch, and the left horn off his head/ Garg, 232" ; ' he cni*sed 
the nose off his face/ Schuldban 27 (?).-^— Ejaculations that call 
upon God to curse and crush, are the most solemn ; daz ez Got 
verwaze ! Er. 7900 ; so si ich verwäzen vor Gottes ongen / Herb. 
1068; daz in Got von himele immer gehoene I Gudr. 1221, 4; 
'God's power confound thee!' Melander 2, no* 19H; Hercules 
dique istam perdaot, Plaut. Cas. ii. 3, 57 ; qui ilium di omnem 
deaeqne perdant Gl : Got du sende an minen leiden man den tot, 
daz ich von den iUven werde efibunden, MS. 1, 81* (p. 1161); 
3 wer des schuldig si, den velle Got u. nem im al sin ere 81 *• ; Serv. 

ubio gha Bogh, Vuk (ed. nov-) no, 254. M. Neth. curses use 

the word 'over^ in consigning to the devil: nu aver in duvels 
ere, Limb, 4, 62 ; over in's duvels name 4, 1088 ; nu otwr in der 
duvele haut 7, 038 ; nu over in's duvels gdeide, Karel 2^ 4447, 
ilHG. der tievel var ime in den munt (get iu his mouth), Reinb. 
16i2; dass dir der henker in dsn rächen führe (in your throat), 
Felsenb. 3, 443 ; dass dich ! (devil take, uuderst.) ; dass dich das 
wetter verhorne, Meland. 2, no. 362 ; ir letz' die slack der schauer 

u. kratz der milde ber, Wolkeost. 30. ON. eigi hanu iijtnar, 

gdlgi görvallan, Ssem. 255* ; troll hafi J?ik alitm, ok svÄ gull J^it, 
Kormakss« p. 188; far ]m nu f^ar er smyl Jiafi pik (to one's ship 
on landing), conf* the formula of benediction in Kg Home, 143.* 

* With the cTtTfte * tkn die ror kilehen iMgen I * oonf. aUo * Job* vor Ckilkunt' 
Oealr. arch, (i, 173; ein jiVr tntr kilchfn st&u, MS. 2, 121*; muoler diu ir kint Ut 
vtrrapital oder kireften Ugen, Jknn. lK37f» ; &n ein vtU Untn (in uoconsecr. ground), 
IWrtb« SaO. 8S0 ; besrtbnin^i uf dem vetär, Gefk. Beil. 10. 



Du scholt varen in dat ttnlde brok, Mone'a Schausp, 2, 100-1 ; an 
den wilden icoU 2, 101 ; conf* 'ze holze varo/ Kolocz 202 ; Klinsör 
uud waerest über st\ MS. 2, 6*; versigelen miiez er üf daz jner 
von wibe u. von kinde 1, 6*. Lett» eiy vilkam, go to the wolves ; 
vilkeem apendam«, wolves eat thee, S tender 360 ; so ezzen si die 
wilden krcin, Keller's Erz. 19Ö; pitt skyli liiarta hrtifnar slita, 
Smm, 232* j dat nch de raven achineen, Karlm. 140, 23 ; des 
müezen si die waive nagen, Altd, w. 2, 56 ; ir herzen miiezen 
hranvuoz nagen, MS. 2, 119^j den verraiden (shun him) roseri, 
u. alle zttdtjHeii (daisies), u. aller vogelltne sane 2, 63" ; ich schaffe 
daz ir aller froiden sb^zen ie widerspenic miiezen we sen 1, 4*; 
Jfarke du versink 2, 79^ ; ut te paries tndinans obruat, ut te 

aß Ida senio arbor caeduave obriiat, Meland. 2, no, 198. Death, 

disease and sorrow are often imprecated i nil iz dir {eat to thyself) 
den grimmen iSfj Ges. Abent 2, 667 ; wolde Got, waero din houpt 
fill (rotting in the ground), Kenn* 12192; daz dich aezen die 
madeii (maggots), Helbl. 1, 1212; daz din ougen im erglasen 2, 
512 (a Gaelic curse: 7narbhphaif^g, the shroud over thee !) ; si 
er müeze erkmhen (?) 8, 227 ; hin ze alkn mhten 2, 745 (coof, 
alle«, aller, Diet. 1, 213); s6 dich diu snht heuascke 1, 1202 ; Got 
geb dir die driis u, den rufen, Pasq. 1, 157; diu suld an iuwei 
losen Jnragen (neck), Reiuh. p, 302. Dahaz aie parmi le col^ M^on 
N. r^c. 1, 202. 232; wau-dahei ait et el cM et el nts. Orange 5, 
2650; ceritdeh^z ait parmi ia cane, Trist. 3072 ; tn ut oeulo» emun^ 
gare ex capite per m tuos, Plaut. Gas. ü. 6, 39 ; dass du dieu 
nase in^s tjesichi behältst. Renter olle kam. 3, 25-6. 4Ö. 301 ; di 
var diu snht in iuwer oren, MSH. 3, 438*; ive dir in die Zi 
(teeth), Ben* 324; la male gofe aiez as denSf Ren, 14322; daz in 
der munt werde wan (without) der znngen, Parz. 316, 4; daz »i 
(the tongue) versxmllen müeze^ u. ouch diu kel (gullet), MS. 2, 5* i 
din zunge mileze dir werden lam, Morolf 1150; in miiezeD erlamen 
die huibel (their nibblers, teeth ?), Hpt 6, 492* Mod, ' may you 
turn sour.* Lith» kad tu snnikhirn (shrivel up). Wafen über 
diu ottge7i, etc., woo to the eyes wherewith I saw thee, woe to the 
arms wherein I held thee, Ettm. Ortn. 7, 2 ; daz er immir uhiljdr 

muoze haben, Ksrchr. 6958, conf, malannna (p. 1160 end). 

There is a curse beginning * Ah leit s! dir (so woe be to thee), 
Karajan, Teichn. 41 ; conf. 'Als unglück dich ( = auf dich ?) fliege. 
Kell* Erz. 244, 31 : min scie si uui/eheilet, Rab» 79 ; daz si sin 



^'uncret (they be dishonoured), MS, 1, 194*, ON. von s6 bq 
vcettr vers ok barna, Ssem, 214'' ; wan, waere erswerzer rfan ein Jrol, 
MS. 2, 100*^ ; der werfle z'einem steine 1, G* ; on the contrary ' Be 
born a mau^' Somadeva 1, 7. 1,8L Vervluochet si der tar, diu 
wile (day, hour), Mai 137, 38. 138, 1 ; conf. vioecte die wile, 
Lane, 12224-7o5> 16250; so hazz mich alhz daz st, Helbl. 15, 

p, 1 228.] {Itutam serentes) proseqnuntur etiam cum nmledidis, 
PalWl. Rutil. 4, 9* Women hotUinj yarn must keep telling lies, 

or it will not turn white. A solemn adjuration is in Swed, 

mana neder (to charm down ?), Runa '44, 60 j M, Neth. mane^i^ 
hetnanen, Beig, mus. 2, 116-7, Finn, manaan, monere, adjurare ; 
manaits exse oratio, 

p. 1229.] With helUräna take the prop, name Walaräna, 
Karajan 67, 16, and the ftepulcrortini rmlairlx mentioned after 
'adultera' and 'malefica'in Lex Burgund. 34,3. Groa singa 
nine galdra to her son, and the galdr is called /oZni/fr, Saem. 97'', 
Conversely the child talks with the mother at her grave, Rhesa 
dainos 22, and Svegder wakes his dead mother in the bill, DV, 
1, 204. Eulogies «ung at the gnive' mound are also ment. in Hall- 
biöm p, 859. Raimng the dead comes easy to christian saints, 
but it was more than Zeus could do : rovrmv eirwBä<; ovtc cVot-^yö-c, 
Aeach. Eum. 649. 'Lingutze defunct i dira carmina ligno inscnlpta 
supponere' forces him to speak, Saxo Gr. ed, M. 38. The tongue 
sings aloud after the head is cut off, Ecke 239, 

p. 1230.] Wolvesdriizzel's and other magic is ascr. to Simon: 

Bindet man ime die vuoze unde die hende, 

schiere lösit er die gebende ; 

dm sloz heizii er vfgdn (bids the locks open), 

nihein isen mac vor im bestän. 

in hulzioen siulen (wooden posts) 

machet er die sSle, 

daz die liut© waenent da» sie leben. 

aide ronen heizit er bern, etc. Kaiserchr. 2118. 

Mach the same is told of OSinn, Yngl. saga c* 7. 

p. 1230.] Es regnet n, schneiet alles von sacramenten 
fiuchen, Albrecht's Fluch. ABC. 46, 

fOL. IV. 


Men spoke contemptuously 
1 1 


of aniles veteranarum fabulcte,' Vertz 6, 452**, and altes wibes 
fluochen, Ges. Abent. 3, 78. 

p. 1231.] Kl. sehr. 2, 1 seq. Hera duoder = AS. hider and 
Jrider, Hpt 9, 503*. Wright 289^. Suma clUbodun umbi cunio- 
widi; so three white maidens pick and pall at flowers and 
wreaths, Müllenh. p. 350. Freyr also sets free fr. bonds (Suppl. 
to 215). Groa sings: 

pann gel ek inn fimta 

ef J?er fiöhirr verSr 

borinn at bög-limum ; 

Leifnis elda last ek ]?er 

fyr legg af kveiSna, 

ok stökkr J^ä lass af limum 

en af fotum fiötu7\ Saem. 98'. 

Minne sd bint die minnecliche, oder aber mich en-bint (love bind 
her too, or nnbind me), Keller's Rom-vart 651; conf. beado- 
rinan onbindan, Beow. 996; 'to burst bolts and fetters,' St 
Louis 86, 7. 96, 2. Dietm. of Mersebg says: legimus, quod 
nnius captivi vinciila, quem uxor sua putans mortuum assiduis 
procuravit exequiis, toties solverentur, quoties pro eo acceptabiles 
Deo Patri Iwstiae ab ea offerrentur, ut ipse ei post retulit, cum 

domum suam liber revisit, Pertz 5, 740. Side by side with 

bond-spells stand the wound-bhssings : den wunt-segen man im 
sprach, St Louis 1531 ; conf. the houpt-segen, ougen-s., pferit-s. 
and wundeJi'Segen in Hpt. 4, 577. By magic spell a wound is 
quickly healed, Holtzm. Ind. sag. 2, 176. The sword also re- 
ceives blessing : swei'tes segen, Frauenlob p. 77 ; segent er im daz 
awert, Mai 83, 39 ; segen din swert, Altsw. 64. 

p. 1234.] Kl. sehr. 2, 1 seq. ; to the passages there quoted 
p. 12, add : ze holz vam, Hpt 2, 539 ; ze holze, ze walde rarw, 
Hahnes Strieker 9, 13. 10, 33. 11, 78; vuor zi walde. Diem. 
110, 1; din setzen ist noch niht ze holz (thy stake is not yet 
lost), Fragm. 23^. With the first line of the Spell, conf. Petrus 
u. Paulus gingen to holt un to broh. Lisch 9, 226. Balder's foal 

must be the horse that was burnt with him, Sn. 18. One 

more spell for a lamed horse runs thus : 

Jeg red mig (I rode) engang igjennem et led, 

saa fik min sorte fole vred (my black foal got hurt) ; 



saa satte jeg kjod mod kjöd, og blod mod blod, 
saa blev in in sorte fole orod. 

Flöget (ON. ßog, dolor acer) botas genom denna losning : \flofjei 

och flomdet skall fly nr brusk och ben i stock ocb sten, i namn 

Fader,^ etc. Dii att upropas trenne ganger : ' trollet satt i berget, 

I basten (horse) feck flöget, spott i hand^ sia i man, bot i samma 

stund/ Eäiif, Esthonian spells in Kreutzwald and Neuss p. 

97-8-9. 122-3. On the cure for dislocation in Lapland, see 

Gastrin's Reise 153, Ernst Meier p. 51C, We still say of a 

platitnde, it wouldn't cure a lame jade* To the spell in Cato, add 

the formula * mota et soluta/ Grotef end's Ilud, Umbr. 4, 13. A 

similar spell in Atharva-veda, 4-^ 12: 'Setting up art thou, 

[letting up, setting the broken bone; set this one np, Arnndhatt t 

I What in thee is injured, what is broken, thy Maker set it right 

tmgsdUf joint to joint. Come marrow hij marroto^ and joint by joint; 

[what is gone of thy fleshy and eke thy bone, shall grow; marrow 

fio marrotü be joined, skin with skin arise, blood arise on thy 

llioiie; whate'er was broken, set right, Herb I Arise, walk^ 

I liaste thee away, fair as a chariot runs on wheel, felloe and nave» 

Stand firmly upright [ If it broke by falling in pit, or a stone 

being thrown have hit^ together, as parts of a chariot, fit limb to 

limb the Elf (ribhu) ! ' 

p, 1235,] Cod. Monac« lat. 536 sec* xii, has the spell altogether 
in narrative form : Nesia nociva perrexit vagando per diversas 
plateas, quaerens quern laedere posset; cui occurrit Dominus et 
dixit: * Nesiaf quo vadis?' ' Yado ad famulum Dei N., os8& 
fricare, nervös medulläre, carnes exsiccare/ Cui dixit Dominus : 
' praecipio tibi in nomine Patris, etc, ut deseras famulum Dei, et 
ptrgaa in des&rtum locum,- So in colic of the head or belly, the 
spell-speaking old woman grasps the painful part, presses it 
tightly together, and says 9 times : *in the name of Godj etc., 
lady mother, I seize thee, I squeeae thee, do go to rest in th^ 
chamber where the Lord created thee,' N, Pn prov. bl 3, 472» 
la Masnria they say: 'Depart, ye white folk (biaie ludzie, p. 1 157j 
fir. this christened Gottlieb, out of his skin, his body, bis blood. 
Ilia veins, his joints and all bis limbs. Far in the sea is a great 
»tone, thither go, thither sail, there drink and there devour, by 
the might of God, etc.,' ibid. 3, 474. And for the evil eye: 


^ Dropped the dew from the sky, from the stone, on the earth. As 
that dew vanishes, has vanished, is blown away in air, so may 
thrice nine enchantments vanish, perish in air and be blown away/ 
ibid. 3, 475. 

p. 1241.] Wahs, wax, is fr. wahsan, to grow, as cera fir. 
erescere; conf. 'Des gennhtsam nam z